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the Viceroy De Croix some years after the event, rebuts the Englishman's impeachment. He was selected by the Viceroy Amat to accompany the Franciscan missionaries as interpreter, and acted for them in this capacity in their transactions with the natives. He kept a diary throughout the year 1775, while resident in the islanda document which, as the editor observes, is unique of its kind. Its pages are full of incident, and throw much light upon the social and domestic life of the Tahitians at that period. Eminently do they reveal the gentle, affectionate, generous, and confiding nature of the high chief Vehiatua and his mother O Purani, and the curiously timid character of their cousin and nominal overlord O Tu, with whom the young Spaniard lived on intimate yet reverential terms, in spite of the absolute failure of the friars' mission. The history of these once important but afterwards forgotten expeditions has thus been brought to light in all its details by the labours of the Hakluyt Society, after lying dormant among the archives of the Lonja and other collections of manuscript records for a century and a quarter, a labour that has been much appreciated by historians and geographers in Spain, in France, and in France's dependencyTahiti itself.

In the 'Book of Duarte Barbosa,' written in the next preceding 1518, the Society affords another example of the variety of its studies; for, although this work deals, in its later portion, with Barbosa's life and travels in Indian territory, much of the first volume relates to East Africa and Arabia; and the excellent notes supplied to the present edition serve for the identification of numberless ports and coastal tracts of country described by the author in the course of his wanderings, whether from his own observation or from knowledge derived through other persons. His references include Burma, Siam, Malacca, and such parts of the Eastern Archipelago as were known by repute. The first English edition of Barbosa's account was issued by the Hakluyt Society more than fifty years ago, the translation being made by the late Lord Stanley of Alderley, from a MS. in the Spanish language. As time wore on there appeared good reason for desiring a revision of that text, with some

further annotation by an experienced and up-to-date orientalist. The editorial task was therefore entrusted to Mr Longworth Dames, whose official career in the Indian Civil Service extended over many years. He decided to make an entirely new translation from the original Portuguese. The result, as shown by the first volume-for the new edition will occupy two-is in every way admirable, and throws much new light on the rôle and associations of this brother-in-law and companion of Magellan, whose tragic fate befell Barbosa also a few days after him.

'Cathay and the Way thither,' first issued in 1866, was the second work edited for the Society by the late Sir Henry Yule, his first one being an annotated translation of the Mirabilia descripta' of Friar Jordan. It was, as Prof. Cordier remarks, for a long time the vade-mecum of all who were engaged in the study of the Far East as it existed in medieval times, and became the indispensable guide of all those interested in the historical geography not only of China, not only of Central Asia, but of Asia at large. That work has long since been out of print; and, as time advanced, science and especially the geographical researches of fresh travellers added new discoveries in theretofore insufficiently studied countries; so that it became desirable to give a new and augmented edition of Yule's 'Cathay' embodying all the most recent information touching the countries and routes described in it. The late Sir Clements Markham, whose name is identified with so many of the Hakluyt Society's publications and who acted as its honorary secretary for thirty years before he occupied the Presidential chair for twenty more, was much impressed by this need. It was at his suggestion that the task of preparing a new edition was proposed to Prof. Cordier, than whom assuredly no other scholar so eminently qualified to undertake it could have been found.

Yule's Preliminary Essay on the intercourse that took place between China and the Western nations before the sea route round the Cape of Good Hope was known, & mine of erudition in itself, is now embellished under Prof. Cordier's revision by additional notes of exceptional value to historians. Not the least interesting part of the Essay sets forth the evidence of Chinese knowledge of

the Roman Empire, of Byzantine history, and of the intercourse between the Arab nations and China, partly by land routes through Persia, but largely by means of Chinese junks regularly visiting towns on the Euphrates and the Tigris in the fifth century and later, even to the vicinity of ancient Babylon. About the beginning of the 15th century of our era the maritime trade to the Persian Gulf in Chinese bottoms seems to have given place to Arab ships sailing to the Far East. The penetration of both regions by the Portuguese, which began about 1514, may have determined, though it did not initiate, this change.

