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"But it is to be hoped that the Senate will go over these clauses with microscopes and satisfy itself that there are no catches in them before it ratifies the United Nations Charter
* “For our own part, we've been dubious about this United Nations charter all along, and still are, but we hope we're wrong. If it postpones the next war as long as 1 year it will be worth all the Frisco pow-wow cost in dollars and hot air." Chicago Daily Tribune, June 27, 1945
“The San Francisco Charter, although a fraud, is probably for the most part an innocuous one
“Americans after reading the Charter inevitably ask themselves whether it will prevent wars. That is what it is supposed to do, but it won't
If we have peace for a time, it will not be because of the operation of the clumsy and self-defeating international mechanism outlined in the Charter but rather because none of the great nations chooses to start a war.
“It might have been much worse. If the colonial-minded Americans had had their way the Charter would have authorized the nations to combine against us to rob us and reduce us to servitude. We can be grateful that the conspiracy of these unbelievable people against their own country has been defeated." Ibid., July 4, 1945
Those who are eager to place our Nation in the new League of Nations assure us that their plan takes from us no particle of our independence. Only on those terms can the American people think of accepting membership in the new organization.' Chicago Journal of Commerce, June 28, 1945
“In the form in which it is to be presented to the signatory nations for ratifications, the security Charter probably is not the perfect instrument. Certainly, however, it is not the worst that could have been devised. Men of good will have done what they could, and if it doesn't work, that will be that. It will be up to men of later generations to try again.” Omaha World Herald, July 4, 1945
“So as our thoughts dwell on the Declaration (of Independence), we should be thinking, too, of another declaration—the Charter of the United Nations. Perhaps some day historians will decide that the signing of the Charter at San Francisco, was the greatest milestone in the history of mankind.
“For the principles of the Delaration of Independence-a declaration affecting only one people are implicit in the Charter-a declaration affecting all peoples wherever they may be.
"Perhaps the most significant passage in the Declaration is the pledge 'to provide new guards for their future security.'
“That is the heartstone of the Declaration of Independence and liewise the heartstone of the Charter. The Declaration worked because we, the American people, made it work. The Charter will work if not only we but all the peoples of the world resolve that it must." Tulsa Tribune, June 27, 1945
“'You have created a great instrument for peace and security and human progress in the world', President Truman told the delegates from 50 countries to the United Nations Conference in San Francisco yesterday
* “Surely the President was speaking of our young friend, Crawford Wheeler, when he said some men had died that others might meet in freedom and safety in San Francisco to plan the way to end all wars. That's just what the citation says Crawford Wheeler died for
"The Crawford Wheelers, living and dead, of the American Army in the Ardennes bulge, at Monschau, and in Bastogne made it possible that 'we might meet here in freedom and safety to create
a great instrument for peace and security and human progress in the world.' The Crawford Wheelers of Pearl Harbor, Corregidor, Guadalcanal, North Africa, Sicily, Anzio, Normandy, Midway, Tarawa, Saipan, Iwo Jima, and Okinawa clinched our privilege.
"Now we must use it." Walter Lippmann, June 26, 1945
* In basing the new organization on the principle of union, rather than on the idea of all nations policing all nations, the San Francisco Charter commits the United Nations to the development of an international society under the rule of law.
"The delegations at San Francisco have not created such a society. But they have designed institutions and laid down the commitments which, if we are wise and persevering, can be used to make the United Nations become an international society.
"More than that no one had the right to ask of the conference; to have done that much is to have done all that was possible, and to have earned in full measure the confidence and gratitude of mankind.” Sumner Welles, June 27, 1945
There can be no alternative save anarchy and the certainty that future wars will be inevitable.
"The sooner the United States makes it plain to the other nations of the world, by ratification of the Charter, that it is participating wholeheartedly in this new attempt to organize the family of nations, and that it is determined to play its full part in making the Charter of the United Nations a success, the more likely it will be that the Charter will measure up to the hopes which are placed in it.
“The United States is now again presented, for the second time in a quarter of a century, with the opportunity to assume leadership in the task of constructing a free and a peaceful world, and thereby to insure its own safety and to advance its own welfare." George E. Sokolsky, June 29, 1945
"That document represents the work of a large number of nations and therefore is a compromise. By the nature of such a meeting, it is probably the best compromise that could be achieved in the current circumstances. Being the work of men it cannot be perfect-and certainly no compromise can be perfect. Therefore, if we approach the problem with an eye for every flaw, we may overlook every instrument of value.
