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Senator MILLIKIN. Then, in summary, would you say that the Monroe Doctrine is preserved to its full extent by this Charter, or that there has been some impairment or modification of it by this Charter?
Mr. PASVOLSKY. I would say that it is completely preserved.
Senator VANDENBERG. I do not find in the report to the President the statement made by the Secretary of State at San Francisco regarding the Act of Chapultepec and the purpose of the President of the United States to caīl an immediate conference to implement the Act of Chapultepec with a treaty. I should like very much to have that statement inserted in the record at this point, because I think it has a very important bearing upon the major importance which we all attach to the inter-American system at the San Francisco Conference.
The CHAIRMAN. Without objection, it will be inserted. (The document referred to is as follows :)
For the press, May 15, 1945, No. 25 Statement by Hon. Edward R. Stettinius, Jr., Secretary of State As a result of discussions with a number of interested delegations, proposals will be made to clarify in the Charter the relationship of regional agencies and •collective arrangements to the world organization.
These proposals will
1. Recognize the paramount authority of the world organization in all enforcement action.
2. Recognize that the inherent right of self-defense, either individual or col. lective, remains unimpaired in case the Security Council does not maintain international peace and security and an armed attack against a member state occurs. Any measures of self-defense shall immediately be reported to the Security Council and shall in no way affect the authority and responsibility of the Council under the Charter to take at any time such action as it may deem necessary to maintain or restore international peace and security.
3. Make more clear that regional agencies will be looked to as an important way of settling local disputes by peaceful means.
The first point is already dealt with by the provision of the Dumbarton Oaks Proposals (ch. VIII, sec. C, par. 2) which provides that no enforcement action will be taken by regional agencies without the authorization of the Se curity Council. It is not proposed to change this language.
The second point will be dealt with by an addition to chapter VIII of a new section substantially as follows:
“Nothing in this chapter impairs the inherent right of self-defense, either individual or collective, in the event that the Security Council does not maintain international peace and security and an armed attack against a member state occurs. Measures taken in the exercise of this right shall be immediately reported to the Security Council and shall not in any way affect the authority and responsibility of the Security Council under this Charter to take at any time such action as it may deem necessary in order to maintain or restore international peace and security."
The third point would be dealt with by inclusion of a specific reference to regional agencies or arrangements in chapter VIII, 'section A, paragraph 3, describing the methods whereby parties to a dispute should, first of all, seek a peaceful solution by means of their own choice.
The United States delegation believes that proposals as above outlined if: adopted by the Conference would, with the other relevant provisions of the projected Charter, make possible a useful and effective integration of regional systems of cooperation with the world system of international security.
This applies with particular significance to the long established inter-American system.
At Mexico City last March preliminary discussions took place regarding this problem, and the Act of Chapultepec envisaged the conclusion of an inter
American treaty which would be integrated into and be consistent with the world organization. After the conclusion of the Conference at San Francisco, it is the intention of the United States Government to invite the other American Republics to undertake in the near future the negotiation of a treaty which, as provided for in the Act of Chapultepec itself, would be consistent with the Charter of the World organization and would support and strengthen that organization, while at the same time advancing the development of the historic system of inter-American cooperation. This would be another important step in carrying forward the good neighbor policy.
The CHAIRMAN. May I observe, in answer to Senator Millikin, that under my theory the Monroe Doctrine survives in its entirety, unless the Charter somewhere specifically limits it, and that the purpose of the Charter is to strengthen the Doctrine rather than to weaken it.
Mr. PASVOLSKY. Yes, sir.
Mr. PASVOLSKY. Chapters IX and X relate to international economic and social cooperation. They set out the importance, the very great importance, of the creation of conditions of stability and wellbeing which are necessary for peaceful and friendly relations among nations; and the importance from the point of view of the creation of such conditions of progress and development in economic, social, and related fields, in the solution of problems arising in those fields, in the promotion and encouragement of universal respect for and observance of human rights and fundamental freedoms. In all of these important and far-reaching fields the powers which are given to the Organization, as I said yesterday, are lodged in the General Assembly. Under the authority of the General Assembly they are lodged, to a certain extent, in a new and very important institution to be known as the Economic and Social Council.
