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Council will aid greatly in our ability to help in this way by facilitating our ability to contribute through loans and technical assistance to the development of economically backward areas in such a way as to develop new markets not only for our goods but for those of all countries. Such financial and technological assistance should aim at raising the living standards and promoting the industrialization and mechanization of the areas concerned. The aid should be given through an international investment agency to avoid the dangers of developing American spheres of influence or American imperialism.

Considering Africa specifically, the subject peoples of that continent have contributed greatly toward the achievement of victory and they are justified in expecting that some of the war aims as enunciated in the Atlantic Charter and the "four freedoms" should apply to them and that they too should benefit by their sacrifices in the war of liberation. In the words of a recommendation made by a group of outstanding American citizens to the United States Government:

The guiding principle underlying these policies and procedures in the international, regional, and local sphere, should be that of providing the maximum opportunity for Africans to manage their own affairs within the framework of international cooperation, with a view toward achieving full democratic rights for all the inhabitants of the noncolonial territories, and toward enabling the indigenous people in all colonies, protectorates, and mandated territories to achieve self-government and the right of self-determination within a specified time limit, pursuant with United States policy toward the Philippines (Council on African Affairs, New Africa, vol. 3, No. 11, December 1944).

It is to be hoped that the Economic and Social Council will immediately set about to establish a committee on colonial possessions

with power:

(1) To receive—and demand, if necessary-periodic reports on the progress made toward self-government of colonial peoples and on their economic and social progress including public health, nutrition, land ownership, working conditions, migration, and education.

(2) To make periodic, on-the-spot inspections of colonial conditions.

(3) To undertake such special studies as it deems desirable and to gather the necessary data for them.

(4) To publish its own reports and the reports received, with appropriate comments.

(5) To advise on colonial matters and to suggest changes in colonial policies to the Council to be forwarded to the Assembly, thence to the Security Council.

(6) To investigate on the spot and report fully on grievances charged by any indigenous group against its suzerain.

The colonial authority ,should accept as duties such obligations as the following:

(1) To educate the dependent people for self-government and eventual political equality.

(2) To preserve native cultural autonomy.
(3) To avoid invidious racial or religious discrimination.

(4) To provide and maintain decent standards of living, health, education, and civil liberties.

In conclusion and in summary, may we state that we favor the immediate ratification of the United Nations Charter and will share the pride of most Americans if we should be the first to ratify the Charter;

of war;

That maximum world development for all the peoples of the world can best reach fruition in a world of peace, and further,

That civilization cannot stand another war;
That we have a choice between this Charter and no charter at all;

That the Charter is not too ambitious in what it attempts to do at the outset, which is perhaps one of its virtues. This is not to be interpreted to mean that we are freezing the status quo but that we shall proceed as fast as is humanly possible to eliminate the causes

That discussion on the veto has fortunately subsided to a whisper, but that we believe that if this plan is omitted that we shall never have any form of collective action;

That clarification of our position in the event of veto and action outside of the purview of the Charter is desirable and should be made;

That steps be taken to permit individual cases before the Interna. tional Court of Justice. That the matter of judges sitting on cases in which they have an interest be carefully considered to determine the advisability of same.

That we are gravely concerned about the Trusteeship Council jurisdiction. Unless provisions are made for the settlement of and the abolition of the colonial system, there will be no peace. This is something that is not a matter of being nice to 750,000,000 colonials, but a matter that is necessary for the peace of the world. Even though moral obligations are admitted, there is no legal or compulsory obligation upon the nations to adhere to these objectives. It is indeed voluntary as to which states will be brought into the system with few exceptions. There is no provision made for representation of the colonial peoples in the Trusteeship Council or for consultation with them. Nothing is said about how long the trusteeship shall last; the goal of self-government is meaningless unless there is a definite time limit.

That there must be established at the earliest possible moment an "international bill of rights."

That most nations now ruled by nations other than themselves are on such a low level of civilization that self-rule could but be an improvement, and is an indictment of the type of rule perpetrated against them;

That we are interested in the development of backward nationş because of the justice and right, but also because of its mutual economic advantage to such nations and to us;

That there be established within the Economic and Security Council a Committee on Colonial Possessions which will have power to carry out the provisions set forth in this testimony;

That we pledge our support and effort in helping to enable America carry out her share of the responsibility of leading us down the broad highway that has been opened toward peace, security, human rights, and justice.

