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VIII.--1. Transactions of the Cambridge Philosophical Society.

vol. i.

2. Memoirs of the Literary and Philosophical Society of

Manchester. 2d Series. vol. iv.

3. Transactions of the Royal Geological Society of Corn-

wall, instituted February 11. vol. i. and ii.

4. Report of the Liverpool Royal Institution.

5. Bristol Institution. Proceedings of the Second Annual

Meeting, held February 10, 1825, &c.

6. Annual Report of the Council of the Yorkshire Philo-

sophical Society for 1824.

· 153

IX.-1. A Letter to the Earl of Liverpool, proposing to finish

the East Wing of Somerset House for National Galle-

ries. By J. W. Croker, Esq.

2. Observations on the Buildings, Improvements, and

Extension of the Metropolis, of late Years ; with some

Suggestions, &c.

3. Sketch of the North Bank of the Thames, showing

the proposed Quay, and some other Improvements,

suggested by Lieutenant-Colonel Trench.

4. Considerations upon the Expediency of Building a

Metropolitan Palace. By a Member of Parliament.

5. A Letter to the Right Honourable Sir Charles Long,

on the Improvements proposed and now carrying on in

the Western Part of London.

6. Short Remarks and Suggestions upon the Improvements

now carrying on or under consideration.


X.-1. Memoirs of the Life of John Philip Kemble, Esquire,

including a History of the Stage from the time of Gar-

rick to the present period. By James Boaden, Esquire.

2. Reminiscences of Michael Kelly, of the King's Theatre,

and Theatre Royal Drury Lane, including a Period of

nearly half a Century; with Original Anecdotes of

many distinguished Personages, Political, Literary, and


- 196

XI.-The History of England, from the Invasion of Julius

Cæsar to the Revolution of 1688. By David Hume,



List of New Publications.

• 299



Art. 1.-Jerusalem Delivered ; an Epic -Poem, in Twenty

Cantos; translated into English Spenserian Verse from the Italian of Tasso, &c. &c. By J. H. Wiffen. 8vo. London

and Edinburgh. MUCH didactic prose and poetry has been written upon the

subject of translation: the substance of which may be comprised in an exhortation to translate rather by equivalents than by a literal version of the author's words. If we try the merit of this precept, however, by its fruits, we shall find that, though its adoption may have produced good poetry, it has not often produced the thing required. With the exception of

• Mittitur in disco mihi piscis ab archiepisco

-Po non ponatur quia potus non mibi datur.'
• I had sent me a fish in a great dish by the archbish-

-Hop is not here for he gave me no beer' we do not know of above one good translation executed upon this system in more than a century from the time in which it was most popular. On the other hand, we have many, among the

in the language, and not despicable even as poetry, for which we are indebted to that severe style of version, which was in fashion before the doctrine of equivalents was broached. Among these, many of Ben Jonson's essays rank foremost, and Sandys' Translation of Ovid's Metamorphoses may be deemed a happy specimen of the school.

Yet it must be allowed, that the free is the noble style of translation; that the only versions in our language, which rank as poems, are boldly executed; and that even the closest copyist must at times resort to equivalents, if he would give the real meaning of his original. This, however, is a daring and hazardous course; full of shoals so irregularly scattered, and often seen in such false lights, that there are few who have a sufficient perception of their dangers, or dexterity to avoid them. The most obvious of these dangers are modern and vulgar associations; of which we have spoken at large in a former Number: but there is another, which we do not remember to have seen laid down in any chart of criticism: this is, the resorting to some equivalent, which appears to convey the exact sense of the author, without observing the effect of that equivalent upon other parts of the text, under translation; a risk almost as perilous in its ultimate, though not


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in its immediate, consequences, as the other, to which we have alluded.

Dryden may be considered as the first popular attempter in English of the system of free translation, as it is supposed to be recommended by Horace; we say supposed to be, because we do not think that his words admit the wide inferences which have been drawn from them; and (what is much more important) Ben Jonson, the translator of his Art of Poetry, did not; and well justified in his own practice his different opinion of Horace's meaning. Even Dryden, however, had as strict theoretical notions of the duties of a translator as he could entertain who would follow his author

Non ita certandi cupidus quam propter amorem.' • A translator (says he) is to be like his author: it is not his business to excel him.' This was his theory; but though he may occasionally catch the graces of his author, (besides exhibiting many rare qualities of his own,) can he be said to resemble the poet whom he translates, when he renders Horace's

si celeres quatit
Pennas, resigno que dedit,

But if she dances in the wind
And shakes her wings and will not stay,

I puff the prostitute away,' recollecting always, that Horace is speaking of a recognized and severe deity? or, when designating the priests of Cybele as clumsy clergymen, does he convey to us Juvenal's picture of those painted, mitred, and effeminate fanatics? Does he not rather conjure up a vision of portly gentlemen in black worsted stockings, thick shoes, and shovel bats? And yet how full is every translation by him, even his noble Æneid, of faults such as these, produced partly by the ambition of excelling his original, and partly by his indulging in the vicious use of equivalents!

We have already recorded our opinion of Pope's Iliad; but even he has been seduced into violations of the sense of his author by the same cause, by Dryden's example, and by the artificial tone of an age that would have delighted to call the House of Commons the Senate House. He was also, like Dryden, hurried away, and into some wider deviations, by a genius too original and imaginative to suffer him to become a copyist. He seems to have meditated his work in the spirit in which a painter meditates a picture, anxious rather to improve, than exactly to imitate, nature;-whereas, according to our ideas, and according to those professed by Dryden, he should have commenced his task with the feelings of one who is to copy and not to compose:


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