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today are deeply concerned that these potentialities shall be fully realized and implemented by necessary legislation. We consider that the authority granted the United States delegate on the Security Council is a domestic question and should be handled separately, not by amendment or reservation to the Charter. We believe further that the people of the United States understand the importance of testing future national policies by the basic principle of international cooperation in conformity with the United Nations Charter.

I thank you.

The CHAIRMAN. Dr. Reid, you were one of the consultants, as I recall, at San Francisco?

Dr. Reid. I was; yes.

The CHAIRMAN. And followed the deliberations of the Conference step by step, and you are thoroughly acquainted with the matter!

Dr. Reid. Yes, Senator.

The CHAIRMAN. We are very glad to have you appear representing all of these distinguished groups and organizations of American women.

Are there any questions?
(No response.]
The CHAIRMAN. We thank you, Dr. Reid, very much.

Dr. Rein. My statement contains signatures of representatives of various bodies. · The CHAIRMAN. We will be very glad to have them included in the record.

(The signatures to the statement of the witness are as follows:) Dr. Helen Dwight Reid, American Association of University Women, Mrs. La Fell Dickinson, president, General Federation of Women's Clubs. Charl Ormond Williams, National Education Association. Mrs. Glen L. Swiggett, National Congress of Parents and Teachers. Mildred Welt, president, National Council of Jewish Women. Margaret A. Hickey, president, National Federation of Business and Professional

Women's Clubs, Inc.
Mrs. J. Austin Stone, National Women's Trade Union League.
Gladys Cornell Irwin (Mrs. James), national board of the Young Women's

Christian Association.
Marguerite Fisher, Girls' Friendly Society of the U. S. A.
Mary E. Leeper, Association for Childhood Education.
Mrs. Harper Sibley, president, United Council of Church Women.
Mrs. John Matthews, president, National Service Star Legion.

The CHAIRMAN. We will hear next from Dr. William G. Carr. Give your name and whom you represent, please, Dr. Carr.



Mr. CARR. My name is William G. Carr. I am associate secretary of the National Education Association and secretary of the Educational Policies Commission, and a consultant to the United States delegation at San Francisco.

Mr. Chairman, on behalf of the 330,000 teachers of the United States who are members of our association, and the 900,000 teachers who are affiliated with us, I should like to inform the committee that the teachers of America would like to have you approve this Charter without reservations, and promptly.

Qur association is very proud of the fact that in 1919 it stood solidly back of the League of Nations Covenant. We are still solidly back of international cooperation.

I shall not take your time with a detailed analysis of the provisions of the Charter, which we specifically approve. Dr. Reid has already done a brilliant job in that connection. I would like to say that our association is particularly grateful and enthusiastically in support of the provisions of the Charter with reference to educational cooperation. Perhaps we magnify the importance of our own profession, sir, but we think that in the long run the way people are taught conditions the way they act; and we are very proud and grateful that the United Nations Charter is going to give education around the world a chance to collaborate in the teaching of the youth of the world how the United Nations are organized, what their purpose is, and to understand one another. We think on the basis of that understanding an enduring peace may emerge. We do not think it can emerge otherwise.

This Charter with reference to education is a very far advance over the League of Nations. The League of Nations Covenant made no reference at all to education. Here, for the first time, in a great international document the teachers of the world really have been given a clear field and every encouragement to use their influence to develop international understanding among the young people of the world.

I should like to say in conclusion that the association appreciates. the opportunity to participate in the Conference at San Francisco and the courtesy which your delegation, sir, and your colleagues on that delegation, and the State Department extended to us whenever questions of education were before the Conference. We are pleased, too, to observe that both the Senate and the House of Representatives have passed a joint resolution urging that the United States Government take the lead in creating an International Office of Education.

Thank you, sir.

The CHAIRMAN. Your association and its membership throughout the United States wield a very powerful influence, both in education and in public affairs, as many candidates for office no doubt are aware.

Mr. CARR. We try to be helpful, sir.

The CHAIRMAN. We are very glad, indeed; to have had you appear and make your statement.

Are there any questions?
Mr. DARRIN. I would like to ask a question, Mr. Chairman.