The CHAIRMAN. Thank you very much, Mrs. Johnson.
Are there any questions?
(There was no response.)
The CHAIRMAN. There are no questions. Thank you very much.

I now want to place in the record, with the consent of the committee, & letter from the Independent Citizens' Committee of the Arts,

Thank you.

sciences, and Professions, Inc., Hotel Astor, New York, signed by the
listinguished sculptor, Jó Davidson, chairman, together with a reso-
ution. The only reason why I insert the letter is that the resolution
vithout it would not be very complete. Without objection, they will
ppear in the record.
(The letter and resolution are as follows:)

INDEPENDENT CITIZENS, COMMITTEE OF THE
ARTS, SCIENCES, AND PROFESSIONS, INC.,

New York 19, N. Y., July 10, 1945.
Hon. TOM CONNALLY,
Senate Foreign Affairs Committee,

Senate Office Building, Washington, D. C. DEAR SENATOR CONNALLY: The attached resolution, urging the United States Senate to ratify the United Nations Charter at the earliest possible date, was unanimously approved at a recent meeting of the Board of Directors of the Independent Citizens' Committee of the Arts, Sciences, and Professions.

We respectfully request that, as chairman of the Foreign Affairs Committee, you bring this statement to the attention of that committee and that it be included in the records of the current hearings on the United Nations Charter.

On behalf of the Independent Citizens Committee, I should like to congratulate you on your active leadership in bringing the Charter to the immediate attention of the Senate. Very truly yours.

Jo DAVIDSON, Chairman.

RESOLUTION

With the signing of the United Nations Charter at San Francisco, the 50 United Nations have taken the first step toward the achievement of lasting peace. The second step—the ratification of that Charter by the individual governmentsmust be made quickly and surely.

It is of the utmost importance that the United States approve this Charter as a positive demonstration of our sincerity and earnest wish to assume our rightful responsibilities in the program for world peace and security.

The citizens of this country have already made clear their overwhelming desire to join with the other peace-loving nations of the world in setting up the world peace organization provided for in the United Nations Charter. They have given their elected representatives a mandate to vote and work for peace. There must be no delay in carrying out this directive of the American people.

We believe that the ratification of the United Nations Charter is essential to the realization of international peace and security. But we believe, also, that the Charter is only a framework and that it must be implemented as fully and as quickly as possible. The Bretton Woods legislation authorizing the establishment of an International Monetary Fund and an International Bank must be approved. Collateral economic and political legislation must be enacted. And the unity of purpose which has guided the United Nations to victory over fascism in Europe and which is now leading us to victory over Japan must be continually renewed and strengthened if we are to realize a world of peace.

Therefore, we respectfully urge the Senate of the United States to ratify at the earliest possible date the bill for the United Nations Charter. We further urge that they support and approve all collateral legislation essential to world peace and international economic cooperation. Only by such specific action can the American people and their representatives in Washington begin to concretize the program for world peace. Only then will we have begun to fulfill the sacred obligation to the millions of men and women of this nation and the other United Nations who have given their lives in the fight to rid the world of fascism and make it possible for the peace-loving peoples of the world to unite in achieving a workable peace and a sound prosperity.

Unanimously resolved by the board of directors of the Independent Citizens' Committee of the Arts, Sciences, and Professions.

Jo DAVIDSON, Chairman,

FREDRIC MARCH, Treasurer. 75608-45- -31

The CHAIRMAN. I should like to call the attention of the press to certain telegrams that I shall place in the record. We have a telegram from Mrs. Malcolm McClellan, chairman of legislation, National Congress of Parents and Teachers, favoring the Charter.

I may say that all of these organizations favor the Charter. (The telegram referred to is as follows:)

JACKSONVILLE, FLA., July 9, 1945. Senator Tom CONNALLY,

Chairman, Committee on Foreign Affairs: The National Congress of Parents and Teachers, an organization of three and a half million fathers, mothers, and teachers in every State in the United States and Hawaii, is in the very nature of its organization and objectives vitally interested in its ratification of the San Francisco Charter, the hope of the world, and its use today. The United States was host to the United Nations Conference and took the lead in formulating this Charter. We should now take the lead in its ratification. We owe it to those who now are fighting and those who fought and died to take the lead in ratifying this charter for an international organization to keep peace. We look hopefully to your committee for a speedy and unanimously favorable report. Please have this telegram made a part of the record of the committee hearing.

