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In another place, however, he has put a truth which if it were taken to heart as fully as his explanations o Sea Power have been, would undoubtedly change th course of history still more for the better.

"To Great Britain and the United States,' he wrote, ‘i they rightly estimate the part they may play in the grea drama of human progress, is entrusted a maritime interest i the broadest sense of the word.'

The Influence of the Sea Spirit on the use of Se Power, is a work for another Mahan, and it will be ever more worth study, if possible, than what he gave us His countrymen may claim, with some justice, t continue his work and place it on the pages of history as a tribute to his memory. Perhaps Sir Lewis Bayley reception is the first chapter.

May I conclude with another story, almost a parable I have already spoken of the manner in which Drak faced the crisis of his life. If there is any lesson for u in that, there is surely as much to be learned in the tragedy of his death; and if it should have a warning in it, I am quite certain he would not have had it otherwise For it seems to me that, in those last weeks of his life, we are permitted to see a different man from Our General of the Golden Hind.' Then, the inspiration was fellow ship and faith, leading to the new world. At the last there is no note of fellowship, and the faith seems dim and it is with positive relief, for it reveals a stranger, that I always read one of the saddest sentences in history Our General carried neither mirth nor joy in his face."

Force had bred the counterforces that baffled him as it always will, and we read of him, still admitting no defeat, lying under the lee of Escudo de Veragua in the 'Defiance,' held by the warning west wind as he struggled in vain to go westwards. And on his lips a cry that has been the undoing of mankind from time immemorial 'We must have gold.'

Then the deadly sickness gripped him, and crying at last that he would take the wind as God sent it, he bid his men weigh. And the west wind took him to within sight of the peak from which he had seen the New World, and there, He yielded up his spirit like a Christian quietly to his Creator.'

'God worketh all things here amongst us mediatly by a secondary means, the which means of our defence and safety being shipping, and sea forces, are to be esteemed as his guifts and then only availeable and beneficiall, when he withall vouchsafeth his grace to use them aright!'

Nations which seriously propose to compete with one another in the construction of ships of war, simply for the purpose of having the strongest fleet, can have no excuse for mistaking the nature of the disservice they will inevitably render to mankind in the process, including those smaller nations which must be involved either directly or indirectly, and are powerless to interfere. Extenuation may be pleaded for a variety of reasons; but, in neglecting Raleigh's warning, the day will assuredly come when there will be nothing left for the originators to do, as they contemplate the universal ruins, except to speculate on the exact nature of the forces they heedlessly arrayed against themselves, as Germany, no doubt, is doing now.

What secondary means will be employed it is not possible to suggest, but the downfall will certainly come. The momentum gathered by material forces, though created for a legitimate object, is no doubt difficult to check. But unless it is checked, these forces, their original purpose forgotten, become, from their very nature and threat, the roots of that suspicion which will ultimately and certainly carry them beyond control.

When the free nations declared war for freedom they pledged themselves to any sacrifice in its cause, without reservation. Had they been asked whether the sacrifice would include certain doctrines of the old world, whether by land or sea, as the price of their deliverance, there would have been but one answer. The threat to civilisation to-day is not one that can be met by either battleship or submarine, but only by an international fellowship of service, in which each may strive legitimately to be first.

For the greatest enemy to mankind, and one which it will need the united energies of the maritime nations to defeat-for only in unity may they hope that grace will be vouchsafed to them-is the Mystery of Iniquity which is striving to hold them asunder.



1. National Life and Character. By C. H. Pearson Macmillan, 1893.

2. Europe and Asia. By M. Townsend. Constable, 1901 3. The Passing of the Great Race. By Madison Grant Scribners, 1919.

4. The Rising Tide of Colour. By L. Stoddard. Chapman & Hall, 1920.

5. Children of the Slaves. By Stephen Graham. Mac millan, 1920.

6. Der Untergang des Abendlandes.

Vol. I. Beck: Munich, 1920.

