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The acceptance of this Charter by Congress will be a seven-league step toward peace in the world.

This step is a beginning and we sincerely hope that it will continue to progress.
Thank you.
Sincerely yours,

Mrs. ANNE PETERSON, Mason County District Federation of Women's Clubs, President. (Signed:) Mrs. Wilbur Reeves, Allyn, Wash.; Mrs. Myrtle Howell, Camp 3,

Shelton, Wash.; Mrs. Chas. Runacres, Shelton, Wash.; Mrs.
Grace Petty, Shelton, Wash.; Mrs. Helen Andersen, Union,
Wash.; Mrs. Paul Hunter, Skokomish Valley, Wash.; Miss
Mabel Wylie, Shelton, Wash.; Mrs. Ellis Wells, Shelton, Wash.;
Mrs. M. Rathbone, Shelton, Wash.; Mrs. Lillian Portman,
Matlock, Wash.; Mrs. Anne Peterson, Grapeview, Wash.

WASHINGTON, D. C., July 18, 1945. In re Charter ratification. FOREIGN RELATIONS COMMITTEE,

Senate Office Building, Washington, D. C. GENTLEMEN: Typical assurance of the workableness of the Charter in an essential respect is afforded by the battle practice established for an era in ancient times before the modern possible advent of gangsters in control of some governments.

In that battle practice, current in an era when sword and shield were the weapons of war and defense, the commanders of the opposing forces met in “no mans land" and single-handed there fought the battle merely observed by their respective forces. This having been observed in that era despite the flame and fury of war hysteria seems most potent assurance of the workability of the Charter, by whose terms and provisions the same is further guaranteed, or coerced, by an immediately available superior force of arms in the vicinity of the danger point.

The Charter is such a universal beneficent forward step that it would practically be the crime of the ages not to adopt it and demonstrate its sufficiency and efficiency with such amendments as may from time to time be found advantageous.

This is the consensus of opinion and belief of this organization which is authorized to be hereby conveyed to you.

Aviation LEAGUE OF THE UNITED STATES, INC.
By IRA CHASE KOEHNE,

Attorney, National Headquarters, Washington (9), D. C.

LIBERAL PARTY OF NEW YORK STATE,

New York, N. Y., July 10, 1945. DEAR SENATOR: May we ask you to give earnest consideration to the enclosed statement of the Liberal Party of New York State on America and the United Nations Charter?

We urge the United States Senate to ratify the Charter and to help take hold of the many problems that confront our country and the United Nations, if a just and lasting peace is to be realized.

The Senators of our country have a great responsibility as they gather to discuss and act upon the United Nations Charter, but, by the same token, have an opportunity to render a great service to the people of this country and the world. Respectfully yours,

John L. Childs,

State Chairman.

ALEX ROSE,
Chairman, Administrative Committee.

“WE, THE PEOPLES OF THE UNITED NATIONS—"

AMERICA AND THE UNITED NATIONS CHARTER

(Liberal Party of New York State, New York, N. Y.)

STATEMENT OF THE LIBERAL PARTY ON THE UNITED NATIONS CHARTER

The Liberal Party welcomes the achievement of the United Nations Charter which resulted from the Conference of the Nations at San Francisco; and calls upon the Senate of the United States to ratify the Charter.

We believe it to be important that the Charter be ratified with as little delay as possible in order to serve notice on the world that the United States, with resources greater than those of any other nation, is fully behind the effort to organize a peaceful world.

The Liberal Party is gratified to note that the Charter has been improved in many respects over the original draft, made at Dumbarton Oaks. The General Assembly, which includes all the participating countries, has been given a more significant position in the United Nations Organization, and the Social and Economic Council has had its functions considerably enlarged. Unfortunately, the guaranties given dependent peoples are inadequate and the veto power of the great nations is not sufficiently qualified. The progressive forces of America together with forward-looking elements in all nations must therefore constantly press for the increasing democratization of the charter. It is, however, not advisable to suggest amendments at the present time. We must profit from the memory of the struggle to achieve an international order after the last war. At that time the participation of America was made impossible because isolationist forces exploited the device of suggested amendments to defeat American adhesion to the League of Nations.

We believe that the Charter offers the world minimal foundations for world cooperation and that its improvements will depend to a large degree upon the developing experience of the nations as they seek to solve common postwar problems.

While approving the Charter, the Liberal Party believes it important that the progressive and liberal forces of the nation remain aware of the very great peril in which the peace of the world still stands. It must be regretfully observed that the achievement of the Charter does not seem to have greatly mitigated the desire of most of the great powers to establish unilateral systems of security, through which the whole world may be divided into spheres of influence, and which would not finally arrest another world conflict.

While the Russian policy, seeking a vast system of strategic power and security in eastern Europe and indeed beyond eastern Europe, is more obvious than that of any other power, it must be recognized that all the great powers are involved in the vicious circle of mutual distrust and unilateral action which must be broken before genuine peace can be achieved.

