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1 See table 31.
: Wars fought mainly outside Europe.

3 The Taiping rebellion ended with the killing of its leader in 1864, though desultory
fighting occurred after that event.

* The conquest of Turkestan ended with an imperial ukase announcing Turkestan as a
Russian province in 1864. This was followed by hostilities on the Afghan border in volv.
ing Russian, British, and native troops.

$ The Turkish ultimatum to Russia expired Oct. 23, 1853, but hostilities had taken place
with the Russian invasion of Turkish territory, Jan. 2, 1853.

8 The Treaty of Tientsin, 1858, intended to conclude peace, was not observed but was
reaffirmed by the Treaty of Peking, 1860.

7 The Mogul Emperor was captured and banished in September 1858, the Mogul
Empire was declared at an end, and the Government of India transferred to the Crown,
after which, on July 8, 1859, peace was proclaimed.

8 The Italian Revolution ended when King Frances of Naples escaped from the country
in a French vessel, Feb. 13, 1861.

9 According to the Supreme Court in the case of the Protector (12 Wall. 79, 1871) the
war began in the far South by the blockade proclamation of Apr. 19, 1861, and in North
Carolina and Virginia by the blockade proclamation of Apr. 27, 1861, and ended by the
proclamation of Apr. 2, 1866, except in Texas, where it ended' by the proclamation of
Aug. 20, 1866. Lee had surrendered at Appomattox on Apr. 9, 1865, and Johnston sur-
rendered the last Confederate army on Apr. 26, 1865.

10 After the defeat of the supporters of the shogunate, restoration of the Emperor's
power was marked by grant of the Charter Oath on Apr. 17, 1869.

11 Small French, British, and Spanish forces landed at Vera Cruz in December 1861
but hostilities did not begin until Apr. 4, 1862, when 30,000 French troops were landed.

12 The Emperor Maximilian was shot on June 19, 1867, soon after withdrawal of French
troops, and Mexico City was taken by Juarez on June 27, 1867. The Allies had made a
treaty with Juarez at Solidad, Feb. 19, 1862, after which Great Britain and Spain had
withdrawn from the expedition.

13 The war came to an end when General Carrera of Guatemala defeated General
Barrios of Salvador. With Barrios' escape, no legal government existed with which to
sign a treaty of peace. Carrera appointed General Duenas acting president of Salvador
and retired to Guatemala with his army on Nov. 15, 1863.

14 Hostilities ended with departure of the Spanish fleet, May 9, 1866. A truce was
arranged through mediation by the United States in 1871 and a formal treaty of peace was
signed between Spain and Peru at Paris Aug. 14, 1879, and between Spain and Chile at
Lima, June 12, 1883.

15 The Polish insurrection ended with the hanging of the insurrectionary leaders at
Warsaw in August of 1864.

18 Lopez attacked the Argentine on Apr. 14, 1865, though hostilities had occurred on Aug. 26, 1864, between Brazil and Uruguay and on Nov. 13, 1864, between Paraguay and Brazil.

17 When Lopez was killed, the war came to an end. The conditions of peace imposed
on Paraguay were those decided on by the terms of the treaty of alliance signed May 1,
1865, by Argentina, Brazil, and Uruguay.

18 An armistice was signed at Nikolsburg, July 26, 1866. In addition to the Treaty of
Prague with Prussia, Austria made separate treaties with Wurttemberg (Aug. 13),
Baden (Aug. 17), Bavaria (Aug. 28), Hesse (Sept. 3), Saxony (Oct. 21), and Italy (Oct. 3)
at Vienna. Venice was ceded to Italy and Prussia annexed Hanover.

19 The insurgents defeated the royalists on Sept. 28, and the queen fled from Spain. The
insurgent army entered Madrid on Oct. 3, and the provisional government of which it was
the instrument was recognized by the powers on Oct. 25, 1868.

20 The Cretan revolt ended in 1869 when hopo for Greek intervention disappeared. Fighting of a sporadic nature continued until the end of that year.

21 The Treaty of Frankfort was preceded by the Preliminary Peace of Versailles, signed Feb. 26, 1871.

22 The Carlist rebellion came to an end with the withdrawal of the Carlist forces from Guipuzeon, Feb. 20, 1876. Don Carlos, its leader, lest Spain on Feb. 28. On Mar. 4, 1877, a general amnesty was extended to the Carlists who had submitted by Mar. 15.