By O. Spengler

THE projecting peninsula of Asia which the ancients called Europe * covers, with its adjacent islands, less than two million square miles; an area about the same as that of India, and about half that of Canada. The home land of the white man, if we exclude Russia, might be dropped into Australia or Brazil without anywhere coming near the coast. And yet it is no accident that Europe has taken the lead in civilisation. It is the only continent which has no deserts; and its Mediterranean shores are perhaps the most favoured region of the whole planet. Its population consists, as we are now taught, of three distinct races, each with its own characteristics. The shores of the Mediterranean belong to a dark, longheaded race which probably had its original home in North Africa, formerly connected with Europe by more than one land bridge. This race not only occupied the northern coasts of the Mediterranean, but pushed up the warm Atlantic sea-board as far as Scotland. The Mediterranean man is intolerant of severe cold, and has not maintained his ascendancy in mountainous districts. The race is not peculiar to Europe, since much of the Indian population belongs to a kindred stock, as do the Berbers of North Africa and the Semitic peoples. The round-headed element in the population of Europe, which has been not very happily called Alpine, came from Asia, and drove a wedge across the centre of the continent, forming at the present day a large part of the population

* Russia is excluded, as being geographically part of the Asiatic mass.

in France and Germany, and the main part of the Slavonic nations. The third factor, the Nordic race, is now believed to be genuinely European, being indigenous around the Baltic Sea. From this centre it flooded the greater part of Europe in successive waves of invasion. Its well-known characteristics are tall stature, lightcoloured hair and eyes, and a roving disposition. Being a good fighter, though pugnacious rather than warlike, the Nordic man has been a great conqueror, and has formed the aristocracy of many countries inhabited mainly by the other European races. Being a heavy eater and drinker, he is what the Americans call a high standard man, and cannot or will not compete by the side of other races in manual labour. This habit, rather than his inability to live in a hot climate, has led to his disappearance in several countries where he conquered but did not expel the inhabitants. His high standard of living and pride of race are gradually extinguishing him in North America; and in England, while the Nordic man flourishes in the country districts and as a seafarer, he is apparently at a disadvantage under the conditions of industrial labour in the towns, where a smaller and darker type of men is already prevalent, and is becoming more so in each generation. The industrial revolution has greatly diminished the preponderance of pure Nordic blood in this country. Our frequent wars, in which the descendants of the Anglo-Saxons and Danes are usually the first to volunteer and the first to be killed, have weakened them still further. Writers like Madison Grant, who are influenced by the cult of racialism now popular on the Continent, even speak of The Passing of the Great Race' as a doom to which the Nordics must resign themselves. Of the remaining two races, the pure Alpine seems to be decidedly inferior to the Mediterranean in intelligence and energy; but a large admixture of Alpine blood flows in the veins of some of the most powerful nations. The vigour of the Germans is indeed a refutation of their favourite theory that the Nordic race is intrinsically superior to all others; for they themselves are not, like the Scandinavians, pure Nordics. The Germans are a mixture of Nordic and Alpine man; the British of Nordic and Mediterranean. In Great Britain the round-headed man, who was once among us

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and constructed the round barrows which indicate his presence, has practically vanished. His physical characteristics are rarely found in these islands.

If we look at a map of the world as it was at the end of the Middle Ages, about 1480, we shall be startled to find how small a part of it was fully included in the European system.. European culture reigned in France, England, Germany, the Netherlands, Italy, Bohemia, and the greater part of Spain, from which, however, the Moors had not yet been expelled. Russia was still a barbarous country; South-Eastern Europe had fallen, or was soon to fall, under the yoke of the Grand Turk; Scotland, Ireland, Scandinavia, and Poland were still on the outskirts of civilisation, and partially detached from the European system.

For a thousand years before the beginning of the modern period Europe had been on the defensive against Asia. Three times civilisation had been in imminent danger of being submerged by a torrent of Asiatic invaders. The first irruption of Mongols, in the fifth century, reached France, and nearly overthrew Roman civilisation at Chalons. The Arabs, within a few decades after their emergence from the desert, struck down the East Roman Empire, exterminated the Nordic Vandals in Africa, conquered Spain, invaded France, and even after they had begun to decline, drove the chivalry of Europe out of Palestine. The third period of nomadic aggression set the Tartar on the thrones of India and China, which he retained till within living memory, kept Russia in thraldom for two hundred years, obliterated the East Roman Empire, and as late as the 17th century threatened Vienna. The destruction of civilisation in all its most ancient seats has been the work of the Mongol. It is not true to say that he overthrew only decadent and feeble empires.

Such was the state of the unending duel between West and East, in the years before the great age of discovery. On the whole, the East had been the successful aggressor. The West had only once turned the tables on a large scale, in the time of Alexander the Great, who took advantage of a great temporary superiority in military science to conquer the home-lands of the Asiatic beyond the borders of India. The Roman Empire was

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