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We endorse the United Nations Charter, as drafted, and urge its prompt approval by the United States Senate so that the United States can lead the way in this greatest of man's efforts.

The CHAIRMAN. At this point the hearings are closed. We shall excuse the visitors and the committee will have an executive session.

(Whereupon, at 4:10 p. m., the hearings were closed.)

(Subsequently the following excerpts from press comment on the Charter were presented by the Chairman for printing in the record.) EXCERPTS FROM RECENT PRESS COMMENT ON THE UNITED NATIONS CHARTER New York Times, June 29, 19:15

The Senator (Connally) wishes the United States to be the first, or at least among the first, to endorse the Charter, not only because this is only following our own lead but because early action here will encourage and speed up ratification by other nations.

“Another reason, equally urgent, is that Senate approval before the coming meeting of the Big Three would strengthen the President's hand by putting the position of this country beyond doubt. The League of Nations was also an American project, and our refusal to join it 25 years ago casts a long shadow. Until this shadow is dispelled for good we are at a disadvantage in making demands which can be justified only, if we are pledged to full responsibility in carrying them out. When the Senate proclaims by an impressive majority that the United States is in the world to stay, the American case will be fortified in the difficult decisions that have to be made at the 'little peace conference'." Ibid., June 30, 1945

“The appeal for prompt ratification of the new United Nations Charter which was made on Thursday by Senator Connally

was echoed yesterday by two Republicans who played an active part in the conference at San Francisco. Senator Vandenberg

lost no time in giving the Charter his warm endorsement.

He believes, and we agree, that it is now or never for this country.

John Foster Dulles, who served as a competent and useful adviser to the United States Delegation, emphasized that the Charter is 'a living and compelling document'.

“These two speeches, each in itself a powerful argument for prompt ratification of the Charter, are doubly welcome because they reaffirm, at the very start of the historic debate which is now beginning, the essentially nonpartisan character of the great issue of American participation in the new League of the United Nations New York Herald Tribune, June 27, 1945

“Guided by bitter experience, the achievement at San Francisco is at once much less ambitious, in many ways, than that envisaged by the authors of the covenant, but more precise and at vital points more positive. In at least three major respects it carries a surer promise of success. It has separated the formulation of a general machinery for keeping the peace from the innumerable pitfalls and problems of ending the war; and acceptance of the general scheme is thus preserved from the bitter controversies sure to be engendered in making the specific settlements. It represents, not a complete and logically consistent embodiment of any ideal plan, but a kind of least common denominator of what is today practically acceptable to all

*. It is conceived not as a final and static structure, but as a dynamic beginning, establishing very powerful, precise and practical instrumentalities for the peoples to use if they will

Because of what it is and the manner of its writing, the acceptance and ratification of this historic Charter should not be unduly difficult, here or elsewhere Washington Post, July 1, 1945

“For some time it has been evident that opposition to the United Nations Charter in the Senate has virtually collapsed

"This cooperative mood on the part of the Senate will be further strengthened, we believe, by Senator Vandenberg's candor. 'I have signed the Charter,' he said, 'with no illusions regarding its imperfections and with no pretensions that it guarantees its own benign aims'. He accepts it, rather, as Benjamin Franklin accepted the Constitution, as a hopeful alternative to chaos

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Ibid. June 28, 1945

“The country at large will applaud the decision of the Senate to abandon plans for a July recess in order to pass upon the United Nations Charter. The task should be easy

*. As it is written, the Charter would have satisfied even Senator Lodge the elder, let alone the inheritors of his mantle.

"This is not necessarily a tribute to the Charter. It is a tribute to its draftsmanship, which from first to last has been done with an eye on its acceptability to the Senate, where, it was feared, there might be trouble if our national sovereignty were not kept unrestricted

the product is a multilateral agreement aimed at the maintenance of constant consultation, in place of ad hoc diplomacy, coupled with a service agency in the shape of the Economic and Social Council

It is this Council that most appeals to this newspaper. Its presence in the Charter is heartening, and justifies in itself the campaign of the Americans United for World Organization for the dedication of July 4 as a day of discussion of the new Charter. Forty-two national organizations have already asked their memberships so to celebrate, and it looks as if there will be enough mass meetings throughout the land to give a powerful spur to prompt senatorial. ratification." Washington Star, June 29, 1945

The hope has been expressed that the United States will be the first Nation to ratify the Charter. If this could be done it would signify to the world that we are embarking on this vital project, not with hesitant feet and crossed fingers, but with the fullest determination to do everything in our power to insure its success. And it is in that spirit that we and our associates must approach the future if there is to be any worth-while assurance of security in the world." Ibid., June 27, 1945

"The basic argument in behalf of the United Nations Security Charter was set forth in a few words last night by President Truman. 'If we had had this Charter a few years ago,' he said, 'and, above all, the will to use it, millions now dead would be alive

“This is the undeniable, compelling fact which overrides all of the arguments that the Charter goes too far, or that it does not go far enough. With all of its imperfections, its compromises, and its evasions, this document, now signed by the representatives of 50 nations, provides the machinery which can be used to prevent another war.' Baltimore Sun, June 30, 1945

"It grows clearer every day that sentiment in the Senate is greatly in favor of a prompt ratification of the United Nations Charter.

