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concluded by the Allied and Associated Powers with m Powers who fought on the side of Germany, and to recog whatever dispositions may be made concerning the territo of the former Austro-Hungarian Monarchy, of the King of Bulgaria and of the Ottoman Empire, and to recognise new States within their frontiers as there laid down.'

The same is the wording, mutatis mutandis, of A 89 and 90 of the Treaty of Peace with Austria, sim provisions being inserted in the Treaties with Bulga Hungary, and Turkey. In this manner the same res appears to have been obtained as would have be secured by the signature of a single comprehens treaty, covering all the achieved purposes of the Pe Conference.

The German Treaty naturally served as a gene model for the Peace Treaties with the remaining ene belligerents. A study of Chapter VI of Vol. II of t 'History,' and especially of its Part VI, p. 341, ought convince any impartial reader that the Peace Trea with Germany, and the remaining Peace Treati which follow the same lines, are, with one exception, accordance with the agreed basis of peace, constituted ↑ President Wilson's Fourteen Points and subseque addresses, as modified by the Memorandum of th Allies of Nov. 5, 1918. By this they reserved to ther selves complete freedom on the subject of what is i ambiguously called the 'freedom of the seas,' and state that by the President's declaration that the invade territories must be restored as well as evacuated an freed,' they understood that compensation will be mac by Germany for all damage done to the civilian popula tion of the Allies and their property by the aggressio of Germany by land, by sea, and from the air.' Presiden Wilson stated that he is in complete agreement wit the interpretation set forth in the last paragraph of th memorandum above quoted.' According to the 'Matin of June 6, after examining the German counter-proposal in detail he declared as follows: Our Treaty violate: none of my principles. If I thought otherwise I should not hesitate to confess it and should try to retrieve this error, but the Treaty we have drawn up is entirely in accord with my Fourteen Points.'


hth The exception alluded to above is Art. 80 of the gni Berman Treaty, providing that the independence of toria Austria shall be inalienable, except with the consent of go the Council of the League of Nations, and Art. 88 of the Austrian Treaty equally declaring the independence of Austria to be inalienable otherwise than with the Arts consent of the Council of the League. Art. 73 of the nilar Hungarian Treaty is similar. This undoubtedly conflicts aris with the principle of self-determination, and it is salt impossible to see how the provision can be justified.






The Austrian Treaty was reported to be ready on May 12 (while the German Treaty was still unsigned), and the Austrian Delegation arrived at St Germain on the 14th. Yet it was not till the 29th that an incomplete which did not contain the Military, Reparation, and era Fancial clauses, was presented to the seventh plenary my meeting of the Conference. On June 2, the draft was the handed to the Austrian Delegation, and discussion began. to The concessions already made to Germany had been aty introduced into it. On the 25th, the 'Big Three' disies cussed the measure of Reparation to be required from in Austria. In response to the observations of the Austrian by Delegation, changes in the Economic clauses were made on July 8, and the revised and amended treaty was he delivered to the Delegation on the 20th. They made counter-proposals, to which the Allies replied on Sept. 2; and on the 4th the Austrian National Assembly, ed after recording a protest, authorised its signature. This formality was completed on Sept. 10.


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The conclusion of the treaty with Hungary, which le closely follows the lines of the Austrian Treaty, was nevertheless subjected to great delay. This was caused by a Bolshevist movement. From May to July its leader Béla Kun defied the authority of the Supreme Council. Various attempts at setting up a stable administration де followed; but it was not till Dec. 1 that the Supreme Council decided to recognise the Hungarian Government. The Peace Delegation arrived in Paris on Jan. 7, 1920. As the result of their representations the Supreme Council decided on certain modifications, and the terms of the Peace Treaty were delivered to the Delegation on Jan. 15. In March a report was presented by the proper Commission on certain observations on Part XII (Ports,

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Waterways, and Railways); but, as all the concess which it had been found possible to make to ei Germany or Austria had already been embodied in treaty, no further alterations were agreed to. 'History' does not reveal the causes which led to= signature being further postponed to June 4.

The Draft Treaty with Bulgaria was handed to Bulgarian Delegation on Sept. 19, 1919. It contai all the concessions granted to Germany and Austria far as they applied. The Bulgarian observations w held not to justify any alteration of the articles; & readiness to sign having been expressed by the Dele tion on Nov. 14, signature took place on the 27th.

A Turkish Delegation was summoned to Paris. stated its views to a revived Council of Ten' on June 1919. They provoked merely a sharp rejoinder and Delegation left Paris on the 28th. The Turkish Tre was not signed till Aug. 10, 1920. This long delay n have been caused by difference of opinion among Allies with respect to the future of Constantinople.