The Liberal Party believes that the greatest contribution which our nation can make toward a peaceful solution of the problems of the world is to give wholehearted support to the genuinely democratic and free labor forces in Europe and Asia. The temptation for America to support reactionary forces of these two continents will not only weaken the forces of democracy throughout the world but it will also make it more difficult for our country to lead in the organization of a genuine people's peace.

The Liberal Party pledges itself to do all in its power to make the United Nations Organization a first step toward democratic internationalism, and will also seek to mobilize American liberals for the constructive social and economic measures at home and abroad which must be taken before we can enjoy the kind of peace which will justify the untold sacrifices of this war.

Adopted by the State Executive Committee, July 2, 1945.

STATEMENT OF CATHOLIC ASSOCIATION FOR INTERNATIONAL PEACE,

WASHINGTON 5, D. C.

THE UNITED NATIONS CHARTER

Senate ratification of the United Nations Charter, and work by the American people for its effective operation and improvement are recommended by the Post War World Committee of the Catholic Association for International Peace in a report entitled “The San Fancisco Conference”. The report was prepared by Thomas H. Mahony of Boston, a vice president of the association and member of the committee.

Excerpts and summary of the report follow :

"The Senate should ratify the Charter of the United Nations, and on entering the Organization, the American people should work both for its success and for whatever amendments are necessary to make it a better instrument of world justice and peace.

“The earth can no longer live in anarchy; it must have a government and a law. For the earth is now a small neighborhood, and without government and law it has shown itself to be a neighborhood in which the neighbors feud among themselves with ten ton bombs or worse.

“A world organization is an imperative necessity, and there can be no effertive world organization without the membership of the United States. That lesson and many others have been learned from the failures of the League of Nations. It is true that on several counts the Charter of the United Nations is unsatisfactory, but so too was our own Constitution when it was written. Many amendments, a war between the States, and changes in interpretation have marked the history of the United States Constitution. Amendments will surely mark its future. So, too, new interpretations and amendments will be natural to the Charter, which will be the Constitution of the United Nations—if the United Nations endures—and it must endure. The world must organize itself, however loosely and imperfectly at the beginning, for peace and justice.

"The Charter written through the joint efforts of 50 nations at San Francisco must be adopted because it has great strength in itself, because it can be amended and because there is no peaceful alternative available. However, it is not an automatic instrument of peace or of justice any more than is our own Constitution. The people of the United States, and the peoples of the world must breathe life into the words of this document. By its very limitations, the Charter presents to them an unparalleled opportunity and challenge for the effective exercise of responsive, informed, articulate public opinion."

The report calls attention to the fact that although major power and responsibility for the maintenance of peace still rests with the Big Powers, the numerous amendments to the Dumbarton Oaks proposals incorporated in the Charter at San Francisco practically all increase the participation of the 45 nations other than the Great Powers, in the proposed United Nations Organization.

The successes of the San Francisco Conference are enumerated under the following heads : 1. Justice as a Purpose and Principle. 2. Individual Rʻghts. 3. International Law. 4. The International Court of Justice. 5. The General Assembly. 6. The Social and Economic Council. 7. Policy regarding Dependent Territories.

The shortcomings of the Conference listed by the Report deal mainly with the retention of the veto by the big powers and the failure to provide for adequate limitation on national sovereignty with respect to the good of the world community. The field for future effort to improve the Charter includes: (1) The recognition of the principle that no state is absolutely or unqualifiedly sovereign, that the moral law applies to the relations of states as it does to the relations of men; (2) the delegation to the General Assembly of power to legislate international law, if not upon all phases of international relations; (3) the establishment of compulsory jurisdiction in the International Court of Justice and the implementation of its decisions; (4) limitations of the veto power exercised by the Great Powers; (5) clarification of the relation of regional organization to the World Organization.

The report concludes:

“These three Great Powers—the United States, Russia, and Great Britain-in conjunction with France and China and other states, have been and are working to establish an international organization for the maintenance of peace and collective security. At the same time, however, they have been acting independently and unilaterally to provide for their own national security in the event that the international organization does not come into existence or, if it does, that it will not work. In order to persuade these states to give up such unilateral actions, it is necessary to convince them that the international organization will furnish effective national and collective security and will, if supported, maintain peace. To accomplish this requires a fair, just, but firm attitude on the part of the United States with reference to Russia, Great Britain, France, China, and the other states. It means setting up a high standard of international morality for every state to comply with, the utmost patience in the attempt to reconcile conflicting views, the fostering of mutual confidence in the fairness and good faith of the member states, and above all the constant exercise of the virtues of justice and charity. Probably never since the first Christmas has that angelic salutation meant so much : "Peace on earth to men of good will.”

E. A. CONWAY, Chairman, Education Committee.

THE NATIONAL GRANGE

Washington 6, D. C., July 16, 1945. Hon. Tom CONNALLY, Chairman, Foreign Relations Committee,

Washington, D. C. DEAR SENATOR CONNALLY: We would like to file the following brief for the record of the hearings on the Charter of the United Natious:

The National Grange strongly recommends the approval of the proposed Charter of the United Nations without reservations. While there are some things we would like to see somewhat different, we recognize the impossibility of get. ting a complete agreement among so many nations. Since in the main the Charter contains the essential features which we believe are necessary to pre serve peace, we do not believe we should risk disagreement by adding reservations. On the whole we believe an admirable job has been done meriting the highest commendation.

