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Mr. FLYNN. I do not think they are. I think this whole thing is a part of our foreign policy, and we have aroused in the minds of our partners in this enterprise the expectation of getting these billions, and we cannot supply them. We have got to borrow 25 or 30 billions of dollars on the open market, at a moment when these other billions are maturing

Senator TUNNELL. You said it was too late to prevent Russia from having control of two-thirds of the resources and three-fourths of the territory of Europe.

Mr. FLYNN. She has possession of them now.
Senator TUNNELL. You said it was too late to prevent that.
Mr. Flynn. That time has passed.
Senator TUNNELL. When was that time?

Mr. Flynn. Well, I do not know when the time was passed. I do not know how far any commitments which we might have gotten out of Russia as a condition to giving her help when she was on her knees would have been honored by Russia.

Senator TUNNELL. I was referring particularly to the fact that we have been getting some help from Russia.

Mr. FLYNN. No; I do not think we have. I think Russia was getting help from us, as all the nations in Europe were getting help from us, and they were helping us to help them.

Senator 'TUNNELL. Then your position is that Russia has not helped in this war?

Mr. Flynn. I do not say that. I say she has helped herself in this war, and that as a consequence of that our task was made easier. But it was not so much helping ourselves as helping them.

Senator TUNNELL. Do you not think that the net result has been that we have been helped?

Mr. FLYNN. I do not agree with that, but I am perfectly willing to assume that. That is no reason why we should go on helping her to hold successfully millions of people that she has seized by conquest.

Mr. TUNNELL. I am taking your statement that the time has passed when we might have prevented Russia from having the control that she has in Europe.

Mr. FLYNN. Woll, Senator, I am not prepared to say at what moment that time passed. I said before we got into the war that the war could have only one of two results; either Germany would win the war and dominate all the continent of Europe, or we would win the war and Russia would dominate the continent of Europe.

Senator TUNNELL. Which did you think was the preferable one?

Mr. FLYNN. I have no preference between them. I thought they were both brutal and abominable dictatorships, and I still think so.

Senator TUNNELL. You would have been just as satisfied if Germany had won?

Mr. FLYNN. I would not have been satisfied at all. I have no brief for Germany, but I do not see what is gained by spending our billions to take a man out of one prison and put him into another.

Senator TUNNELL. Do you think we are in just as bad a position as if we had not won the war?

Mr. FLYNN. No. Once we got into it we had to win it, regardless of consequences. But we are in a worse position than if we had not gone into the war.

Senator Tunnell. Do you think we had a choice as to going in or not going in?

Mr. FLYNN. I most certainly do. We decided to go in when we began to involve ourselves voluntarily in it. There were a great many honest and decent people who believed we ought to involve ourselves. They said we ought to be in this war. There were a lot of other people that were not so honest that said we ought to go into the war in order to protect ourselves from being attacked. We went into it, and the moment we went into it, it could have only one result, namely, that we would win the war. But before we went into it I said, and I think the fact has now been demonstrated, that if Germany won the war Germany would dominate Europe, and if Germany lost the war Russia would dominate it.

Senator TUNNELL. But if Germany had won she would have dominated the Western Hemisphere?

Mr. FLYNN. That, of course, Senator, I never admitted and do not admit now. I think it is a fantastic and grotesque assumption.

The CHAIRMAN. Thank you very much, Mr. Flynn. You can insert whatever you like in the records.

(The documents referred to and submitted by the witness are as follows:)

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TABLE 37.List of Wars, 1800—25

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Tripoli, United States of America 3
Haitian Revolt 3
First Mahratta War 3
Russo-Persian War 3
Napoleonic Wars.

Third Coalition 5
Franco-Prussian
Peninsular War 6
Anglo-Danish
Franco-Austrian
Russian Expedition
War of Liberation

Hundred Days' War.
Russo-Turkish
Russo-Swedish
Latin-American revolt 3.
War of 181238
Austria-Naples
Algiers-U. S. A.
Second Mahratta War 3
Spanish Civil War.
Greek Revolt.
Haiti Santo Domingo .
First Central American
Burmese War
La Plata War

Number wars participated in by

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TABLE 37.-List of wars, 1800-85-Continued

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Tripoli, United States of America 3
Haitian Revolt 3
First Mahratta War 3
Russo-Persian War 3
Napoleonic wars.

Third Coalition 5
Franco-Prussian
Peninsular War
Anglo-Danish
Franco-Austrian
Russian Expedition
War of Liberation

Hundred Days' War
Russo-Turkish
Russo-Swedish
Latin-American revolt 3
War of 1812 38
Austria-Naples
Algiers-U.S. A.3
Second Mahratta War 3
Spanish Civil War
Greek revolt
Haiti Santo Domingo 3
First Central American
Burmese War 3
La Plata War 3

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Number of participants

Costa Rica
Guatemala

among 43 states
Honduras
Santo Domingo
Nicaragua
United States
Haiti
Mexico
Salvador
Number of battles 1
Argentina
Bolivia
Bolivia
Brazil
Colombia
Chile
Ecuador
Paraguay
Venezuela
Uruguay

Peru
bo to How to buiiiiiiiiwaro Type of war
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1 See table 31.
2 See table 31.
3 Wars fought mainly outside Europe.
4 The Final Act of Vienna War signed before the Battle of Waterloo (June 17, 1815).