In all the Peace Treaties the most important p visions that excited opposition from the defea belligerents related to Reparation and the Territor Clauses. The latter were, generally speaking, the eff of applying the principle of 'self-determination' subject peoples and races, though there were certa exceptions, the most flagrant of which was perhaps t cession of South Tirol, a purely German territory, Italy. Reparation is the title of that part of the Peɛ Treaties which provides for the compensation of dama done to the Allied and Associated Powers and the peoples. Certain acts of damage specified in the Hag Convention IV of 1907, and the Regulations there annexed, render the belligerent party liable to ma compensation. This covers responsibility for all su acts committed by persons forming part of its arm forces. Among them are included bombardment, by ai means whatever, of undefended towns, villages, habit tions or buildings; pillaging of towns or places eve when taken by assault; destruction or seizure of th enemy's property unless such act is imperatively d manded by the necessities of war; the confiscation

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sivate property; the violation of family honour and ith hts; taking the lives of individuals or their property; th the infliction of general penalties, pecuniary or Thherwise, on the population on account of acts of dividuals for which it cannot be regarded as collectively responsible. All appliances for the transport of persons





goods if seized must be restored, and indemnities for ined them regulated at the peace; all destruction or intentional damage to institutions dedicated to religious worship, charity, education, art and science is forbidden. Such damage on a huge scale in Belgium and NorthEastern France was wilfully caused by the invaders, to say nothing of other violations of international law and and conventions. Evidently the claim for compensation 1nnot be entirely met by money payments, and must be provided for by the delivery of other forms of property. And this is stipulated for in the various Peace Treaties, follows:




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Germany, Art. 231.-The Allied and Associated Governments affirm and Germany accepts the responsibility of Germany and her allies for causing all the loss and damage to which the Allied and Associated Governments and their nationals have been subjected as a consequence of the war imposed upon them by Germany and her allies.

Art. 232.-The Allied and Associated Governments recognise that the resources of Germany are not adequate, after taking into account permanent diminutions of such resources which will result from other provisions of the present Treaty, to make complete reparation of all such loss and damage.

In the Austrian and Hungarian Treaties the corresponding articles are identical with this, except that 'all' is omitted before 'loss' in both places.


The corresponding provisions of the Bulgarian Treaty

Art. 121. Bulgaria recognises that, by joining in the War of aggression which Germany and Austria waged against the Allied and Associated Powers, she has caused to the latter ses and sacrifices of all kinds, for which she ought to make reparation.

'On the other hand, the Allied and Associated Powers ecognise that the resources of Bulgaria are not sufficient enable her to make complete reparation.'

Whereas the amount of compensation to be paid by Vol. 235.-No. 466.


each of the first three Powers above named is to be by an Inter-allied commission set up for that pur Bulgaria's quota is fixed at 2,250,000,000 francs gold.

In the Turkish Treaty the admission of responsi and recognition of insufficiency of resources ar pressed in identical terms with those of the Bulg Treaty, except that there is no mention of Assoc Powers. But

'inasmuch as the territorial arrangements resulting fro present Treaty will leave to Turkey only a portion o revenues of the former Turkish Empire, all claims aga the Turkish Empire for reparation are waived by the Powers, subject only to the provisions of this Part [Finɛ Clauses] and of Part IX (Economic Clauses) of the pr Treaty. Such are all loss and damage suffered by ci nationals of the Allied Powers, in respect of their perso property, through the action or negligence of the Tu authorities during the war and up to the coming into of the present Treaty,' also such restitutions, repara and indemnities as may be fixed by the Financial Commit [set up by Art. 231, 4th paragraph] in respect of dan inflicted on the European Commission of the Danube du the war.'

The maps annexed to the Austrian and Hunga Treaties show what portions of the former Aus Hungarian Empire have been detached in favou Italy (the area of which has yet to be settled), Cze Slovakia, the Serbo-Croat-Slovene State and Ruma These leave the Austrian and Hungarian Republics w out any sea-ports. To remedy this inconvenience

'Free access to the Adriatic Sea is accorded to Austria Hungary [by Art. 311 and Art. 294 of the respective Trea who with this object will enjoy freedom of transit over territories and in the ports severed from the former Aus Hungarian Monarchy. . . . Freedom of transit will exten postal, telegraphic and telephonic services.'

It is when we come to examine the Turkish Treat Peace that the losses of territory are found far to exc what either Germany, Austria, Hungary, or Bulgaria had to accept. These are contained in Part III Polit Clauses, Part II Frontiers of Turkey, and are delinea on the maps annexed to the Treaty.

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