Months of the hardest kind of moral and intellectual labor, and many a hard-bought compromise, have gone into the making of the Charter. For years to come its structure and its functions will be subject to incessant discussion, correction, and refinement. For the present, what is needed is a simple act of affirmation, which the Senate has the power to make.” Ibid., June 27, 1945

"Immediate ratification? Why not? The conference itself and the resulting document represent a triumph of single-minded devotion to a great purpose

Among the Senators, as among the people generally, minds are made up. Since that is so, much can be gained, and nothing can be lost, by prompt and decisive action in the Senate. We talk of world leadership. Now it is the Senate's opportunity to lead.” Christian Science Monitor, June 27, 1945

"To say that the Charter is imperfect, or only a first step, is not to belittle the work done at San Francisco. As the President reminds us, "There are many who doubted that agreement could ever be reached by these 50 countries, differing so much in race and religion, in language and culture.' But not only were these differences surmounted but, “in the spotlight of full publicity, in the tradition of liberty-loving people, opinions were expressed openly and freely.' “This give and take

has produced a groundwork for continued building by all the participants.

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Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, June 27, 1945

"A great step toward world order and security was taken yesterday when the delegates of 50 nations signed the United Nations Charter at San Francisco. The patient and painstaking negotiations, lasting 2 months, produced a docunent which all agree provides a sound basis for cooperative action to preserve the peace

"President Truman told the delegates that the sentiment of the people of this country and of their representatives in the Senate is overwhelmingly for ratification of the Charter. The reference to the Senate was probably intended to reassure our foreign friends who have not forgotten that another President sponsored the League but the Senate rejected it. Any lingering misgivings an that score will be dispelled completely by a prompt Senate vote. We have assumed leadership in formulating the Charter; we should also lead in accepting it." Philadelphia Inquirer, June 27, 1945

“First necessity for establishing the Charter as the strongest war-prevention agency in history is its prompt ratification by the United States Senate. We believe with the President that the overwhelming sentiment of our people is for immediate ratification. We hope the same is true of the Senate

“There is no doubt whatever that a new structure of peace is rising on sturdy foundation. But it is not yet finished. Its completion, let it be remembered. demands the prompt ratification of the Charter by the Senate and wholehearted efforts by all the United Nations, maintaining their unity, to make it a living instrument for peace.' Pittsfield (Mass.) Berkshire Eagle, June 26, 1945

Those who have labored at San Francisco realized that the best Charter that would be accepted by Russia and Great Britain and ratified by the United States Senate would necessarily be imperfect, but that without its acceptance by those nations no organization would be of any use whatever. They have written the best Charter that could be written at this time and for their work and for their accomplishments they deserve the thanks of the world." Detroit Free Press, July 2, 1945

“The Senate has never been asked to approve a treaty so thoroughly thought through in advance as this compact of 50 nations “The Senate should be able to accept

it

without fear or misgivings. Whatever debate is regarded as necessary should be kept on a high and dignified plane. A squalid and acrimonious indulgence ir. mudslinging at other nations would be a poor beginning for this great adventure in international cooperation.

“With all its defects, the United Nations Charter affords the only program for forestalling World War III which free nations have been able to devise,

"The Senate should ratify it by a vote so resounding that it will be heard around the world." Des Moines Register, June 28, 1945

“The United States Senate should ratify promptly—and by 'promptly' we mean exactly that. There is no need whatever for a long-drawn debate. The Senate participated in the making of the charter, through top Senate leaders of both Democratic and Republican parties who were participants at the Conference itself “The San Francisco Charter is a good and promising document

* It is a big achievement.

“Besides this general reason for getting the Charter quickly ratified, a reason which applies to all countries, it is particularly important that ratification by our own country be fast.

“That is because of the record made after the First World War, when American participation in world organization was sabotaged and destroyed in our Senate. Fear that America will somehow do the same thing again has been one of the most bedeviling factors in the whole situation up until now and will remain so until all doubt of our ratification is ended

“The two Senators from Iowa-Senator Wilson and Senator Hickenloopershould immediately put themselves on the affirmative side. And when the time comes to vote they should vote accordingly."

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St. Louis Post-Dispatch, June 26, 1945

Mr. Truman wants immediate Senate action on the Charter. He wants to be able to tell Marshal Stalin and Prime Minister Churchill that we have not repeated our 1919 mistake. He is certainly right that time is of the essence. The people ought to back him in his justified desire for prompt action." Cleveland Plain Dealer, June 23, 1945

The important thing is the fact that there will be no delay by America in acting on the Charter. It is fitting that this nation should be one of the first to ratify the document which is the hope of the world. It is a document, whatever its present shortcomings, which is largely built on reality and ‘not on shadows', to use the phrase of Field Marshal Jan Christian Smuts relative to the failures of the League of Nations." Cincinnati Enquirer, June 27, 1945

We are immensely gratified that a partisan fight seemingly has been avoided in the question of United States ratification of the Charter. The inclusion of top-ranking men from both major American parties seems to have avoided the atmosphere of partisan responsibility which doomed U. S. concurrence in the League of Nations program