“If it is evident that we can get half a century, even quarter of a century of peace out of this Charter, I shall be for it. If we have nothing but a welter of words, I shall be against it.
“This Charter will take study and there is no hurry about it
"If the will to peace is weak and the good faith of nations is lacking, no charter can be of value. As partisanship can play no part in any honest citizen's approach to the Charter, let us weigh its value in the love we have for our Children and their children and in the hope that we may not be forced again to see them in war." Life, July 9, 1945
"This big-power formula is still the essence of the United Nations security system as far as force is concerned. But at San Francisco the United Nations far outgrew their semisecret origins. Without abandoning Dumbarton Oaks and Yalta, they went ahead and created a new world organ of their own
“The San Francisco Charter is a credit to the democratic method of free discussion. This method not only brought the Charter to birth, but has now been institutionalized in the Charter for the good of the whole world. That, perhaps, is San Francisco's main achievement
“And so the United Nations Organization, which may or may not keep the peace, will at least be a free forum. Like all free democracie“, it will therefore be able to correct its own errors.' With Ed Stettinius as the American representative we may be confident that it will stay that way. Yes, it 'can be a great day in history." Harper's, July 1945 (Frederick Lewis Allen, editor)
"Imperfect though it will be, let us hope it passes the Senate decisively and promptly. For unless we Americans earn a reputation for supporting rather than hamstringing our negotiators, our voice in the settlements still to be made will be equivocal. And these settlements will call for all the astute and generous statesmanship that the world can command.” Nation, July 7, 1945 (Freda Kirchwey, editor)
"The United Nations Charter provides a means to end the rule of the horse thief and the border raider in world affairs; it proposes to supplant lynch law with a sheriff and a justice of the peace. We believe the American people will support this effort, and we hope the Senate will follow President Truman's urgent advice and make the United States the first nation to ratify the Charter."
LIST OF STEIZ REPRESENTATITE SETSPAPSE EDITORIALS GENERALLY FAVORABLE
20 TEE ENTED SAJIONS CHARTER Le Verse27 Green Bay (Wis.) Gazette, June 28 Fi. In 327 El Paso Times. June 25
11:26 27 Columbia S. C.) State, June 26 e le Gilete. 13. 30 Columbia S. C.) Record, June 26 CSc. (2.jige 25 Charlotte X. C.) Observer, June 28 Vezia Ve27
Winston-Salem (X. C.) Journal, June 27 Il terrier, Jide 24 Roanoke (la.) Times, June 27
Richmond Times-Dispatch, June 27 Bren. Jize 2 Portsmouth (a.) Star, June 29 D. Wie Ver Yorku.Jize 28 Atlanta Journal, June 27 P3---3 Reini. Jre25
Augusta (Ga.) Chronicle, June 26 PD Betin. Jude 27
Ogden ([tah) Siandard-Examiner, June Izi Vers. The 23
Reno (Ver.) Gazette, June 25
Duluth (Minn.) News-Tribune, June 22
Huntington (W. Va.) Herald-Dispatch, Dario Okid Vers, June 26
June 25 Toede 0 Bade, Joce 27
Rock Island (II.) Argus, June 25 Varspie i Oslo Vews-Journal, June 23 Kalamazoo (Mich.) Gazette, July 1 Seidenville Odio Heraid-siar, June 28 Norfolk Virginian-Pilot, June 24 Yorings?own Onio liniica:or, June 26 New Orleans Times-Ficayune, June 27 St. Loris Globe-Democrat. Jure 27 Pawtucket (R. I.) Tines, Jun 25 Charleston W. la. Gazette. June 27 Watertown (V. Y.) Times, July 3 Lincoln Vebr. Siate Journal, June 24 Sioux Falls (S. Dak.) Argus-Leader, Wichita hans. Beacon. June 25
Flint (.ien.) Journal, June 26
Portland (Oreg.) Journal, July 4 Memphis Commercial Appeal, June 24 Philadelp..ia Inquirer, June 30
(The following statements were later received for inclusion in the record:)
XATIONAL COUNCIL OF WOMEN OF THE C. S., New YORK, N. Y. At the meeting of the executive committee of the National Council of Women of the l'. s., Inc., on Thursday, June 28, 1945, in the office of the president, it was unanimously
The United Nations Conference for an International Organization, having successfully completed a United Nations Charter for the establishment of permanent peace and international justice signed by 50 nations assembled in San San Francisco, and which the President of the United States is to submit to the United States Senate on Monday, July 2, for immediate ratification;
The executive committee registers its profound belief and conviction that this Charter is the best hope for the future of our country and the world, and the progress of civilization to which the National Council of Women of the U. S., Inc., has dedicated its efforts; and that
The immediate task of the council and its individuals is to use its and their every resource to secure the Charter's adoption and immediate implementation by every means possible: by persuasion of each one's Senator; by letters; by resolutions of endorsement; and by meetings to explain and discuss the Charter.
