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Francisco marks a genuine advance toward this end. It remains for the peoples to make the promise of the Charter a living and growing reality.

“We believe the overwhelming majority of the people of our churches desire to see our Nation join with other nations in a common effort to develop an international society free from the curse of war.

“We believe it is the clear duty of our Government promptly to ratify the Charter and thus to assure cooperation by the United States in the task of making the organization an effective agency for the maintenance of international peace and security.

“We believe that a heavy responsibility rests upon Christians to help create an invincible determination to use fully the procedures provided by the Charter.

The will to cooperate requires, as its foundation, a new international morality.

The building of a better world order under God's Providence requires better men and women. Herein is to be found the principal challenge to the churches. To establish a strong core of world-minded Christians at the center of international life is the inescapable duty of the ecumenical Church."

This summons to support the Charter is the logical outgrowth of the long study given the question of world law and order by the churches. No question has been studied more carefully and thoroughly in the churches during this generation. This discussion has been carried on in the more than 200,000 Protestant churches in the United States, and literally millions of churchmen have given the subject thoughtful consideration. Thus the resolutions by the great denominations, and by the Federal Council of the Churches of Christ in America, represented considered judgment.

I believe a majority so large as to approach unanimity within the churches desires the earliest possible ratification of the Charter by the Senate and the full participation of our Nation in the organization therein established.

Our sons have fought to destroy totalitarian tyranny and have given their lives gladly that future generation may be free. It is for us to create a world orders that will guarautee our son's sons shall not march a generation hence. We believe the Charter is a first and major step toward this high end. Its chief sponsors recognize that improvements will be made as the experience of the years dictates. But all of us realize that out of the resolve to build a better world that was revealed at San Francisco, mankind now beholds what can be done when creative minds meet in cooperative endeavor for the common good.

Senator VANDENBERG. Mr. Chairman, I think a little emphasis ought to be put on the document which you have just read, because I think it is the most representative statement that has yet come to the attention of the committee, inasmuch as the Federal Council of Churches · represents 20,000,000 churchmen in the United States; and, in addition, you will be glad to recall with me that it was represented in our labors at San Francisco by the chairman of its long-standing committee on international affairs, Mr. John Foster Dulles, of New York, who played such an able and distinguished part in the development of the Charter.

The CHAIRMAN. Mr. Dulles was one of the most distinguished advisers to the delegation. He was of great service and made a very fine contribution to the deliberations of the various committees and commissions and in the plenary sessions, and I am glad to pay this tribute to him and to his organization. Thank

Thank you, Senator. I want to interrupt the hearing a moment at this time. We have with us this morning a very distinguished delegation from Australia, and I shall ask Mr. Watt if he will present the various members of the delegation and have them stand as their names are called.

Mr. Watt. Senator Macleay, leader of the opposition in the Australian Senate.

Mr. McEwen, a member of the Australian Lower House and a member of the Australian Advisory War Council.

Senator Nash, one of the Government Labor Party members of the Australian Senate."

Mr. Pollard, member of the present Government Labor Party. Mr. Walsh, member of the State Legislature of South Australia.

All of these gentlemen were Australian delegates to the San Francisco Conference.

Mrs. Jessie Street.

The CHAIRMAN. We are very happy to have you with us to observe our committee procedure, and we are glad to shake hands with representatives of that great country, Australia. We will be glad to meet all of you, individually, when we recess.

The next witness is Mr. Ulric Bell, executive vice president for Americans United for World Organization.

Most of you will recall Mr. Bell as a very distinguished newspaperman, formerly representing the Louisville Courier-Journal, which I read as a boy, as soon as I was able to read, and which my father read each day. He had a way of taking the Louisville Courier-Journal and reading down as far as he could get, and when the lunch bell rang he would take his pencil out and mark where he had read to, so that he could begin from there and go on through the rest of the day.

Mr. BELL. I am afraid I was not writing for it at that time.

The CHAIRMAN. You probably were not, but some of your distinguished predecessors, Mr. Watterson, and others, were. At the time he followed the procedure which I have mentioned it was a weekly, a way back in the early days.

You may proceed, Mr. Bell. Give your name and the organization which you represent.



Mr. BELL. My name is Ulric Bell. I am executive vice president, Americans United for World Organization.