"We think the sooner the Senate does ratify the Charter-with, of course, due allowance for the process of consideration--the better it will be for the prospect of success of the United Nations organization. Mindful of what happened last time, other nations may well wait to see what we intend to do this time. We should waste no time demonstrating that we now intend to support a scheme of law and order in the world, as an alternative to the hideous sacrifice and cost of war." Springfield (III.) State Journal, June 11, 1945

Some Senators may vote against ratification. They are expected to be in a pitifully small and unimportant minority. The American people will want ratification, Under representative government that is exactly what they ought to have.' Chicago Sun, June 28, 1945

“The great task now goes to the Senate of the United States, and there need be no fear of the outcome. By reason of overwhelming support from the American people and their leaders, the treaty by which our republic will adhere to the Charter of the United Nations, and thus join the organization of the world, will be ratified with votes to spare.

"But there may be, from some backward-looking Senators, an attempt to procrastinate. Such a move should be defeated for these primary reasons:

“1. Immediate ratification by the United States--completing assurance that this strongest of nations has joined the world's cooperative organization for security and prosperita---will further improve the atmosphere for specific political settlements during momentous weeks now impending in Europe

“2. The world needs the actual machinery of the United Nations functioning at the earliest possible time

"Nor is there any valid reason for putting ratification off New Orleans Times-Picayune, June 27, 1945

Senator Vandenberg deciined to accept a place on the delegation until he was assured an absolutely free hand. His approval and active support of the "great adventure to stop World War III before it starts” should check any tendency to make a party fight against it in the Senate or before the country.

"Washington reports that tentative canvasses of the Senate membership indicate a tremendous majority for ratification. That is good and 'important, if true.' Republican leaders like Vandenberg and Dulles can help to make it true for the Senate and the country alike.” Raleigh (N. C.) News and Observer, July 1, 1945

“There is only one way to earn a vacation in this period for the Senators charged with the responsibility of ratifying the Peace Charter. That is to ratify it at

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Chattanooga News Free Press, June 27, 1945
"There should be no reservations this time

Let the Senate politicians beware of meddling with this document, as they did the last, for the American people, we believe, are in a large majority behind the President's appeal.”

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Louisville Courier-Journal, June 17, 1945

Our unhappy record of the past demands rather that we be among the first to ratify this document born on our soil, embodying so many of our suspicions and hesitations, as well as the honest and prayerful hopes of all our people.” Ibid., June 25, 1945

“The decision of Senators Connally and Vandenberg to proceed directly from San Francisco to Washington this week and address the Senate at once is excellent, and so is the news of President Truman's reported optimism over the prospective ratification of the Charter. Mr. Truman knows the Senate as well as any man alive, and, if he believes there are fewer than a dozen votes against ratification in that body, there is good ground for rejoicing. "But a question remains as to when the Senate will act.

* * "'It is apparent that the only present ally of the bitter-end isolationists is delay Miami Herald, June 26, 1945 It is to be hoped

that critical Senators do not consume the hearings and floor discussions with attempts to weaken the Charter with reservations

"What has been accomplished in San Francisco has been largely the handiwork of the United States representation.

“We have now come to the inescapable moment when we must act with the rest of the world for organized peace machinery and security or confess that we talk ideals but are not prepared to get down into the dust of the arena to make them live.Milwaukee Journal, June 26, 1945

“The spirit of cooperation, the will to work together, the determination to build a world security organization

have been present all through the arduous days in San Francisco

* If they wither, or if we allow them to die, then all the words of the Charter are as dust on sheets of paper." Nashville Tennessean, June 24, 1945

"The obligation of the Senate to act on the United Nations Charter with promptness is so patent that only the most compelling considerations can justify postponement until after the summer recess. The President wants this done

The people want it done. It should be done." Minneapolis Star Journal, June 25, 1945

"The United States today is confronted with two duties. · First, we must join the new organization. Second, we must work to make it effective.

"The United Nations as drafted at San Francisco is not a perfect organization. It may be seriously doubted that it will produce permanent peace. But it is the best organization that could be put together at this moment in history. It is the largest common denominator of world hopes and agreement upon the essentials of peace.

"It is, furthermore, the only organization now within our grasp. The choice is not between the United Nations and something different. The choice is between this step toward united action for peace and a return to international anarchy.

“That is no choice at all. The United States Senate in the first instance, and the people of the United States thereafter, must approve and boost the United Nations." Muskegon (Mich.) Chronicle, June 25, 1945

"There is no right of anybody to deny this freedom of speech, or, it may be, to question the privilege to be exercised by Senators to fill the Congressional Record with their oratory.

"But the single disquieting fact is that the only effect of this talk can be to make less likely the success of the United Nations organization in achieving a lasting peace.” Tacoma Times, June 25, 1945

After more than 2 months' deliberation, representatives of two score world nations have evolved a document that is a vast improvement over the original Dumbarton Oaks proposals. Meanwhile, despite the dubious doubts of sundry pessimists, the world conference sawed plenty of wood and has scored a momentous achievement

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