3 The first engagement on the Danube between Napoleon and Austria took place on
Oct. 6. 1805, though mobilization had begun in August. Great Britain began naval
hostilities against France in 1803 and made a naval attack on Spain on Oct. 5, 1804.

o On Nov. 30, 1807, the French under Junot entered Lisbon though war had been
resolved upon by Oct. 22.

7 Murat turned over his command at Posen on Jan. 10, 1813, and returned to Paris. The main body of Napoleon's army had crossed the Niemen at Kaunas in the middle of December 1812.

8 The declaration of war on June 18, 1812, has been preceded by the affairs of the
Leopard and Chesa peake (1807) and the President and Little Belt (1811) and by the Battle
of Tippecanoe in which the United States had defeated Indians thought to be supported
by the British in Indiana (1811).

Hostilities including the Battle of New Orleans continued until Feb. 15, 1815.
10 Representatives of the Neapolitan Army the Austrian Army, and the British
Admiralty signed a military convention near Calvi on May 20, 1815. Ferdinand IV
returned to Naples on June 17.

11 The King of Spain issued a decree declaring an end to the constitutional system of the Cortes on Oct. 1, 1823. The capitulations of Cadiz, Badojos, and Carthagena occurred at about the same time.

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Number of participants

among 35 states

States
Central Asia
China
Persia
Turkey
Morocco
Number of battles 1
Costa Rica
Egypt
Guatemala
Honduras
Nicaragua
Mexico
Salvador

Texas
| Argentina
| Bolivia
| Brazil
| Chile
| Peru

Uruguay
IS - Noir ni vile

OWA at Horonto | Type of war ?
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Spanish-Portuguese NOV. 22, 1826

1527
26 26 25

3
Russo-Persian 3
Sept. 23, 1825 Feb. 29, 1823 Iourk-fantchai

20
26

2 Russo-Turkish Apr. 26, 1929 Sept. 14, 1829 Adrianople

18 28

2 13 B Belgian Revolt

Tuk25, 1830 1833 London

30 31 31 30
Algerian Conquest 3 June 14, 1830 Dec. 23, 1817 Sidi Bralin

30
Polish Insurrection
Nov. 29. 1870 Sept. 7, 1831 (9)

30 30
Second Central Ameri-

1831
1815

S1 31 31 31 31
can
Carlist Revolt

Oct.
4, 1833 Sept. 2, 1847

33

34 33
Egyptian Revolt 3
Nov. --, 1931 Apr. 5, 1833 Kutalia

31
Khivan Conquest 3

1839
1842

39
Portuguese Revolution
1831 May 24, 1834 Evora-Monte

3131 31 31
Peru-Bolivia
July 7, 1835 June 7, 1842 Acora

38 34
Texan Revolt 3

38 34
1835
1836

35
Chile-Argentine 3

1836
1836

36 36
First Afghan War 3 Oct. 11, 1838 Sept. -, 1942

38
38

2
Second La Plata War Sept. 2, 1839 Feb. 3, 1852

38 52 38 3
Egyptian War 3
June 8, 1839 Nov. 27, 1841 Alexandria

40.40
40
39

2 I
First Opium War 3 June 22, 1840 Aug. 29, 1842

Nanking
44 40

39
France-Morocco 3
July 6, 1844 Sept. 10, 1844 Tangier

40
Mexico-United States of May 13, 1846

2 1 1 Feb. 2, 1848 Guadalupe Hidal

46

2 1 B America.

go. Denmark-Germany. Mar. 24, 1848 Jan. 11, 1851 (°).

48

47 B
Austria-Sardinia
Mar. 19, 1848 Mar. 23, 1849 (10)
48

312 B
Hungarian Insurrection - Oct. 3, 1848 Sept. 13, 1849

Vilagosh 10
48 48

3 20 0
Number wars partici-
pated in by each state.

1 7 7 1 3 3 4 1 1 1 1 1 1 5 1 1 1 1 3 1 2 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 3 1 1 2 11 6568

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1 See table 31.
1 See table 31.
* Wars fought mainly outside Europe,
* Belgium declared independence Oct 4, 1830. A preliminary treaty among the great
powers recognized this on June 28, 1831, but hostilities continued until 1833, and peace
was finally made in the Treaty of London, Apr. 19, 1839.

Warsaw fell Sept. 7. 1931. The Polish insurrectionary forces did not surrender to
the Russians but crossed the frontier into Prussia.
• An moesty for all Carlist political oftenders was decreed on Sept. 2, 1847.

The war seems to have come to an end with the British withdrawal from Afghani-
stan, in September 1842.

® Justo Jose de Urquiza, heading a coalition of Uruguayans, Brazilinns, and Argen-
tinians, defeated the Argentinian dictator Roans at Caseros Fob. 8, 1862

The Stadtholders of the duchies of Schleswig and Holstein lued a proclamation on Jan. 11. 1861, at Klel.

to The Sardinian King, Charles Albert, abdiented in favor of his son, Vlator manuel, after the Bardinian defent by the Austriana a Novara, Mar, 10, 11,

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