It is not our purpose to discuss the general provisions of the Charter, but we would like to call the attention of the committee to one provision the value of which has largely been overlooked. Heretofore, most proposals have been based upon the use of force of one kind or another to maintain peace. We believe for the first time in history an organization has been proposed where the nations of the world can meet and discuss their economic and social problems, and do so in consultation with nongovernmental groups directly representing the economic interests of the people concerned. Thus the field of diplomacy is brought close to the people and machinery is provided for working out the solution of the economic and social problems which underlie most wars, and doing so before international complications reach a serious stage. In our judgment, if adequately developed, the Economic and Social Council will probably eventually become far more effective in maintaining world peace than any other feature of the Organization. We have greater faith in maintaining peace through justice and fair dealing than through force. Yours sincerely,

A. S. Goss, Master, the National Grange.

STATEMENT OF ROBERT W. KENNY, PRESIDENT OF THE NATIONAL LAWYERS GUILD,

IN SUPPORT OF THE CHARTER OF THE UNITED NATIONS ADOPTED AT SAN FRANCISCO, CALIF., SUBMITTED TO THE SENATE COMMITTEE ON FOREIGN RELATIONS

The National Lawyers Guild supports the San Francisco Charter of the United Nations and urges immediate ratification by the United States Senate without reservations or limitations.

The San Francisco Conference succeeded because it sustained and carried forward the principles established at Dumbarton Oaks and Yalta. The United Nations was forged in the victorious war against Nazi Germany, around the coalition of the United States, the Soviet Union, and Great Britain. This coalition which alone possesses the military, industrial, and moral resources to prevent aggression is the core of the United Nations. It must be maintained and strengthened as the indispensable prerequisite for a durable peace. If the United States, the Soviet Union, and Great Britain remain united, there is no danger of war. Division among these great powers would propel the small nations into competing regional power blocs and they would once again become pawns in the scramble for markets, spheres of influence and colonial exploitation.

The unanimity principle, or to use a less satisfactory phrase, the "veto power" is the practical formula for the functioning of the coalition. Because it means peace and economic stability the unanimity principle is in our national interest. President Roosevelt understood this so clearly, that he made it the backbone of his war and peace policies.

As long as this principle is adhered to and practiced, the United Nations will succeed in the objectives of maintaining peace, economic stability and the advancement of human rights and fundamental freědom. If this principle is violated these objectives will become endangered.

TENNESSEE CONGRESS OF PARENTS AND TEACHERS, INC.,

Nashville, Tenn., July 16, 1945. Hon. TOM CONNALLY, Senator, Chairman, Senate Foreign Relations Committee,

Washington, D. C. DEAR SENATOR CONNALLY: The Tennessee Congress of Parents and Teachers, by a vote of 2,014 to 4, voted to support the United Nations Charter and to work for its prompt ratification without reservations or amendments. They directed me, as State chairman of legislation, to express to you their hope that the full weight of your influence will be given to securing this ratification. They feel that this is necessary if there is to be any hope that their children can live in a peaceful world. Sincerely,

ORA PATTON MANN, Chairman.

THE WASHINGTON COUNCIL OF CHURCH WOMEN,

Washington, D. C., July 14, 1945. Hon. Tom CONNALLY,

Senate Office Building, Washington, D. C. MY DEAR SENATOR CONNALLY: May we call to your attention the following action taken by the executive board of the Washington Council of Church Women at a meeting July 6.

On recommendation of the world relations committee, the executive board of the Washington Council of Church Women endorses the United Nations Charter and urges its adoption by the United States Senate.

The Council also urges the endorsement of the Bretton Woods agreement without any crippling amendments. Very sincerely yours,

Mrs. IRVING W. KETCHUM,

President. Mrs. CHARLES G. LUECK,

Corresponding Secretary. Mrs. LAURENCE C. STAPLES, Chairman, World Relations Committee.

GREATER NEW YORK CIO COUNCIL,

New York, N. Y., July 13, 1945. Senator Tom CONNALLY,

Senate Office Building, Washington, D. C. DEAR SENATOR CONNALLY: Enclosed please find resolution unanimously adopted by 1,000 shop stewards at the CIO Shop Stewards Conference on Reconversion and Postwar Planning, held at Town Hall, New York City, on July 11, 1945. Sincerely,

SAUL MILLS, Secretary.

RESOLUTION OF UNITED NATIONS CHARTER In the name of 600,000 CIO members and their families in New York City, this city-wide Shop Stewards Conference assembled at Town Hall on July 11 hails the United Nations Charter drafted and signed in San Francisco by delegates representing 50 nations.

We urge the United States Senate to ratify the charter with the speed called for by President Truman.

The United Nations Charter lays the practical basis for a world security organization that can, through continued unity of the Big Three nations, provide for the

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