The language of chapter IX is very strong and very far-reaching; and questions were raised in the discussion as to whether or not the langauge used could in any way be interpreted as meaning interference in the domestic affairs of the Member States. It was quite clear that the principle regarding domestic jurisdiction already inserted in the Charter would be governing.
However, in view of the importance of this particular question, the committee agreed to include in its records the following statement:
The members of Committee 3 of Commission II are in full agreement that nothing contained in chapter IX can be construed as giving authority to the Organization to intervene in the domestic affairs of Member States. • The reference to chapter IX is to chapter IX in the Dumbarton Oaks Proposals. That means a reference to chapters IX and X in the Charter.
The objective here is to build up a system of international cooperation in the promotion of all of these important matters. The powers given to the Assembly in the economic and social fields in these respects are in no way the powers of imposition; they are powers of recommendation; powers of coordination through recommendation.
There is one extremely important point in connection with this subject. As regards the maintenance of international peace and security, the effort by way of cooperative action is concentrated in the Security Council, in the Organization itself, and only to a rather small extent in whatever regional bodies may be established for specific regional purposes. In the field of economic, social, and related problems the activities of cooperative action have to go far beyond the Organization. The field is so large and so complicated that it is necessary to set up important operating agencies in the various sections of the field. Some have been set up and some are in the process of being set up. Because of the complexity, the overlapping, and the intricate connection of all these problems, however, there is need for some central place through which the activities and the policies of these various specialized agencies can be coordinated into a coherent whole.
Senator Austin. Doctor, would you illustrate those organizations already set up as including I.'L. O., the Postal Union, and the contemplated organization of food and agriculture?
Mr. PASVOLSKY. Yes, sir. The I. L. O., the Food and Agriculture Organization, the financial agencies, perhaps the aviation agencies these are all samples of efforts to create agencies of this sort.
Senator VANDENBERG. You have omited one agency, Doctor, concerning which there has been considerable discussion. Will you say why the highly efficient and valuable international narcotics control is not specifically identified ?
Mr. PASVOLSKY. The work of handling narcotics has been concentrated in the League of Nations. It will be one of the activities that will be in question when the transfer of the functions of the League of Nations to the new Organization takes place.
Senator VANDENBERG. And there is no question, is there, in your mind, that the eixsting narcotics control relationship will be transferred and continued in full force and effect and with all possible expansion under the new Organization?
Mr. Pasvolsky. There is absolutely no doubt in my mind on that. There is ample power and ample desire to do that.
Senator VANDENBERG. And it is the purpose and aim, also !
The coordination of these specialized agencies, the task of facilitating the creation of new agencies as they become necessary, the service of being a sort of economic general staff for the world-these are the principal functions in the field of economic and social cooperation which are being given to the new Organization.
One reason why the authority is given primarily to the General Assembly and, under its authority, to the Economic and Social Council is that these specialized agencies are widely representative bodies, and therefore it was thought that the task of coordinating their basic policies should be in the hands of the most representative body in the world, namely, the General Assembly. It alone would have the authority and the prestige to do that. Therefore there is a provision that the policies of the specialized agencies would be coordinated by the General Assembly. On the other hand, the Economic and Social Council, which is a smaller body, would, among its other functions, have the function of coordinating the activities of the various specialized agencies through consultation and recommendations.
The CHAIRMAN. If there are no questions, will you pass right along, Doctor?
Senator VANDENBERG. Mr. Chairman, if you will permit: Reverting to the question of narcotics control, since that has been a matter of considerable interest, and since the United States delegation was unanimous in its desire to have the present able work continued, I should like to ask that there be printed in the record at this point three paragraphs from page 122 of the report to the President dealing with the purpose to which I have referred to have this work continued under the new Organization.
The CHAIRMAN. It is so ordered. (The matter referred to is as follows:) Another field in which the Conference anticipated that the Economic and Social Council would be concerned is the control of the traffic in and suppression of the abuses of opium and other dangerous drugs. In this connection the United States Delegate made the following statement :
* Experience has shown that drug control raises issues which can best be met not by an international health, economic, or social agency, but by the type of specialized agencies now functioning so successfully in this field. Everything possible should be done to safeguard the continued operation of these agencies and services.
