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dok For the Soviet Union: Marshal K. E. Voroshilov, Mar- all other peace-loving nations, great and small, in this shal of the Soviet Union, Mr. A. Y. Vyshinski, Mr. M. M. system. Litvinov, Deputy People's Commissars for Foreign Af- The Conference agreed to set up machinery for ensurfairs, Mr. V. A. Sergeyev, Deputy People's Commissar for ing the closest cooperation between the three GovernForeign Trade, Major-General A. A. Gryslov, of the Gen- ments in the examination of European questions arising eral Staff, Mr. G. F. Saksin, Senior Official of the People's as the war develops. For this purpose the Conference deCommissariat for Foreign Affairs, and experts.

cided to establish in London a European Advisory ComThe agenda included all the questions submitted for mission to study these questions and to make joint recomdiscussion by the three Governments. Some of the ques- mendations to the three Governments. tions called for final decisions and these were taken. On Provision was made for continuing, when necessary, other questions, after discussion, decisions of principle tripartite consultations of representatives of the three were taken: these questions were referred for detailed Governments in the respective capitals through the exconsideration to commissions specially set up for the pur- isting diplomatic channels. pose, or reserved for treatment through diplomatic chan- The Conference also agreed to establish an Advisory nels. Other questions again were disposed of by an ex- Council for matters relating to Italy, to be composed in change of views.

the first instance of representatives of their three GovThe Governments of the United States, the United ernments and of the French Committee of National LibKingdom and the Soviet Union have been in close co- eration. Provision is made for the addition to this Counoperation in all matters concerning the common war ef- cil of representatives of Greece and Yugoslavia in view of fort. But this is the first time that the Foreign Secre- their special interests arising out of the aggressions of taries of the three Governments have been able to meet Fascist Italy upon their territory during the present war. together in conference.

This Council will deal with day-to-day questions, other In the first place there were frank and exhaustive dis- than military operations, and will make recommendations cussions of measures to be taken to shorten the war designed to coordinate Allied policy with regard to Italy. against Germany and her satellites in Europe. Ad- The three Foreign Secretaries considered it appropriate vantage was taken of the presence of military advisers, to reaffirm, by a declaration published today, the attitude representing the respective Chiefs of Staff, in order to dis- of their Governments in favor of restoration of democcuss definite military operations, with regard to which racy in Italy. decisions had been taken and which are already being pre- The three Foreign Secretaries declared it to be the purpared, and in order to create a basis for the closest mili- pose of their Governments to restore the independence of tary cooperation in the future between the three countries. Austria. At the same time they reminded Austria that

Second only to the importance of hastening the end of in the final settlement account will be taken of efforts that the war was the unanimous recognition by the three Austria may make towards its own liberation. The decGovernments that it was essential in their own national laration on Austria is published today. interests and in the interest of all peace-loving nations to The Foreign Secretaries issued at the Conference a continue the present close collaboration and cooperation declaration by President Roosevelt, Prime Minister in the conduct of the war into the period following the Churchill and Premier Stalin containing a solemn warnend of hostilities, and that only in this way could peace be ing that at the time of granting any armistice to any maintained and the political, economic and social welfare German Government those German officers and men and of their peoples fully promoted.

members of the Nazi party who have had any connection This conviction is expressed in a declaration in which with atrocities and executions in countries overrun by the Chinese Government joined during the Conference German forces will be taken back to the countries in and which was signed by the three Foreign Secretaries which their abominable crimes were committed to be and the Chinese Ambassador at Moscow on behalf of charged and punished according to the laws of those their Governments. This declaration, published today, countries. provides for even closer collaboration in the prosecution In the atmosphere of mutual confidence and understandof the war and in all matters pertaining to the surrender ing which characterized all the work of the Conference, and disarmament of the enemies with which the four consideration was also given to other important questions. countries are respectively at war. It sets forth the prin- These included not only questions of a current nature, but ciples upon which the four Governments agree that a also questions concerning the treatment of Hitlerite Gerbroad system of international cooperation and security many and its satellites, economic cooperation and the asshould be based. Provision is made for the inclusion of surance of general peace.

The Moscow Conference ...