The second volume of 'Cathay' contains the Travels of Friar Odoric of Pordenone; and the third reprints letters and reports of various missionary wanderers who travelled across Asia, extracts from Rashíd-ud-Din's history of the Mongols, and the Recollections' of Marignolli, many of which are exceedingly quaint, if not exactly informative. The fourth and final volume contains the Travels of Ibn Batuta, with many admirable comments and elucidations, and closes with the Journey of Benedict Goës from Agra to Cathay, undertaken by command of King Philip III of Portugal, in 1602, to set at rest sundry doubts concerning the position and identity of China, and to open a way for connecting the Christian missions already settled in that country with those established in India, by a daring and most difficult route across Afghanistan and the Pamir region into Eastern Turkestan. It was fitting that the distinguished sinologist who edited Odoric's narrative for the Recueil de Voyages' (tome x, 1891) should have consented to repeat the task in English for the Hakluyt Society.

The above-mentioned works are among those recently issued by the Council, and are quoted as merely a few examples—as Hakluyt said of his own collection-of 'many rare and worthy monuments which long haue lien miserably scattered in mustie corners, and retchlesly hidden in mistic darknesse, and were very like for the greatest part to haue bene buried in perpetuall obliuion,'

but are now rendered easily accessible to readers. But

it may be asked, Are they so easily accessible? The Society prints them not for public sale, but for issue to its members, or-which amounts to the same thing-its subscribers. The answer is 'Certainly, they are accessible,' because, although those subscribers number at present less than six hundred, yet nearly one half of them are institutions or corporate bodies, such as universities and single colleges (50), royal, municipal, institutional, or public libraries (75), learned societies (33), clubs (20), Government departments, military and naval libraries (24). This circumstance not only throws open the volumes to readers who are not individual members of the Society, but shows that its aims and labours are appreciated by the leaders of culture and promoters of the higher branches of education in this and other countries, both in and out of Europe.

If so many universities and single colleges find the Society's volumes a necessity, how comes it, it may be asked, that of all our great Public Schools, in which is vested so weighty a responsibility for the infusion of patriotic and imperial sentiment and a knowledge of the world at large into the flower of our youth at its most impressionable age, only one has seen fit to devote an annual guinea to the publications of the Society-two handsome cloth-bound volumes in each year? That one, it is true, is Westminster, Hakluyt's own old school. Yet surely these records of exploration, adventure, pioneer colonisation, and all the valuable information which they contain about men and things and heroic deeds in the past, supply the very best material, at first hand, to arouse emulation in the young, and excite & feeling of sympathy which is ennobling to those who come under its influence, and is an important education in itself. No public school in the kingdom which possesses a library can be deemed adequately equipped until the Society's volumes find a place on its shelves. For by their means many misconceptions have been cleared away, greater historical accuracy has been secured, and the most attractive as well as generally useful branch of education has been purified and elevated.

Art. 6.-SHIPS' TIMBER AND CONTRABAND OF WAR.* THE hyperbole of the 'Sure Shield,' in the days when the maritime supremacy of England was in the making, was based, not on the spirit of the Navy alone, but on a policy, widespreading in its action, of ships' timber and naval stores. All that such policy implied is as vital today to the safety of the Empire as it was then, though the old ships which were built and maintained by it have sailed below the horizon.

The principal factors then determining foreign relations, the strength and vitality of which rested on seapower, were, firstly, political, the succession to some thrones in Europe being of great concern to England, and requiring the capacity for vigorous action in distant seas such were the foreign occasions of the King's naval service, their outward expression the annoying of our enemies and the support of our honour with foreign Princes; and secondly, commercial-the ordinary occasions of the service, and the protection of the estates of our trading subjects. For answering the former it was essential to maintain at sea capital ships, and for answering the latter, the 'nimble frigats,' in their full wage, victuals, supplies and repairs.

Thus Pepys, Secretary of the Admiralty, described the functions of the Navy in his 'Memories,' begun in 1679, three years after Parliament had resolved (March 5, 1676), to give to his Majesty 600,000l. for the building of 30 ships (in two years, to be accounted from Midsummer next'), an addition to the navy royall rendering the whole a security not unequal (ordinary providence concurring) to the publick ends of it, in the maintenance of the Peace and Honour of the Government on Shore, and support of its ancient, rightful, and envy'd Title to Dominion at Sea'; forasmuch as

in these ships rested not only that, by which the present

* The authorities on which the writer of this article has largely availed imself are, Pepys' 'Memoirs of the Royal Navy,' edited by J. R. Tanner; Evelyn's 'Sylva,' 4th edition, 1776, by Dr Hunter, F.R.S.; Hollond's 'Disourses of the Navy,' edited by J. R. Tanner; 'The Barham Papers,' Navy Records Society; Oppenheim's Administration of the Navy'; the Records of the Royal Society (by courteous permission of the Council), and the Foreign Office Records in the Public Record Office.

Vol. 236.-No. 468.

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