“The United States Delegation wishes to go on record as hoping that the Organization will be entrusted with supervision over the execution of existing or future international agreements with regard to the control of the legitimate traffic in opium and other dangerous drugs, and the suppression of illicit traffic in and abuse of such drugs; that there shall be established an advisory body to advise directly the Economic and Social Council on these matters; and that the existing agencies be regarded as autonomous agencies to be related directly to the Economic and Social Council."
Mr. PASVOLSKY. Mr. Chairman, may I interrupt for a moment to say that I now have the information that a state of war has not existed between Poland and the Soviet Union at any time during this war.
The CHAIRMAN. No formal state of war?
Senator Millikin. In your opinion, would the word “enemy" be construed technically as being one of the parties to a formally declared war?
Mr. PASVOLSKY. One of the parties in a state of war, certainly.
The CHAIRMAN. If, however, there are actual hostilities, regardless of whether there was a state of war or not, it would be an enemy state?
Mr. PASVOLSKY. It would be a state of war.
Mr. PASVOLSKY. We come next to another set of related chapters, the three chapters beginning with XI and going through XII and XIII. These chapters deal with the problems of non-self-governing territories.
Senator MILLIKIN. Before we get to those chapters, may I ask a question?
The CHAIRMAN. Senator Millikin.
Senator MILLIRIN. I notice several reiterations of the thought of the Charter that the Organization shall not interfere with domestic affairs of any country: How can you get into these social questions and economic questions without conducting investigations and making inquiries in the various countries!
Mr. PASVOLSKY. Senator, the Charter provides that the Assembly shall have the right to initiate or make studies in all of these economic or social fields. It is provided that the Economic and Social Council
through its commissions and its staff, would be assembling information in the fields that would be necessary for the performance of its duties. It is provided that the Economic and Social Council would arrange for reports from the specialized agencies, and presumably would arrange for receiving any kind of information that it might need. The Economic and Social Council is also given the power to make arrangements with the Member States for reports as to steps taken to give effect to recommendations.
Senator MILLIKIN. Might the activities of the Organization concern themselves with, for example, wage rates and working conditions in different countries?
Mr. PASVOLSKY, The question of what matters the Organization would be concerned with would depend upon whether or not they had international repercussions. This Organization is concerned with international problems. International problems may arise out of all sorts of circumstances.
Senator MILLIKIN. Could the Organization concern itself with tariff policies of the various countries?
Mr. PASVOLSKY. The Organization would of course consider questions that arose out of tariff or commercial policies. But it is very important to note here that the Economic and Social Council can make recommendations to governments generally, rather than to specific governments.
Senator MILLIKIN. Only to governments generally?
Senator MILLIKIN. The reports and recommendations naturally might refer to specific governments?
Mr. PASVOLSKY. Oh, they might refer to specific conditions, naturally.
Senator MILLIKIN. They would have to be built up out of investigations made of or in specific countries? .
Mr. PASVOLSKY. Yes.
Senator MILLIKIN. Could such an Organization concern itself with various forms of discrimination which countries maintain for themselves, bloc currency, subsidies to merchant marine, and things of that kind?
Mr. PASVOLSKY. I should think that the Organization would wish to discuss and consider them. It might even make recommendations on any matters which affect international economic or social relations. The League of Nations did. The International Labor Office has done that. This new Organization being created will be doing a great deal of that.
Senator MILLIKIN. A recommendation along any of those lines, under the basic theory of the whole Organization, would have a powerful effect against an offending nation, would it not?
Mr. PASVOLSKY. The whole document is based on the assumption that recommendations by an agency of this sort would have considerable effect.
Senator MILLIKIN. Let me invite your attention, Doctor, to the fact that we are relatively a "have” nation, in a world of "have not” nations. Might we not find a great number of recommendations focused against us that could finally engender a lot of ill will and might lead to serious difficulties, assuming we did not care to correct them under the recommendations?