Declaration of Four Nations on General Security

RELEASED NOVEMBER 1, 1943

The Governments of the United States of America, the United Kingdom, the Soviet Union and China:

United in their determination, in accordance with the Declaration by the United Nations of January 1, 1942, and subsequent declarations, to continue hostilities against those Axis powers with which they respectively are at war until such powers have laid down their arms on the basis of unconditional surrender;

Conscious of their responsibility to secure the liberation of themselves and the peoples allied with them from the menace of aggression;

Recognizing the necessity of ensuring a rapid and orderly transition from war to peace and of establishing and maintaining international peace and security with the least diversion of the world's human and economic resources for armaments;

Jointly declare:

1. That their united action, pledged for the prosecutior of the war against their respective enemies, will be con tinued for the organization and maintenance of peace and security.

2. That those of them at war with a common enemy will act together in all matters relating to the surrender with a view to joint action on behalf of the community of and disarmament of that enemy.

nations. 3. That they will take all measures deemed by them 6. That after the termination of hostilities they will to be necessary to provide against any violation of the not employ their military forces within the territories terms imposed upon the enemy.

of other states except for the purposes envisaged in this 4. That they recognize the necessity of establishing at declaration and after joint consultation. the earliest practicable date a general international or- 7. That they will confer and co-operate with one anganization, based on the principle of the sovereign equal- other and with other members of the United Nations to ity of all peace-loving states, and open to membership bring about a practicable general agreement with respect by all such states, large and small, for the maintenance to the regulation of armaments in the post-war period. of international peace and security.

V. MOLOTOV 5. That for the purpose of maintaining international

ANTHONY EDEN peace and security pending the re-establishment of law

CORDELL HULL and order and the inauguration of a system of general

Foo PING-SHEUNG security, they will consult with one another and as occa- Moscow, sion requires with other members of the United Nations

30th October, 1943.

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The Foreign Secretaries of the United States of America, the United Kingdom and the Soviet Union have established that their three Governments are in complete agreement that Allied policy towards Italy must be based upon the fundamental principle that Fascism and all its evil influences and emanations shall be utterly destroyed and that the Italian people shall be given every opportunity to establish governmental and other institutions based upon democratic principles.

The Foreign Secretaries of the United States of America and the United Kingdom declare that the action of their Governments from the inception of the invasion of Italian territory, in so far as paramount military requirements have permitted, has been based upon this policy.

In the furtherance of this policy in the future the Foreign Secretaries of the three Governments are agreed that the following measures are important and should be put into effect:

1. It is essential that the Italian Government should be made more democratic by the introduction of representatives of those sections of the Italian people who have always opposed Fascism.

2. Freedom of speech, of religious worship, of political belief, of the press and of public meeting shall be restored in full measure to the Italian people, who shall also be

entitled to form anti-Fascist political groups.

3. All institutions and organizations created by the Fascist regime shall be suppressed.

4. All Fascist or pro-Fascist elements shall be removed from the administration and from the institutions and organizations of a public character.

5. All political prisoners of the Fascist regime shall be released and accorded a full amnesty,

6. Democratic organs of local government shall be created.

7. Fascist chiefs and other persons known or suspected to be war criminals shall be arrested and handed over to justice.

In making this declaration the three Foreign Secretaries recognize that so long as active military operations continue in Italy the time at which it is possible to give full effect to the principles set out above will be determined by the Commander-in-Chief on the basis of instructions received through the Combined Chiefs of Staff. The three Governments parties to this declaration will at the request of any one of them consult on this matter.

It is further understood that nothing in this resolution is to operate against the right of the Italian people ultimately to choose their own form of government.

The Moscow Conference

Declaration on Austria

RELEASED NOVEMBER 1, 1943

The Governments of the United Kingdom, the Soviet Union and the United States of America are agreed that Austria, the first free country to fall a victim to Hitlerite aggression, shall be liberated from German domination.

They regard the annexation imposed upon Austria by Germany on March 15th, 1938, as null and void. They consider themselves as in no way bound by any changes effected in Austria since that date. They declare that they wish to see reestablished a free and independent

Austria, and thereby to open the way for the Austrian people themselves, as well as those neighboring states which will be faced with similar problems, to find that political and economic security which is the only basis for lasting peace.