Mrs. MALCOLM MCCLELLAN,
Chairman of Legislation, National Congress

of Parents and Teachers. The CHAIRMAN. The next telegram is from Mrs. Moses P. Epstein, national president, Hadassah. (The telegram referred to is as follows:)

NEW YORK, N. Y., July 6, 1945. Senator Tom CONNALLY,

Chairman, Committee on Foreign Affairs: The national board of Hadassah, the women's Zionist organization of America, speaking in the name of 150,000 members from every State in the United States, hails the new Charter of the United Nations organization as a momentous step forward in the struggle of civilized mankind for progress through peace. We hope our country will take leadership in the solution of peacetime problems with the same zeal and effectiveness which characterized our cooperation with the United Nations in war and toward that end we urge a speedy ratification of the Charter by the United States Senate.

Mrs. MOSES P. EPSTEIN,

National President, Hadassah. The CHAIRMAN. We have a telegram from the National Maritime Union, signed by Joseph Curran, chairman, and Ferdinand C. Smith, secretary. (The telegram referred to is as follows:)

NEW YORK, N. Y., July 3, 1945. SENATE FOREIGN AFFAIRS COMMITTEE,

Washington, D. O.: Delegates to the Fifth Constitutional Convention of the National Maritime Union, now assembled in the city of New York, are four-square behind the plea of President Truman for speedy ratification by the United States Senate of the United Nations World Security Charter. We are now in the last stages of a bitterly fought war. There must be no delay in taking the first steps toward a durable peace and the strongest guarantee against the threat of future wars. The peace- and freedom-loving peoples of the world look to us for leadership in putting the United Nations security organization on a firm footing with full ability and authority to organize and preserve the peace. We cannot hesitate or delay in giving this leadership, support, and cooperation. The United States of America must be the first of the United Nations to endorse the World Security

Charter. The United States of America must be a full participating member of he United Nations in peace as in war. Immediate ratification by the United States of the World Security Charter will encourage our armed forces and our ullies to greater efforts in the final crushing blow against world fascism. It will stimulate the rebirth of democracy in the newly liberated areas. It will reassure he American people that never again will our Nation follow the disastrous path f isolation and war. We seamen have made heavy sacrifices in the course of this war. We are dedicated to the speediest possible destruction of Japan fascism. We call upon the United States Senate to ratify the United Nations World Security Charter immediately.

JOSEPH CURBAN, Chairman.

FERDINAND C. Śmri, Secretary. The CHAIRMAN. Then there is the following telegram, which is selfexplanatory. (The telegram referred to is as follows:)

NEW YORK, N. Y., June 25, 1945. Senator Tom CONNALLY,

Chairman, Committee on Foreign Affairs: Seven hundred people in an all-day session sponsored by the following organizations, American Association for the United Nations, Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, Church Peace Union, Commission to Study the Organization of Peace, National Peace Conference, Woodrow Wilson Foundation, to discuss the San Francisco Charter, voted as individuals to express our hope that the Senate of the United States will continue in session and will act favorably on the San Francisco Charter.

Henry A. Atkinson, Clark M. Eichelberger, James T. Shotwell, chairmen, conference.

The CHAIRMAN. The next telegram is from the board of trustees of the New Jersey State Federation of Women's Clubs. (The telegram referred to is as follows:)

NEWARK, N. J., June 25, 1945. Senator TOM CONNALLY, Chairman, Committee on Foreign Affairs,

Washington, D. C.: The board of trustees of the New Jersey State Federation of Women's Clubs urges your support and ratification of the Charter of the United Nations.

EMMA G. FOYE, Corresponding Secretary. The CHAIRMAN. The Indiana Federated Clubs support the charter in the following telegram:

BOONVILLE, IND., June 24, 1945. Senator Tom CONNALLY,

Chairman, Committee on Foreign Affairs:
Indiana Federated Clubs urge you to support United Nations Charter.

IDA WILSON,
Chairman, Department of Legislature,

Indiana Federation of Clubs. The CHAIRMAN. The Iowa Federation of Women's Clubs has sent the following telegram:

SPRINGVILLE, Iowa, June 21, 1945. Senator THOMAS CONNALLY,

Chairman, Committee on Foreign Affairs: The executive committee and board of directors of Iowa Federation of Women's Clubs assembled in Des Moines, Iowa, on behalf of 30,000 club women of Iowa, go on record as urging Senate adoption of Charter of United Nations.

MRS. LEE A. JOHNSON, Corresponding Secretary, Iowa Federation of Women's Clubs.

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