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Montenegro | Rumania | Serbia (Yugoslavia)

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TABLE 41.List of wars, 1900-1941Continued

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Boxer Expedition ?
Venezuelan War?
Russo-Japanese War 2
Central American War?
Mexican Revolution ?
Italo-Turkish War 2
First Balkan War
Second Balkan War
World War I

German War
Austrian War
Hungarian War
Turkish War

Bulgarian War
Chinese Civil Wars
Irish Rebellion
Russian Revolution
Russo-Polish War
Third Afghan War
Vilna War
Greco-Turkish War
Riflian War 2
Chaco War 2 17
Manchurian Hostilities
Ethiopian War?
Spanish Revolution
Chino-Japanese War 2
World War II 21
Russo-Finnish War

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I See table 31.
: Wars fought mainly outside Europe.

SA peace treaty between Salvador and Honduras on the one hand and Guatemala on
the other was signed on the United States warship Marblehend on July 20, 1906, but war
WE renewed by Nicaragua in February 1907. A treaty of peace between Nicaragua and
Salvador was signed at Amapala on Apr. 23, 1907, a peace protocol between all five re-
publics was signed at Washington, Sept. 17, 1907, and a definitive peace treaty was signed
at that place Dec. 20, 1907. (See D. P. Myers, “The Central American League of Na.
tions," World Peace Foundation Pamphlet Series, VII (February 1917), 110 ff.)

The inauguration of President Obregon, who was generally recognized, is considered
to have ended the revolution.

Turkey made peace with Bulgaria in the Treaty of Constantinople, Sept. 29, 1913,
and with Greece in the Treaty of Athens, Nov. 14, 1913.

6 There were 5 wars ended by distinct treaties and 79 bilateral wars. Germany, Aus-
tria-Hungary, Turkey, and Bulgaria signed a treaty of peace with Russia at Brest.
Litovsk on March 1918 and with Rumania at Bucharest on May 6, 1918.

7 The Treaty of Versailles was signed June 28, 1919, but did not go into effect until
Jan. 10, 1920. Russia, Montenegro, Costa Rica, and Luxemburg did not sign it, although
they had been at war with Germany. The United States signed a separate peace with
Germany at Berlin on Aug. 15, 1921, which antedated peace to July 2, 1921, and China
signed a separate peace at Peking on May 20, 1921, which went into effect June 28, 1921.
Bolivia, Peru, Ecuador, and Uruguay had broken relations with Germany and signed
the Treaty of Versailles, though they had not been at war.

8 Russia, Montenegro, and San Marino, though at war with Austria and Hungary,
did not sign the treaties of St. Germain (signed June 10, 1919, in force July 16, 1920) and
Trianon (signed June 4, 1920, in force July 26, 1921).

* Of the 9 powers at war with Turkey all but Russia and Hejaz signed the Treaty of
Lausanne (signed July 24, 1923, in force Aug. 6, 1924). In addition to these 7, Armenia,
Belgium, Hejaz, Poland, Portugal, and Czechoslovakia signed the abortive Treaty of
Sevres, Aug. 10, 1920.

10 In addition to the 6 powers at war with Bulgaria which (except for Russia) signed
the Treaty of Neuilly (signed Nov. 27, 1919, in force Aug. 19, 1920), 10 other allied and
associated powers signed this treaty.

11 Civil strife not recognized as a legal state of war was practically continuous in China
from the republican opposition to Yuan Shi-kai's effort to reestablish monarchy in 1916,
through the Tuchun wars from 1918 to 1925, through the nationalist advance in 1926-27,
to the termination of the anti-Communist wars by the Sian agreement following Chiang
Kai-shek's capture by Chang Hsueh-liang, in 1936.

12 Articles for a treaty recognizing the Dominion status of the Irish Free State were
signed Dec. 6, 1921, and went into force July 20. 1922.

13 The Russian Revolutionary War was not recognized as a war in the legal sense.
During its course Great Britain, France, Poland, Japan, and the United States inter-
vened with milita y forces.

14 Signed Mar. 13, 1921, in force Apr. 17, 1921.

15 Vilna was assigned to Poland by the Conference of Ambassadors, Mar. 15, 1923, but
Lithuania regarded itself in a state of latent war with Poland until the two accepted a
resolution of the League Council in December 1927.

16 This treaty also ended World War I against Turkey. Thus in law the Greco-Turkish
War was merely a part of World War I, but in fact the latter ended with signature of
the abortive Treaty of Sevres. From the diplomatic and military points of view the
Greco-Turkish War was therefore an independent incident.

17 A truce was signed on Jan. 3, 1929, followed by efforts at conciliation. Diplomatic
relațions were broken July 5, 1931. Paraguay's declaration of war on May 10, 1933, is
said to have been rescinded a few days later (Shepard and Scroggs, The United States in
World Affairs, 1934-35, p. 131).

16 There was no legal state of war between China and Japan and diplomatic relations
were never broken, but actual hostilities were carried on before and even after the Tangku
truce.

19 The resolution of the League Assembly in July 1936 terminating sanctions may be
regarded as terminating this war, although hostilities continued and the major powers
did not recognize Italy's conquest until 1938.

20 No legal state of war was recognized in Spain, but an agreement to prevent assistance
to either faction was accepted by most of the European states on Aug. 26, 1936. In spite
of this, some assistance continued to be given for a time by Portugal and the Soviet
Union, and Italy and Germany intervened with official forces on the side of the rebel
government, which they had recognized as the government of Spain.

21 In addition to the 42 states listed, Danzig, Iceland, Iraq, and Iran had become involved in this war before the end of 1941.

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The CHAIRMAN. I will ask the reporter to include in the record at this point a letter dated September 27, 1943, from the Crusading Mothers of Pennsylvania and the National Blue Star Mothers and Women of Pennsylvania, addressed to the Senate.