The CHAIRMAN. My question was directed to the members of the committee. You may talk with the Doctor when he gets through. He will be glad to converse with you.

Mr. ĎARRIN. May I ask whether Dr. Carr represents the unanimous opinion of the teachers of his organization?

The CHAIRMAN. That is a matter that you can take up with him. I am sure he will be glad to talk to you.

Dr. CARR. May I say, sir, that the matter has been formally passed by the official bodies, and I will be glad to file with the committee a certified copy of the action, if that is desired.

The CHAIRMAN. Like many questions, the answer was not satisfactory to the questioner.

You say you have resolutions by your constituent bodies authorizing the views which you have expressed ?

Dr. CARR. Yes; I have.
The CHAIRMAN. You may file them if you so desire.
Dr. CARR. I will, sir.

The CHAIRMAN. We thank you, Doctor, for a very clear and explicit statement.

It has been suggested that since the questioner represents an association which has no membership whatever, Dr. Carr has a larger constituency than he has.

Is Mr. Philip Murray here? (No response.)

I understand he is not here, but will file a statement for publication in the record in support of the Charter.

The next witness will be Mr. Morris Llewellyn Cooke.



Mr. Cooke. My name is Morris Llewellyn Cooke. I am representing the Independent Citizens' Committee of the Arts, Sciences, and Professions.

Mr. Chairman, as you know, this organization includes considerable groups of writers, actors, painters, musicians, engineers, scientists, et al. With your permission, I would like to present on their behalf a short statement.

With the signing of the United Nations Charter at San Francisco the 50 United Nations have taken the first step toward the achievement of lasting peace. The second step—the ratification of that Charter by the individual governments must be made quickly and surely.

It is of the utmost importance that the United States approve this Charter as a positive demonstration of our sincerity and earnest wish to assume our rightful responsibility in the program for world peace and security.

The citizens of this country have already made clear their overwhelming desire to join with the other peace-loving nations of the world in setting up the world peace organization provided for in the United Nations Charter. They have given their elected representatives a mandate to vote and work for peace. There must be no delay in carrying out this directive of the American people.

We believe that ratification of the United Nations Charter is essential to the realization of international peace and security. But we believe also, that the Charter is only a framework and that it must be implemented as fully and as quickly as possible. The Bretton Woods legislation which authorizes the establishment of an International Monetary Fund and an International Bank must be enacted. And the unity of purpose which has guided the United Nations to victory over fascism in Europe and which is now leading us to victory over Japan must be continually renewed and strengthened if we are to realize a world of peace.

Therefore, we respectfully urge the Senate of the United States to ratify at the earliest possible date the bill for the United Nations

Charter. We further urge that they support and approve all collateral legislation essential to world peace and international economic cooperation.

Only by such specific action can the American people and their representatives in Washington plan to make concrete the program for world peace. Only then we will have begun to fulfill our sacred obligation to the millions of men and women of this Nation and the other United Nations who have given their lives in the fight to rid the world of fascism and to make it possible for the peace-loving peoples of the world to unite in achieving a workable peace and sound prosperity.

Mr. Chairman, I may say that I had the privilege of presiding, about 2 weeks ago, at a crowded meeting in the ballroom of the WaldorfAstoria Hotel where our various groups had been assembled, and resolutions embodying these ideas were not only unanimously passed, but very enthusiastically passed.

The CHAIRMAN. I want to identify you for the record. You are an engineer; are you not?

Mr. CCOKE. Yes.

The CHAIRMAN. Were you not at one time connected with the Government in Washington ?

Mr. COOKE. I have been at various times connected with it. You possibly remember me as Administrator of the World Exposition Commission. I represented our Government as an alleged expert in the settlement of the Mexican oil dispute, and I more recently had a technical mission to Brazil.

The CHAIRMAN. Are there any questions?
(No response.)

Thank you, Mr. Cooke. We are very much obliged to you for your testimony, and you may file any material you care to file.

Mr. Cooke. Thank you, sir.