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Number wars participated in by

Russo-Turkish
War of the Pacific
Zulu War 3
Second Afghan War 3
First Transvaal War 3
Tunisian Expedition 3
Egyptian War 3
Tonking War 3
Fifth Central American War
Serbo-Bulgar War.
Guatemala-Salvador 3
Chino-Japanese 3
Madagascan Conquest 3
Abyssinian War3
Second Ashanti War 3
Cretan Revolt
Costa Rica-Nicaragua
Greco-Turkish War
Spanish-American War 3
Boer War 3.

May 3, 1877
Apr.

5, 1879
Jan. 23, 1879
Jan.

1, 1879
Dec. 20, 1880
Mar. 31, 1881
July 11, 1882
Dec. ---, 1882
Mar. 18, 1884
Nov. 13, 1885
July 23, 1889
Aug.

1, 1894
Mar. 1, 1895
1896.
Jan. 1896
May 24, 1896
Mar. 20, 1897
Apr. 17, 1897
Apr. 21, 1898
Dec. 12, 1899

July 13, 1878 Berlin 2
Mar. 28, 1884 Ancon
Sept. 1, 1879 Ulundi 4
Oct.

3, 1881
Aug.
8, 1881

Pretoria
Apr. 4, 1882 Kasar-el-Said
Sept. 7, 1882
Aug. 9, 1885 Tientsin ?
Apr. 14, 1885 Acajulta
Mar. 3, 1886 Constantinople.
Nov. 15, 1889 Guatemala
Apr. 17, 1895 Shimonoseki.
Aug. 8, 1896
Oct. 26, 1896 Addis Ababa
Jan. 19, 1896 (9)
Nov. 26, 1898 (10)
Apr. 26, 1897 (11)
Dee. 4, 1897 Constantinople
Dec. 10, 1898 Paris 12
May 31, 1902 Vereeniging 13.

each state.

3 1 0 1 1

2 1 2 1 2 1 1 2 2 2 4 2 1 2 1 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 See table 31. ? The Treaty of Berlin was preceded by the preliminary Peace of San Stefano, Mar. 3, 1878, and followed by the definitive treaty of Constantinople, Feb. 8, 1879.

48 58

3 Wars founght mainly outside Europe.

+ Hostilities ended with the capture of Cetywayo, the Zulu king, on Aug. 29, 1879,
followed by a British proclamation on Sept. 1.

5 Amir Abdurrahman, who defeated Ayub Khan, conducted his campaign with British
backing. The war came to an end with defeat of Ayub on Oct. 3, 1881.

6 The war ended with the defeat of the rebel, Arabi, on Sept. 7, 1882. Sporadic hostili.
ties in the Sudan did not end until the fall of Dongola to Kitchener on Sept. 23, 1896.

7 Treaties were signed by France with Annam (June 6, 1884) and Cambodia (June 17,
1884), but hostilities actually continued for a few months more.

Queen Ranavale capitulated on Sept. 30, 1895, and on Oct. 1, 1895, accepted the pro-
tectorate treaty. Disturbances continued, and France declared the island annexed
on Aug. 8, 1896.

War ended without serious hostilities when the tribal king was taken prisoner by the
British forces on their entry into Kumansi, Jan. 19, 1896.

10 The Cretan Revolt continued after Greece had settled with Turkey and the concert
of powers consisting of France, England, Russia, and Italy. Prince George, who had
been given the post of high commissioner by the powers on Nov. 26, 1898, landed at Crete
on Dec. 21, and hostilities ceased soon after Admiral Noel of the British Navy had hung
the ringleaders of the revolt.

11 A preliminary treaty of peace was signed after slight hostilities, Apr. 26, 1897, and the
boundary question was settled by arbitration sponsored by the Greater Central Amer.
ican States.

12 Preliminaries of peace were signed at Paris, Aug. 12, 1898, but hostilities continued
against the Philippine insurgents until 1902.

13 Great Britain proclaimed the annexation of South Africa on Sept. 1, 1900, but hos.
tilities continued until the Peace of Vereeniging, signed at Pretoria, May 31, 1902.

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