I would like to say, Mr. Chairman, that only doctor's orders keeps away today Dr. Ernest M. Hopkins, chairman of our organization, and president of Dartmouth College.

Americans United for World Organization is a group which came into existence last year in response to a public demand for activity on behalf of effective world organization. It was organized in June 194. It represents a merger of the following political action organizations: American Free World Association, Citizens for Victory, Committee to Defend America, Fight for Freedom, United Nations Association, United Nations Committee of Greater New York.

It collaborates with the following 19 additional groups: American Veterans Committee, Catholic Association for International Peace, Church Peace Union, Citizen Conference on International Economic Union, Commission to Study the Organization of Peace, Committee for National Morale, Council for Social Action, Federal Union, Food for Freedom, Freedom House, World Alliance for International Friendship through the Churches, Friends of Democracy, League for Fair Plar. League of Nations Association, Non-Partisan Council to win the Peace, Southern Council on International Relations, Union for Democratic Action, Women's Action Committee for Victory and Lasting Peace, World Citizenship Morement.

Americans United also has active local or State organizations or affiliates in 31 States.

Some idea of the nonpartisan nature and of the breadth of thought and activity encompassed in Americans United can be seen in the following list of men and women who comprise the officers and directors of Americans United for World Organization: Ernest M. Hopkins, chairman, board of directors; Hugh Moore, president; Ulric Bell, executive vice president; J. A. Migel, treasurer; Arthur J. Goldsmith, secretary; Mrs. George L. Bell, director, Washington office.

The vice presidents are Donald J. Cowling, Mark. Ethridge, W. W. Grant, Mrs. J. Borden Harriman, Charles A. Hart, Chester H. Rowell, Walter Wanger, W. W. Waymack, and Mrs. Vanderbilt Webb.

The board of directors: William Agar, Henry A. Atkinson, C. B. Baldwin, Senator Joseph H. Ball, Mrs. Mary McLeod Bethune, Henry B. Cabot, Leo M. Cherne, Russell Davenport, David Dubinsky, Clark M. Eichelberger, George Fielding Eliot, Victor Elting, Thomas K. Finletter, Ralph E. Flanders, William Green, Senator Carl A. Hatch, The Rt. Rev. Henry W. Hobson, Henry J. Kaiser, Mrs. Doris Warner LeRoy, Frederick C. McKee, Mrs. Dwight Morrow, Edgar Ansel Mowrer, Philip Murray, Mrs. C. Reinhold Notes, The Rt. Rev. G. Bromley Oxnam, F. LeMoyne Page, James G. Patton, Auguste Richard, Beardsley Ruml, Robert E. Sherwood, Spyros Skouras, James P. Warburg, Sumner Welles, and Admiral H. E. Yarnell.

In the year during which I have been associated with this group, as executive vice president, our operations have been directed toward the establishment of a democratic world organization capable both of providing the environment in which peace may exist and in sustaining, nourishing, and enforcing that peace.

Prior to the Dumbarton Oaks Conference it was the purpose of Americans United to urge the initial steps which led to that conference. In the months which led to San Francisco our activities were designed to recognize and bring to the attention of Congress the overwhelming public will for a world security agency with real power to act.

With the completion of the San Francisco Conference the first phase of this nears its close. This is an hour for which the American people, in our opinion, have vigorously expressed and set their

hopes. It is our conviction that San Francisco has now given the United Nations at least a chance for realization of the age-old longing for freedom from the fear of war. It is a foothold. The opportunity may never come again. But without peace machinery, war could come again, surely and terribly in a world now too small to withstand war.

Having been in close touch with many groups and individuals throughout the country during its months of activity, Americans United believes profoundly that the yearning of the American people for a chance at a permanent peace will be met only by the quick ratification of the San Francisco Charter--without reservation. If this is done in a wholehearted spirit by the Senate of the United States, it seems obvious a great tonic to the morale of the rest of the world will have been provided. By this action the United States also would reaffirm a leadership and responsibility befitting its traditions and its role as the champion of democracy and freedom. This country has been unable to escape involvement in wars. It should try involvement

in peace.