Austria is reminded, however, that she has a responsibility which she cannot evade for participation in the war on the side of Hitlerite Germany, and that in the final settlement account will inevitably be taken of her own contribution to her liberation.

8 K

& 8 The Moscow Conference ...

Declaration of German Atrocities

RELEASED NOVEMBER 1, 1943

The United Kingdom, the United States and the Soviet Union have received from many quarters evidence of atrocities, massacres and cold blooded mass executions which are being perpetrated by the Hitlerite forces in the many countries they have overrun and from which they are now being steadily expelled. The brutalities of Hitlerite domination are no new thing and all the peoples or territories in their grip have suffered from the worst form of government by terror. What is new is that many of these territories are now being redeemed by the advancing armies of the liberating Powers and that in their desperation, the recoiling Hitlerite Huns are redoubling their ruthless cruelties. This is now evidenced with particular clearness by monstrous crimes of the Hitlerites on the territory of the Soviet Union which is being liberated from the Hitlerites, and on French and Italian territory.

Accordingly, the aforesaid three allied Powers, speaking in the interests of the thirty-two (forty-five) United Nations, hereby solemnly declare and give full warning of their declaration as follows:

At the time of the granting of any armistice to any government which may be set up in Germany, those German officers and men and members of the Nazi party who have been responsible for, or have taken a consenting part in the above atrocities, massacres and executions, will be sent back to the countries in which their abominable deeds were done in order that they may be judged and punished according to the laws of these liberated

countries and of the free governments which will be created therein. Lists will be compiled in all possible detail from all these countries having regard especially to the invaded parts of the Soviet Union, to Poland and Czechoslovakia, to Yugoslavia and Greece, including Crete and other islands, to Norway, Denmark, the Netherlands, Belgium, Luxemburg, France and Italy.

Thus, the Germans who take part in wholesale shootings of Italian officers or in the execution of French, Dutch, Belgian or Norwegian hostages or of Cretan peasants, or who have shared in the slaughters inflicted on the people of Poland or in territories of the Soviet Union which are now being swept clear of the enemy, will know that they will be brought back to the scene of their crimes and judged on the spot by the peoples whom they have outraged. Let those who have hitherto not imbrued their hands with innocent blood beware lest they join the ranks of the guilty, for most assuredly the three allied Powers will pursue them to the uttermost ends of the earth and will deliver them to their accusers in order that justice may be done.

The above declaration is without prejudice to the case of the major criminals, whose offences have no particular geographical localization and who will be punished by the joint decision of the Governments of the Allies.

ROOSEVELT
CHURCHILL
STALIN

Senate Resolution 192

KNOWN AS THE CONNALLY RESOLUTION

NOVEMBER 5, 1943 Resolved, That the war against all our enemies be ternational organization, based on the principle of the waged until complete victory is achieved.

sovereign equality of all peace-loving states, and open to That the United States cooperate with its comrades-in- membership by all such states, large and small, for arms in securing a just and honorable peace.

the maintenance of international peace and security. That the United States, acting through its constitu- That, pursuant to the Constitution of the United States, tional processes, join with free and sovereign nations in any treaty made to effect the purposes of this resolution, the establishment and maintenance of international au- on behalf of the Government of the United States with thority with power to prevent aggression and to preserve any other nation or any association of nations, shall be the peace of the world.

made only by and with the advice and consent of the SenThat the Senate recognizes the necessity of there being ate of the United States, provided two-thirds of the Senaestablished at the earliest practicable date a general in- tors present concur.

THE CAIRO CONFERENCE

United States of America: President Roosevelt
China: Generalissimo Chiang Kai-shek
United Kingdom: Prime Minister Churchill

RELEASED DECEMBER 1, 1943 The several military missions have agreed upon future sion. It is their purpose that Japan shall be stripped o military operations against Japan. The Three Great all the islands in the Pacific which she has seized or occu Allies expressed their resolve to bring unrelenting pres- pied since the beginning of the first World War in 1914 sure against their brutal enemies by sea, land, and air. and that all the territories Japan has stolen from th This pressure is already rising.

