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It is, however, unfortunate that the representatives of the world organized labor movement were not given recognition at the San Francisco Conference and afforded the opportunity in a consultative capacity to express the viewpoint of labor and participate in the forging of the Charter of world peace.

This error cannot be repeated without disastrous consequences in the work of the United Nations organizations.

World peace and friendly relations among nations to be enduring must be based not only on agreements among governments but upon the friendship, understanding, and common effort of the great mass of their people. The World Trade Union Federation-representing over 60,000,000 workers throughout the worldmust be afforded the opportunity of participating in the work of the Economic and Social Council. In this manner the common people through their spokesmenthe leaders of organized labor-will be assured an effective voice in the formulation of policies which shall so vitally and directly affect them.

Organized labor has a penetrating understanding of the desires and hopes of the common people on all social and economic problems. Their contribution to the work of the Soical and Economic Council through direct participation would be immeasurable.

The common people have struggled fiercely during this terrible war in order that through the utter destruction of nazism and fascism they may enjoy complete liberation and national independence and secure economic, political, and social freedom.

Labor unions recognize their present heavy responsibilities. They have been in the forefront in the struggle for unity, victory, peace, and progress. They are anxious and must be permitted to participate in the councils of the International Security Organization in order that the common people may play their proper role in forging the new world.

The CHAIRMAN. The committee will now hear Mr. William Green, president of the American Federation of Labor.

STATEMENT OF WILLIAM GREEN, PRESIDENT, AMERICAN

FEDERATION OF LABOR, WASHINGTON, D. C. Mr. GREEN. Mr. Chairman and gentlemen, in the name of the American Federation of Labor I urge immediate action in ratifying the proposed charter and in taking the necessary action to fulfill our responsibility in establishing the United Nations as a functioning organization. American wage earners are against war as a political instrumentality and believe that armed force is a last resort and then only under the control of an impartial agency.

The American Federation of Labor was among the agencies that presented to the United States delegation in San Francisco, proposals with respect to the Dumbarton Oaks draft. The essence of some of our proposals upon human rights and the Atlantic Charter, was incorporated in the draft charter. This is especially gratifying to us, for we believe that all cooperative undertakings, governmental or otherwise, should be based squarely upon recognition and acceptance of those human rights inherent in the dignity of all men. Our democratic way of life and our democratic institutions developed out of this conception of human dignity. Incorporation of the following clause in the preamble of the Charter is given to all activities of the United Nations:

* * to reaffirm faith in fundamental human rights, in the dignity and worth of the human person, in the equal rights of men and women, and of all nations large and small.

The United Nations must grow in accord with democratic ideals and standards in accord with this further purpose: to promote social progress and better standards of life in larger freedom.

This basic charter represents a series of agreements between 50 countries of different nationalities, languages, historical experience, and cultural developments. The document itself is evidence of the will to peace dominating so many nations. No one nation would draft the Charter as it now stands, but all in the spirit of tolerance are willing to accept a document which represents the high point of mutual agreement.

The Charter itself only makes possible national cooperation in development of a human agency through which nations may meet together, discuss common problems, and work out methods of dealing with them. This procedure we in the labor movement call collective bargaining. It is the basic procedure for all kinds of groups in which different interests are represented. It is the constructive procedure which makes possible as great a degree of progress from time to time as can be reached between the opposing interests

War has become so destructive that we can no longer take a chance on being engulfed in it again. We want to be ready to take effective action immediately against aggression wherever it occurs. For the present, at least, we must look to those nations best able to put force behind the will for peace.

As conditions change, provisions to insure security will change also. If we restrain nations from using military force, we must assure them access to justice in righting wrongs. The Statute of the International Court of Justice has been added to the Dumbarton Oaks Charter to meet this need.

That part of the United Nations Organization which labor believes will grow into the most useful and efficient activity, not only in securing peace but in assuring “social progress and better standards of life in larger freedom,” is international economic and social cooperation through the Economic and Social Council. Because of the strikingly different experiences and varied institutions of the 50 nations signing the United Nations Charter, there was a more limited area of agreement upon economic matters dealt with in chapter IX, and therefore agencies and procedures under the Economic and Social Council must be developed in the process of operation. We hope developments will follow practice in more advanced industrial countries and accepted precedents of the International Labor Organization. The ILO was organized in accord with democratic understanding of the relationship between government and private undertakings and agencies with representation for government and the functional groups responsible for carrying on such undertakings. Not only has this type of organization been effective in dealing with problems and in promoting higher standards, but it has been equally effective in mobilizing national interest and support back of the organization and its purposes. We sincerely hope that the ILO will be utilized by the new United Nations Organization and we realize that decision on this issue, which is vital to our trade-union movements of all lands, rests with the new agency. It will become our duty and responsibility to urge the functional representative principle upon the agencies charged with this decision.