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This first step should be followed up by prompt implementing action so that the spirit of San Francisco can be carried forward. We believe that the other nations then will respond in a manner really making possible a world of good neighbors—at least one wherein bad neighbors won't flourish long:

With the committee's permission, I would like to have Mr. Leo Cherne, executive secretary, Research Institute of America, and member of the board of directors of Americans United, make a brief statement.

The CHAIRMAN. Is Mr. Cherne available right now?
Mr. BELL. Yes, sir.



The CHAIRMAN. Give the reporter your name, address, and whom you represent.

Mr. CHERNE. My name is Leo M. Cherne, member of the board of directors of Americans United for World Organization, and executive secretary of the Research Institute of America.

I am honored with these few moments of your time and will necessarily make no attempt at an analysis of the San Francisco Charter. Several conclusions though, involving the United Nations Organization, are of basic importance in your considerations.

Though the United Nations Charter represented the cooperative and sometimes compromise action of 50 separate nations, almost all students of international affairs are in agreement that the Charter as completed at San Francisco is a substantial improvement on the Dumbarton Oaks formula and in a number of respects over the League of Nations.

The United Nations Conference succeeded in bringing together the representatives of 50 nations with a willingness to take some action to make war more difficult. It suceeded in setting up an economic and social council that will more actively study some of the causes of war and recommend to each of the nations antidotes for some of the diseases that produce war.

The conference succeeded in strengthening the World Court so that a greater number of the world's controversies can be settled under a system of law. The creation of the Commission on Human Rights must be regarded as an historie milestone for which the American delegation must be accorded considerable credit.

The existence of a trust with relation to dependent peoples and some definition of the nature of that trust will also be recorded as one of the basic achievements of the Charter which is before this committee at this moment.

These, if I may borrow Commander Stassen's words, are all important "beach heads" in the fight for the elimination of war. Because of San Francisco it will be possible at some future date to begin the demobilization of the huge military establishments which tragic events have forced upon us.

The menace to security while there are separate military establishments is clear. Disarmament in the absence of an effective interna

tional organization has proven unreliable. It is only through the United Nations Organization that a nonvisionary method toward disarmament can be undertaken.

The maintenance of peace rests upon the establishment of the basic elements of security throughout the world-social, political, economic. The United Nations Organization has created both a framework within which the methods can be explored and provides us with a foundation upon which accomplishment in this direction can be constructed.

We have come to recognize the contagious character of totalitarianism. But we ignore the fact that the most recent 150 years of the world's history have indicated how much more vital and lasting is the virus of democracy. It is through the collaboration, contact, and cooperation that will be required within the United Nations Organization that our political advance can bring its impressive evidence to other areas of the world.

Americans United urges the most prompt and wholehearted acceptance of the San Francisco Charter. It urges this action in the knowledge that the nations must yet learn to actually use the machinery being constructed; in the knowledge that the democratic process must still be extended within the framework of that organization; in the knowledge that some of the suggested steps are tentative, some halting ones; in the knowledge that there is frequently a great gap between good phrases and blueprints and good results-- Americans United urges ratification in the knowledge that, as with our Constitution, the United Nations Charter must grow and adapt itself with passing years and changing circumstances.

Americans United urges the United Nations Charter because-at a minimum level it knows the American people prefer even imperfect collaboration to perfect chaos, and at a maximum level, with this step we have finally found the method which can begin to outlaw war as an accepted social institution.

Thank you, sir.
The CHAIRMAN. Are there any questions of Mr. Cherne?
(No response.)
Thank you very much.



The CHAIRMAN. We shall now hear Mrs. Brice Claggett.

I understand, Mrs. Claggett, that you are representing Mrs. La Fell Dickinson?

Mrs. CLAGETT. Mrs. La Fell Dickinson, president of the General Federation of Women's Clubs. This is a national organization with a membership of 2,500,000 women in 16,500 clubs.

Mrs. Dickinson has instructed me to read the following message from her. It is from Keene, N. H., and is dated July 10, 1945: Hon. Tom CONNALLY, Chairman, Senate Foreign Relations Committee,

United States Senate, Washington, D. O.: I regret that I cannot be present in person to tell you two and one-half million homemakers in the General Federation of Women's Clubs—wives and mothers of servicemen-are on record for an international organization as pro

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