(The document referred to and submitted by the chairman is as follows:)

SEPTEMBER 27, 1943.

OPEN LETTER TO THE UNITED STATES SENATE

Honorable Sirs:

We wish to put in the record our positive opposition to the term of the Fulbright resolution, concerning a declaration of the Federation of the World, as presented to the United States Senate.

We want to know who are the sponsors of this resolution and who gave them their instructions? We want to know from whom they received a mandate to change or in any way alter our form of government in these United States? The voters of this country did not give any such authority. Therefore, on this basis alone the Fulbright resolution, or Ball-Burton-Hatch-Hill resolution, must be condemned.

The mothers of this great Nation ask you to closely inquire into the true motives of the wealthy and influential organization behind the country-wide agitation seeking to turn our Government over to the will of a central world government, under a supreme ruler and a world legislative authority and police force. You know that this matter has not been presented to the electorate, and you know that the interests sponsoring the Fulbright, also the Ball-Burton-Hatch-Hill, resolutions are avoiding publicity and seek to obtain acceptance by the United States Senate as quietly as possible while our country is engaged in war. It is up to you and our citizens at large to determine how close this comes to high treason against the people of this Republic and their State and Federal Governments, established under written constitutions.

We know that the vast trust funds of the Carnegie Foundation, the Rhodes scholarships, and other sources of wealth are financing world government activity. We recall that Andrew Carnegie made his millions in this country while enjoying all of its privileges, but he never became an American citizen. We know that Cecil Rhodes made his millions in Africa (diamonds and gold) and was actively connected with the political and financial scandals of the Boer War and British imperialism—those things are in the British records. It is reported that the Rockefeller Foundation now cooperates with these several funds mentioned for imposing international government, an international bank, an international police force, and so forth, to make everybody good by the use of force and the end of war by the same means. These proposals are an insult to common sense.

It is astounding what an Oxford education can do to a Rhodes Scholar from this country, and how money can buy a brain trust to do its evil work against the wishes of the vast majority of our people, such as the lowering of our standards to those of the Russians, the Chinese, the Indians, and the millions of people in Africa, the Near East, etc., and even to those of the tax-ridden people of Great Britain whose standard of living is much lower than ours.

On March 11, 1943, the United Nations Forum of Philadelphia had a meeting, at a $1-à-head admission, in the Academy of Music. A Justice of the Supreme Court was chairman of the evening session. Apparently our courts seem to consider it is ethical, and a part of the judicial work, to indulge in political activities while its members are in the trusted employ of the American people. We feel sure you do not approve of that. This Philadelphia Forum of some 3,000 persons presumes to represent the wishes of the 2,000,000 citizens in Philadelphia concerning World Government. (See the Evening Bulletin, March 19, 1943.)

In conclusion, I wish to point that neither the millions of voters in this country, nor the millions of our drafted soldiers in our military camps, and our soldier boys fighting in foreign lands, have been consulted concerning world government or this Fulbright resolution or Ball-Burton-Hatch-Hill resolution.

A minority group of internationally minded men and women agitating behind the backs of our armed forces will not be premitted to betray the people of this country or its flag, the Stars and Stripes. The lavish use of private money will not purchase this Republic.

If the promoters of world government would use their time and efforts to expose the dishonest money system in our country, at present farmed out to Federal Reserve bankers, they would do a great service to America.

Peace can be guaranteed only when Congress is restored its right to coin and regulate our money. Cordially yours,

CATHARINE V. BROWN,

President, Crusading Mothers of Pennsylvania. Secretary, National Blue Star Mothers and Women of Pennsylvania. The CHAIRMAN. The next witness is Mrs. Marshall Adams.

STATEMENT BY MRS. MARSHALL ADAMS, WASHINGTON, D. C.

Mrs. ADAMS. My name is Marshall Adams. Being a Washington radio commentator I realize the value of minutes, not alone minutes on airways, but world minutes, minutes which are being clocked off in working out world affairs.

Whom do I represent? No group or faction whatsoever, but myself, a young American woman with a radio commentator's job, with a husband overseas, and with a 3-year-old boy. I want to do what I can as an American woman to make this world a little better. Perhaps I represent many young women in this country. Perhaps I am going to be a bit more radical than the woman who was here a while ago who said that she represented Young America, and yet had nothing to say. Is Young America silent-lipped or apathetic?

One of the serious problems in this country is the lack of articulate effort on the part of Americans, whether women or men. I feel that we should have more vigor of expression, and I am very grateful for this opportunity of expressing my opinion.

Our stake in the present and in the future requires a belief in this Charter, even though some of us do not feel that it is a perfect Charter Since it is on its way toward ratification, all of us must feel a sense of security and a sense of confidence in the Charter. I feel that you men here, and the men out in San Francisco, and many of the men from all over the world, have been sincere up to a point. It has been a very diflicult and very trying job, an unusually difficult job. Naturally. there has been a great deal of loose criticism. But, if criticism is going to be constructive it must be based on these things; it must be based on knowledge by American men and women, regardless of their age, regardless of their scholastic background, regardless of their religion or color. It must be based on education.

I am very, very happy to have this opportunity of suggesting to other Americans that they try to think a little more seriously about what is going on.

I was horrified during the past 3 days of these hearings to realize in my talks with some of my women radio listeners to realize that they had not even read the Charter. How can they possibly digest or analyze the Charter or any other means of security unless they read it, unless they discuss it, unless they think about it in its various aspects? How can they get up here and criticize just for the sake of exposition and exploitation of themselves?

So, I feel that education is essential. Not using the word "education" loosely, but education whereby the preamble of the Charter is

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