The executive committee further resolved to inform its member organizations of this decision and action and to urge similar decision and action upon them.
The executive committee believes that in securing the ratification and implementation of the United Nations Charter it is facing one of the great crises of our country and the world; and that the opening phrase of the Charter"We, the
people of the United Nations”-places the responsibility upon us, citizens of our great Republic; and that for the interdependence of nations we can have the same courage and desperate determination that our forefathers had for the independence of our Nation.
The executive committee believes with Abraham Lincoln that "public sentiment can do anything,” and this thing shall be to free our land and our world forever from the “dark slavery of war.”
NATIONAL COUNCIL OF JEWISH WOMEN, New York 23, N. Y., STATEMENT ON
BEHALF OF THE UNITED NATIONS CHARTER The National Council of Jewish Women, with 65,000 members in 200 senior and 100 junior sections throughout the country, urge immediate Senate ratification of the United Nations Charter. Only by participating actively in the United Nations Organization can the United States assume its responsibility for preventing war and furthering social progress throughout the world.
At San Francisco the combined efforts of the delegates of 50 nations produced a Charter that can provide the basis for a postwar era of peace and progress. Immediate ratification by the United States is essential to the development of international cooperation.
But ratification alone will not insure success of the United Nations. The people and the Government of the United States, in ratifying this Charter, must accept the responsibility of living up to the spirit as well as the letter of the Charter. The members of the National Council of Jewish Women pledge their full support toward making the United Nations Charter a vital instrument for world cooperation for peace.
THE AMERICAN JEWISH COMMITTEE, New York, N. Y. To the Senate of the United States:
The American Jewish Committee, an organization founded in 1906"to prevent the infraction of the civil and religious rights of Jews, in any part of the world (and)
to secure for Jews equality of economic, social, and educational opportunity
wishes to place itself on record as favoring prompt ratification by the Senate of the United States of the Charter adopted recently by the United Nations Conference on International Organization at San Francisco.
The people of our faith, long advocates of the doctrine of the fatherhood of God and the brotherhood of Man and early sponsors of the ideals of peace and social justice, have an obvious interest in seeing adopted this Charter, which reaffirms
faith in fundamental human rights, in the dignity and worth of the human person, in the equal rights of men and women and of nations large and small.” Also, as foremost victims of the international anarchy and antidemocratic movements of the past decade, we Jews join other right-thinking individuals and groups—Protestant and Catholic alike-in an expression of faith that this war will in truth be “a war to end all war," that the United Nations Organization will prove successful in maintaining international peace and security, and that succeeding generations will be spared “the scourge of war which twice in our lifetime has brought untold sorrow to mankind
*" The American Jewish Committee, for its part, cooperated with the other representative American business, labor, religious, and educational organizations invited to act as consultants to the American delegation at San Francisco and played a prominent role in suggesting the human-rights provisions which, as former Secretary Stettinius rightly stated, are “not mere general expressions in a preamble
are woven through and through the document.” The American Jewish Committee anticipates the early creation under the Charter of a Commission for the Promotion of Human Rights, which will “formulate an International Bill of Rights embodying the principles of human rights, fundamental freedoms, religious liberty, and racial equality, and a course of procedure for the implementation and enforcement of the bill.”
The American Jewish Committee recognizes fully that this Charter is not a perfect document. It might be well to note, however, that the framers of our Constitution also found numerous flaws in the document drawn up at Convention Hall, Philadelphia, in the summer of 1787. Probably, search for utopian perfection would have resulted then, and would result now, in postponement to the indefinite future of any man-made code. Delegates from 12 States signed the