Chinese, such as Manchuria, Formosa, and the Pescadores The Three Great Allies are fighting this war to restrain shall be restored to the Republic of China. Japan wil and punish the aggression of Japan. They covet no gain also be expelled from all other territories which she ha for themselves and have no thought of territorial expan- taken by violence and greed. The aforesaid three grea powers, mindful of the enslavement of the people of with those of the United Nations at war with Japan, will Korea, are determined that in due course Korea shall be- continue to persevere in the serious and prolonged operacome free and independent.

tions necessary to procure the unconditional surrender With these objects in view the three Allies, in harmony of Japan.

THE TEHERAN CONFERENCE
Declaration of the Three Powers

DECEMBER 1, 1943

We—The President of the United States, the Prime Minister of Great Britain, and the Premier of the Soviet Union, have met these four days past, in this, the capital of our ally, Iran, and have shaped and confirmed our common policy.

We express our determination that our nation shall work together in war and in the peace that will follow.

As to war-our military staffs have joined in our round-table discussions, and we have concerted our plans for the destruction of the German forces. We have reached complete agreement as to the scope and timing of the operations to be undertaken from the east, west and south.

The common understanding which have here reached guarantees that victory will be ours.

And as to peace—we are sure that our concord will win an enduring peace. We recognize fully the supreme responsibility resting upon us and all the United Nations to make a peace which will command the goodwill of the overwhelming mass of the peoples of the world and banish the scourge and terror of war for many generations.

With our diplomatic advisers we have surveyed the problems of the future. We shall seek the cooperation and active participation of all nations, large and small, whose peoples in heart and mind are dedicated, as are our own peoples, to the elimination of tyranny and slavery, oppression and intolerance. We will welcome them, as they may choose to come, into a world family of democratic nations.

No power on earth can prevent our destroying the German armies by land, their U-boats by sea, and their war plants from the air.

Our attack will be relentless and increasing.

Emerging from these cordial conferences we look with confidence to the day when all peoples of the world may live free lives, untouched by tyranny, and according to their varying desires and their own consciences.

We came here with hope and determination. We leave here, friends in fact, in spirit and in purpose.

we

ROOSEVELT, CHURCHILL and STALIN Signed at Teheran, December 1, 1943

The Teheran Conference ...

Declaration Regarding Iran

DECEMBER 1, 1943

The President of the United States of America, the Premier of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, and the Prime Minister of the United Kingdom, having consulted with each other and with the Prime Minister of Iran, desire to declare the mutual agreement of their three Governments regarding their relations with Iran.

The Governments of the United States of America, the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics and the United Kingdom recognize the assistance which Iran has given in the prosecution of the war against the common enemy, particularly by facilitating transportation of supplies from overseas to the Soviet Union. The three Governments realize that the war has caused special economic difficulties for Iran and they are agreed that they will continue to make available to the Government of Iran such economic assistance as may be possible, having regard to the heavy demands made upon them by their world-wide military operations and to world-wide shortage of transport, raw materials and supplies for civilian consumption.

With respect to the post-war period, the Governments of the United States of America, the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics and the United Kingdom are in accord with the Government of Iran that any economic problem confronting Iran at the close of hostilities should receive full consideration along with those of the other members of the United Nations by conferences or international agencies held or created to deal with international economic matters.

The Governments of the United States of America, the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics and the United Kingdom are at one with the Government of Iran in their desire for the maintenance of the independence, s eignty and territorial integrity of Iran. They count upon the participation of Iran together with all other peaceloving nations in the establishment of international peace, security and prosperity after the war in accordance with the principles of the Atlantic Charter, to which all four Governments have continued to subscribe.

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TEXT OF TREATY

Between the Soviet Union and Czechoslovakia

DECEMBER 12, 1943 Treaty on Friendship, Mutual Assistance and Postwar The Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the Union of Collaboration Between the Union of Soviet Socialist Re- Soviet Socialist Republics and the President of the Czechopublics and the Czechoslovak Republic

slovak Republic, desiring to modify and supplement the

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» 10 R Treaty on Mutual Assistance existing between the Union with any other state which would unite with Germany of Soviet Socialist Republics and the Czechoslovak Re- directly or in any other form in such a war, the other public and signed in Prague on May 16, 1935, confirm the high contracting party will immediately render the conprovisions of the Agreement between the Government of tracting party thus involved in hostilities every military the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics and the Govern- and other support and assistance within its disposal. ment of the Czechoslovak Republic on Joint Actions in

