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Preparedness Agency (DCPA), which is expected to be transferred from the Department by Presidential order, was excluded. The Agencies are shown in Table 1,

in the order in which they gained official Defense Agency


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As the Agencies increased from two to twelve,

their size, scope and policy influence grew steadily.

The eleven Agencies under consideration have over 80 thousand civilian and eight thousand military personnel and operating budgets exceeding $3 billion. In FY 78

they expended or directly controled approximately $15 billion--50% of a Military Service budget--through their appropriations, revolving funds, and program

management responsibilities.

Table 2 shows the steady increase in the funds which

are managed/controlled/directed by the Agencies

during the past twenty years.

The decrease from

FY 75 to 78 is consistent with the reduction of the

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The growth in the number and size of the Defense

Agencies is also reflected in the number of personnel

assigned to them as shown in Table 3.

This quantum in

crease in resources controlled by the Agencies is indicative of an accompanying increase in their responsibilities

and their influence over defense policy and programs.

Considerable as it is, however, it does not in itself

fully portray the magnitude of their responsibility and influence. The Agencies also have extensive auditlover

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of considerable significance to DoD top management.

They are no longer the relatively minor organizations

in the DOD that they once were considered.

The developinone of Delense Agencies appears to be

accompanied by a trend toward civilianization of their


A probable cause is that civilian personnel

manning is generally considered to be more economical

than military.

The percentage of civilian manpower in

the Defense Agencies in contrast to the DOD-wide total

percentage is shown in Table 4 for the period from

1962 to the present.

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Recommendations are being considered in DoD for con

solidation of audio-visual, command/control, and

postal functions and for expansion of DLA supply

management to all consumable items.

Studies are

planned or in progress to address centralization of the transportation/traffic management, commissary, audit, and investigative functions. The JCS have assigned the responsibility for mobilization deployment planning to United States Readiness Command (USREDCOM). It is not clear whether the ultimate result of this trend will be a multiplicity of heterogeneous organizations covering the spectrum of support

or a central support organization, such as a fifth

Uniformed Service.


A wide variety of other common support and service organizations have proliferated in Dod. These organizations represent both alternative models to

Defense Agencies and, in certain cases, supplements

to the Defense Agency system.

They include assign

ments of Services as Single Managers, Executive Agents,

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used interchangeably, and the documentation for each specifies the responsibilities and authority. The

Military Departments have provided listings of their

assignments--which in some cases required several months to prepare--which we have consolidated at

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such as the Armed Forces Courier Service (Army), the

DOD Computer Institute (Navy), and the Security Assist

ance Accounting Center (Air Force).

The 103 assign

ments as Lead Services include the Tactical Shelter

Program (Army), Electro-Magnetic Countermeasure

Specifications and Standards (Navy), and Aerospace


Systems Intelligence (Air Force).

There are

delegations of authority which include Chemical Agents

and Munitions (Army), the Automatic Text Message

Handling System (Navy), and DOD Manager for Manned

Space Flight Operations (Air Force).

The six OSD Field Activities are:

Washington Headquarters Services
American Forces Information Service
DOD Dependent Schools
Civilian Health and Medical Program of the

Uniformed Services (CHAMPUS)
Tri-Service Medical Information System

Office of Economic Adjustment

Some joint support and service organizations

report to the Secretary of Defense through the JCS.

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