The United Nations Charter does not place limitations upon national sovereignty but provides for each independent country an opportunity to function in a wider field and to have a voice in making

wars.

decisions affecting their interests in foreign markets and in relationships with other countries.

We believe our Government should ratify this charter and take leadership in developing the methods and agencies of peaceful progress and betterment as well as in securing us agoinst recurrence of world

The American Federation of Labor pleaded for ratification of the League of Nations and acceptance of responsibility in helping to make the League effective. Our counsel did not prevail. The experiences of the years intervening since 1918 prove that only coordinated effort and effective organization of world power can assure security and opportunities to obtain constantly higher standards of life and freedom. Unless we use our technical and scientific knowledge and our experience in human cooperation to promote the welfare of mankind, we are in danger of inviting our own destruction. We should take advantage of the opportunity presented by the United Nations Charter and in a spirit of humility and tolerance learn to coordinate our national efforts with those of all other nations to advance the welfare and interests of all.

No thinking person can classify the agreement reached at San Francisco as perfection in detail and in every respect. In fact, it is inconceivable that the conflicting interests represented at the San Francisco Conference could be harmonized so as to produce a perfect document. It is a tribute, however, to the representatives of the nations who participated in the San Francisco Conference and who, through the exercise of patience, self-restraint, and good judgment, composed their differences and reached unanimous agreement such as is reflected in the Charter of the United Nations. The heartening feature of it all is that a strong foundation has been laid. Experience, time, and the future will develop such weaknesses as may be inherent within the agreement. Amendments can be worked out and adopted. The success of the United Nations Charter in the prevention of war must depend upon the supporting spirit of the people throughout the world. While it is too much to expect to reach a perfection goal in an imperfect world, the people of the United Nations can strive to establish a guaranty against recurring wars and the protection of peace-loving peoples throughout the entire world.

The CHAIRMAN. Are there any questions the Senators desire to ask Mr. Green?

(There was no response.) The CHAIRMAN. Thank you, Mr. Green. We are much obliged to Mr. GREEN. Thank you, gentlemen.

The CHAIRMAN. I shall insert in the record at this time a letter from Mis. E. Cowles Andrus, chairman of the Associated Organizations for International Cooperation, Baltimore, Md., in support of the Charter. (The letter is as follows:)

July 12, 1945. Senator Tom CONNALLY, Chairman, Foreign Relations Committee,

Washington, D. C. DEAR SENATOR CONNALLY: The Associated Organizations for International Cooperation, composed of the 34 organizations listed here—with a total membership of more than 70,000—desire to express to you their wholehearted support of the San Francisco Charter.

you, sir.

We believe that American participation in a world organization designed to maintain international peace and security is the most important issue confronting the American people today.

We appreciate, as you yourself have said, that the United Nations Charter is not a perfect instrument. Nevertheless, due to your efforts, to those of our other delegates, and of all the delegates at the San Francisco Conference, this Charter now constitutes the essential first step on the only possible road to world peaceunited action of all nations.

We therefore desire to be placed on record as favoring the United Nations Charter, and we earnestly hope the Senate may see fit to ratify it without any untoward delay. Very sincerely yours,

MIRIAM J. W. ANDRUS,

Mrs. E. COWLES ANDRUS, Chairman. The CHAIRMAN. I shall also place in the record a further statement by the National Education Association of the United States, together with a resolution which that organization has sent and asked to have incorporated in the record, in support of the Charter.

(The statement and resolution are as follows:)

STATEMENT OF William G. Carr, AssociATE SECRETARY, NATIONAL EDUCATION

ASSOCIATION The National Education Association of the United States, representing directly 330,000 educators in the Urited States and, through its affiliated State and local orge nizations, 900,000 members of the teaching profession, urges that the United States Senate promptly retify the United Nations Charter.