Senator VANDENBERG. Mr. Chairman, I have just been handed a statement on behalf of the Detroit Annual Conference of the Methodist Church, which represents the eastern half of Michigan, favoring the adoption of the San Francisco Charter, and I would like to present it for the record. The CHAIRMAN. It will be printed in the record.

(The statement referred to and submitted by Senator Vandenberg is as follows:)


(East half of Michigan)


Introduction: The suggestions of the Federal Council of Churches issuing from the Cleveland Conference should be given due weight as Christian criteria by all the nations. We concur with the Cleveland Conference in the following:

"Our confidence is in God, the Establisher of the order within which men and nations work and in the forces of the spirit which God employs. We believe in the might of truth as against falsehood and deceit and in the power of right to command good will as greater than selfishness and force; in the value of mutual trust as against distrust and suspicion; and in the might of faith as greater than cynicism, doubt, and despair.” Specifically we petition, saying:

1. As Methodists of Michigan, we call upon the nations of the world, including the victors, to repent of the social, political, and economic sins which were in part responsible for the coming of the Second World War.

2. The thing most to be desired in world affairs at this time is an effectire organization for the creation of an association of nations for the preservation of peace.

3. One of the tests of the integrity of the nations in creating the new world organization is the treatment of minorities. Justice of political, racial, religious, and social minorities which grants security is the only possible way for an enduring association of nations. The commission to achieve such security would seek international agreement on right of both minorities both within States and among them.

4. We favor the action of the San Francisco Conference amending the Dumbarton Oaks Proposals and adopting the revised plan for an association of nations.

5. We believe that our fellow religionists, the Jewish people, should persist in their leadership in religion and human welfare and in other matters which transcend national interests. This service we believe to be far more important than the creation of one more nation.

6. The immediate strengthening of the United Nations Relief and Rehabilitation Act and the speedy development of civilian relief is imperative.

7. Economic stabilization by international agreement seems imperative and we urge upon the Congress of the United States prompt approval of the modified Bretton Woods plan as a fundamental guaranty of the well-being of the peoples of the world.

8. Access to raw materials on the part of each nation appeals to us as a major request and should receive from the Social and Economics Council immediate and sustained attention to the end that the natural resources of the earth be available for all, and available alike for the present and future generations.

9. In recognition of the Christian ethic, we believe in the rehabilitation of all dislocated people at home and abroad and the guaranty to them of the just right to choose the form of government under which they shall live.

10. We believe in an International Office of Education charged with the guidance of the educators in each country as to more effective methods of teaching peace as a dynamic good will to all children and youth; and the exchange of students and professors between the various nations.

11. We oppose peacetime military conscription in our own and all other nations. We believe that full police power for the prevention of aggression by any one nation can be supplied by methods which will emphasize not a war objective but international good will:

As passed June 20, 1945, in Detroit.

Signed by 400 clergy and 200 laymen (voting about 40,000 members directly represented), after 6 months group study. For the conference:

E. W. BLAKEMAN, Ann Arbor, Mich. The CHAIRMAN. I have a statement from Dr. Bromley Oxnam, president of the Federal Council of the Churches of Christ in America, which he requests be inserted in the record, and he asks that it be read. So if you will bear with me, I will read it into the record [reading]: STATEMENT BY BISHOP G. BROMLEY OXNAM, PRESIDENT, THE FEDERAL COUNCIL OF

THE CHURCHES OF CHRIST IN AMERICA On behalf of the Federal Council of the Churches of Christ in America, I count it a high honor to submit a statement for the record of these historic hearings.

On June 26, 1945, the executive committee of the Federal Council adopted a resolution on the Churches and the Charter of the United Nations from which I quote a few paragraphs:

"We are grateful to God that the prayers of the Christian peoples of the world for the success of the San Francisco Conference have been answeerd in the agreement to establish the United Nations organization.

"The Charter of the United Nations offers mankind an important means for the achievement of a just and durable peace. The new organization, projected after so great suffering and sacrifice of this World War, can help governments to join their moral and material resources in support of a system of world order and justice. The churches of Christ in America have long held that nations can better serve God's purpose for the world as they are brought into organic relationship with one another for the common weal. The Charter signed at San

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