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THE UNITED STATES

AND THE PEACE

Part II

VERBATIM RECORD

Of the Plenary Sessions of
THE UNITED NATIONS CONFERENCE
ON INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATION

San Francisco
April-June 1945

IT NOTE: Part I contained texts of documents, Aug. 14, 1941, to March 5, 1945, including |
|| the Atlantic Charter, the Dumbarton Oaks proposals and the Act of Chapultepec ||

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The Charter of the United Nations.......

Statute of the International Court of Justice..............

17-A

Interim Arrangements for a Preparatory Commission.................23-A

Report on the Conference, Edward R. Stettinius, Jr.

Chairman, the United States Delegation....

.24-A

THE OPENING SESSION.

......................29-A

Address by Harry S. Truman

President of the United States of America.........
Address by Earl Warren

Governor of the State of California..............
Address by Roger D. Lapham

Mayor of the City of San Francisco.

Address by Edward R. Stettinius, Jr.

Chairman, the United States Delegation.....

FIRST PLENARY SESSION.

.............................................I

Address by Edward R. Stettinius, Jr.

Chairman, the United States Delegation.....

Address by Dr. T. V. Soong

Chairman, the Chinese Delegation............

Address by V. M. Molotov

Chairman, the Soviet Delegation.

.........

Address by Anthony Eden

Chairman, the United Kingdom Delegation...................

SECOND PLENARY SESSION.....

Address by Francis M. Forde

Representing the Australian Delegation..

Address by Dr. Paul-Henri Spaak

Chairman, the Belgian Delegation.............

Address by Victor Andrade

Vice Chairman, the Bolivian Delegation.

Address by Pedro Leao Velloso

Chairman, the Brazilian Delegation..........

Address by W. L. Mackenzie King

Chairman, the Canadian Delegation......

THIRD PLENARY SESSION........

Address by Jan Masaryk

Chairman, the Czechoslovakian Delegation.....

Address by Abdel Hamid Badawi Pasha

Chairman, the Egyptian Delegation..

Address by Julian R. Caceres

Chairman, the Honduran Delegation....

Address by Sir A. Ramaswami Mudaliar

Chairman, the Indian Delegation...

Address by Mostafa Adl

Chairman, the Iranian Delegation.

Address by Eelco N. van Kleffens

Chairman, the Netherlands Delegation........

Address by Charles Habib Malik

Representing the Lebanese Delegation..................

FOURTH PLENARY SESSION....

Address by Hector David Castro

Chairman, the Salvadoran Delegation.........

Address by John Sofianopoulos

Chairman, the Greek Delegation.

...........

Address by Brig. Gen. Carlos P. Romulo

Chairman, the Philippine Delegation...

Address by Jose Serrato

Chairman, the Uruguayan Delegation....

FIFTH PLENARY SESSION..

Debate on Seating the Argentine Delegation............

Address by Alberto Lleras Camargo

Chairman, the Colombian Delegation..........

Address by Camilo Ponce Enriquez

Chairman, the Ecuadorian Delegation........

SIXTH PLENARY SESSION................

Address by Field Marshal Jan Christian Smuts

Chairman, the Union of South Africa Delegation.

Address by Blatta Ephrem Tewelde Medhen

Representing the Ethiopian Delegation....

...........49

Address by Georges Bidault

Chairman, the French Delegation...

................

Address by Guillermo Toriello

Chairman, the Guatemalan Delegation......

Address by Gerard E. Lescot

Chairman, the Haitian Delegation.........

Address by Arshad Al-Omari

Chairman, the Iraqian Delegation...........

Address by C. L. Simpson

Chairman, the Liberian Delegation..........

.........

Address by Hasan Saka

Chairman, the Turkish Delegation..............

SEVENTH PLENARY SESSION..

Address by Guillermo Belt Ramirez

Chairman, the Cuban Delegation......

Address by Joseph Bech

Chairman, the Luxembourg Delegation.......

Address by Peter Fraser

Chairman, the New Zealand Delegation.............

Address by Carraciolo Parra Perez

Chairman, the Venezuelan Delegation................. .............

EIGHTH PLENARY SESSION.

Address by Ezequiel Padilla

Chairman, the Mexican Delegation............

...........

Address by Trygve Lie

Chairman, the Norwegian Delegation............

Address by Mariano Arguello Vargas

Chairman, the Nicaraguan Delegation........

Address by Roberto Jimenez

Chairman, the Panamanian Delegation.

Address by Manuel Gallagher

Chairman, the Peruvian Delegation.........

Address by Faris El-Khouri

Chairman, the Syrian Delegation........

.............

Address by Ivan Subasic

Chairman, the Yugoslav Delegation..

NINTH PLENARY SESSION.

..............

Report of Credentials Committee.............

Report of the First Commission....

Report of the Second Commission.........

.................

Report of the Third Commission........

Report of the Fourth Commission.....

.....84

Report of the Steering Committee............... ..............

Approval of Documents.......

FINAL PLENARY SESSION.......

Address by Edward R. Stettinius, Jr.

Chairman, the United States Delegation...

Address by V. K. Wellington Koo

Acting Chairman, the Chinese Delegation...