Article IV War Against Germany signed in London on July 18, 1941,

The high contracting parties, considering the interests desiring to assist after the war in the maintenance of

of security of each of them, agree to maintain close and peace and in averting further aggression on the part of

friendly collaboration in the period after the reestablishGermany and to insure continuous friendship and peace

ment of peace and to act in conformity with te principles ful collaboration between themselves after the war, have decided to conclude a treaty with this purpose and ap

of mutual respect for their independence and sovereignty,

as well as for non-intervention in internal affairs of the pointed as their Plenipotentiaries:

other State. They agree to develop their economic relaFor the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the Union

tions on the widest possible scale and to render each of Soviet Socialist Republics—Vyacheslav Mikhailovich

other every possible economic assistance after the war. Molotov, People's Commissar of Foreign Affairs; for the President of the Czechoslovak Republic—Zdenek Fir

Article V linger, the Ambassador of the Czechoslovak Republic in Each of the high contracting parties undertakes not the Soviet Union, who upon the exchange of their cre

to conclude any alliance and not to take part in any dentials found in due form and good order have agreed

coalition directed against the other high contracting upon the following:

party.

Article VI
Article I

The present treaty comes into force immediately upon The high contracting parties, having mutually agreed being signed and is subject to ratification within the to unite in the policy of continuous friendship and friendly shortest possible time; the exchange of the instruments collaboration after the war as well as of mutual as

of ratification shall be effected in Moscow as soon as sistance, undertake to render each other military and possible. The present treaty shall remain in force for other assistance and support of all kind in the present twenty years from its signature and, if at the end of the war against Germany and all those states which are as

said period of twenty years one of the high contracting sociated with her in acts of aggression in Europe.

parties does not declare, twelve months prior to the exArticle II

piration of the term, its desire to renounce the treaty, it The high contracting parties undertake not to enter

shall remain in force for the next five years, and thus in the course of the present war into any negotiations

each time until one of the high contracting parties, with the Hitler government or with any other govern

twelve months prior to the expiration of the current fivement in Germany which does not clearly renounce all

year term, presents notice in writing of its intention to aggressive intentions, and not to negotiate or conclude

discontinue its operation. In testimony whereof the without mutual consent any armistice or peace treaty

Plenipotentiaries have signed this treaty and have affixed with Germany or with any other state associated with

their seals thereto. Made in two copies, each in the Rusher in acts of aggression in Europe.

sian and the Czechoslovak languages. Both texts have

equal force. Article III

Moscow, December 12, 1943 Confirming their prewar policy of peace and mutual (Signed)

On authorization of the Presidium assistance expressed in their treaty signed in Prague

of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR on May 16, 1935, the high contracting parties under

MOLOTOV take that, in the event one of them finds itself in the

On authorization of the President postwar period involved in hostilities with Germany

of the Czechoslovak Republic which would resume her “Drang nach Osten" policy, or

FIRLINGER
Protocol to the treaty on friendship, mutual assistance and postwar collaboration between the Union

'of Soviet Socialist Republics and the Czechoslovak Republic concluded on December 12, 1943
In concluding the treaty on friendship, mutual assist- which will thus acquire the quality of a tri-partite treaty.
ance and postwar collaboration between the Union of The present protocol has been made in two copies, each
Soviet Socialist Republics and the Czechoslovak Repub- in the Russian and the Czechoslovak language. Both
lic, the contracting parties have agreed that, in the event texts have equal force.
of some third country which borders on the Union of Moscow, December 12, 1943
Soviet Socialist Republics or on the Czechoslovak Repub- (Signed)

On authorization of the Presidium lic and which formed the object of German aggression

of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR in the present war, desires to join this treaty she will be

MOLOTOV accorded the possibility, on the mutual consent of the

On authorization of the President Governments of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics

of the Czechoslovak Republic and of the Czechoslovak Republic, of signing this treaty

FIRLINGER

STATEMENT BY THE PRESIDENT

on the Postwar Security Organization Program

JUNE 15, 1944 The maintenance of peace and security must be the ization comprising all such nations. The purpose of the joint task of all peace-loving nations. We have, there- organization would be to maintain peace and security and fore, sought to develop plans for an international organ- to assist the creation, through international cooperation,

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