The National Education Association of the United States has for many years advocated a strong program of international cooperation between this country and other nations. The association is proud of the fact that it strongly endorsed the ratification of the League of Naticns Covenant in 1919.

In 1943, at its convention in Indianapolis, the association urged that the United States participate in an international effort to establish peace and order under law.

The National Education Association regards with special and cmphatic approval the provision in the United Nations Charter for interneticnal cooperation in the field of education and cultural relations. These provisions, occurring in the six chapters relating to the General Assembly, the Ecoromic and Sccial Council, and the Trusteeship System, provide the basis upon which, over the long run, the rest of the machinery of the United Nations may hope to command the intelligent support of the people of the world.

The United Nations Charter is the first great international document to give explicit recognition to the powerful force of education in keeping the peace. know that misdirected education had a large part to play in bringing about this

The teaching profession profoundly believes that properly directed education, cooperatively arranged among nations, must be a powerful force in maintaining the peace.

The National Education Association and its members plan to exert every possible effort to help the young people of the United States to understand the world in which they live, the way in which that worid is organizea, the provisions of the United Nations Charter, the cost of war in human life and ideals, and the necessity for constant alertness if the peace is to be preserved.

The association also regards with strong approval the recent unanimous action of both Houses of Congress in passing resolutions looking forward to the establishment of an International Office of Education and Cultural Development, and expresses the conviction that the United States should continue to take the lead in this area and move rapidly for the establishment of such an agency within the general orbit of the United Nations Organization.

The association is grateíul to the State Department and to the United States delegation at San Francisco for the opportunity to be represented by a consultant at the Convention and for the courteous hearing which was extended by the State Department and the delegation to this consultant when questions of educational cooperation among the nations were being discussed.

war.

RESOLUTION The National Education Association advocates that the United States participate in an international effort to establish peace and order under law, and believes that the importance of education must be recognized in the establishment and maintenance of international justice.

The CHAIRMAN. Is Mr. Carl H. Mote here?

STATEMENT OF CARL H. MOTE, INDIANAPOLIS, IND. The CHAIRMAN. Please give your name and residence and state whom you represent.

Mr. MOTE. My name is Carl H. Mote, of 5685 Central Avenue, Indianapolis, Ind. I am president and general manager of the Northern Indiana Telephone Co. and Commonwealth Telephone Corp., president of the National Farmers. Guild, and editor and publisher of America Preferred, a monthly magazine founded in April 1943.

I am appearing before your committee in opposition to the San Francisco Charter at the suggestion of and in cooperation with Gerald L. K. Smith. I represent and speak for the following organizations:

National Farmers Guild; America First Party; Nationalist Veterans of World War II; National Blue Star Mothers of Philadelphia; Christian Action Committee of Baltimore; Buffalo Economics Club; United Mothers of Cleveland; Truth and Liberty Committee of Minneapolis; American Mothers of Minnesota; Defenders of the Constitution, Milwaukee; Friends of the Constitution, Dayton; American Youths for Christ, St. Louis; Youths for Christ Committee, Denver; National Citizens Committee of Utah, Salt Lake City; California Pastors Committee; America First Committee, Los Angeles.

The CHAIRMAN. What is your authority for speaking for the veterans of World War II?

Mr. MOTE. Mr. Frederick Kister, the president, of Chicago, ni.

The CHAIRMAN. Most of the veterans of World War II are not home yet. Does Mr. Kister speak for them in their absence?

Mr. MOTE. He is speaking for those who are home and those who are members of his organization, Mr. Chairman.

The CHAIRMAN. All right. Go ahead.

Mr. MOTE. I think your committee would agree with me that nothing founded upon misrepresentation can long endure.

I think we would have to agree that no instrument founded upon misrepresentation possibly could succeed, particularly if it had to do with amicable relations among men.

No deceptions or evasions, no jargon of cynical double meanings for different occasions and different peoples can have any permanence if its success depends upon the continued approval and cooperation of high-minded men. Thousands of years of human history accent this truth. Any commitment which lacks sincerity and forthrightness is doomed in advance to early repudiation.

The proposed San Francisco Charter is void of all moral basis. For this reason, it does not have and it cannot have the confidence and support of well-informed and upright men anywhere. The details of the Charter are unimportant since the instrument as a

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