Address by A. A. Gromyko

Acting Chairman, the Soviet Delegation...

Address by the Earl of Halifax

Chairman, the United Kingdom Delegation.........................

Address by Joseph Paul-Boncour

Acting Chairman, the French Delegation.............

Address by Pedro Leao Velloso

Chairman, the Brazilian Delegation.............

Address by Jan Masaryk

Chairman, the Czechoslovakian Delegation..............

Address by Ezequiel Padilla

Chairman, the Mexican Delegation.......

Address by H.R.H. Amir Faisal Ibn Abdul Aziz

Chairman, the Saudi Arabian Delegation... ...................

Address by Field Marshal Jan Christian Smuts

Chairman, the Union of South Africa Delegation................

Address by Harry S. Truman

President of the United States of America........

........

...........

79

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86

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THE CHARTER OF THE UNITED NATIONS

We, The Peoples Of The United Nations, Determined

-to.save succeeding generations from the scourge of war, which twice in our lifetime has brought untold sorrow to mankind, and

-to reaffirm faith in fundamental human rights, in the dignity and worth of the human person, in the equal rights of men and women and of nations large and small, and

-to establish conditions under which justice and respect for the obligations arising from treaties and other sources of international law can be maintained, and

to promote social progress and better standards of lite in larger freedom, And For These Ends

-to practice tolerance and live together in peace with one another as good neighbors, and

-to unite our strength to maintain international peace and security, and

to insure, by the acceptance of principles and the institution of methods, that armed force shall not be used, save in the common interest, and

to employ international machinery for the promotion of the economic and social advancement of all peoples, Have Resolved To Combine Our Efforts To Accom

plish These Aims.

Accordingly, our respective governments, through representatives assembled in the City of San Francisco, who have exhibited their full powers found to be in good and due form, have agreed to the present Charter of the United Nations and do hereby establish an international organization to be known as the United Nations.

CHAPTER I

PURPOSES AND PRINCIPLES

Article 1
The purposes of the United Nations are:

1. To maintain international peace and security, and to that end: to take effective collective measures for the prevention and removal of threats to the peace and for the suppression of acts of aggression or other breaches of the peace, and to bring about by peaceful means, and in conformity with the principles of justice and international law, adjustment or settlement of international dis- . putes or situations which might lead to a breach of the peace;

2. To develop friendly relations among nations based on respect for the principle of equal rights and self-determination of peoples, and to take other appropriate measures to strengthen universal peace;

3. To achieve international cooperation in solving international problems of an economic, social, cultural, or humanitarian character, and in promoting and encouraging respect for human rights and for fundamental freedoms for all without distinction as to race, sex, language, or religion; and

4. To be a center for harmonizing the actions of nations in the attainment of these common ends.

1. The Organization is based on the principle of the sovereign equality of all its Members.

2. All Members, in order to ensure to all of them the rights and benefits resulting from membership, shall fulfill in good faith the obligations assumed by them in accordance with the present Charter.

3. All Members shall settle their international disputes by peaceful means in such a manner that international peace and security, and justice, are not endangered.

4. All Members shall refrain in their international relations from the threat or use of force against the territorial integrity or political independence of any state, or in any other manner inconsistent with the purposes of the United Nations.

5. All Members shall give the United Nations every assistance in any action it takes in accordance with the present Charter, and shall refrain from giving assistance to any state against which the United Nations is taking preventive or enforcement action.

6. The Organization shall ensure that states which are not Members of the United Nations act in accordance with these Principles so far as may be necessary for the maintenance of international peace and security.

7. Nothing contained in the present Charter shall authorize the United Nations to intervene in matters which are essentially within the domestic jurisdiction of any state or shall require the Members to submit such matters to settlement under the present Charter; but this princinle shall not prejudice the application of enforcement measures under Chapter VII.

Article 2 The Organization and its Members, in pursuit of the Purposes stated in Article 1, shall act in accordance with the following Principles.

CHAPTER II

MEMBERSHIP

Articles The original Members of the United Nations shall be the states which, having participated in the United Nations Conference on International Organization at San Francisco, or having previously signed the Declaration by United Nations of January 1, 1942, sign the present Charter and ratify it in accordance with Article 110.

Article 4 1. Membership in the United Nations is open to all other peace-loving states which accept the obligations contained in the present Charter and, in the judgement of the Organization, are able and willing to carry out these obligations.

2. The admission of any such state to membership in the United Nations will be effected by a decision of the

General Assembly upon the recommendation of the Secur. ity Council.

Article 5 A Member of the United Nations against which preventive or enforcement action has been taken by the Se. curity Council may be suspended from the exercise of the rights and privileges of membership by the General Assembly upon the recommendation of the Security Council. The exercise of these rights and privileges may be restored by the Security Council.

Article 6 A Member of the United Nations which has persistently violated the Principles contained in the present Charter may be expelled from the Organization by the General Assembly upon the recommendation of the Security Council.

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Composition

Article 9 1. The General Assembly shall consist of all the Members of the United Nations.

2. Each Member shall have not more than five representatives in the General Assembly.

Functions and Powers

Article 10 The General Assembly may discuss any questions or any matters within the scope of the present Charter or relating to the powers and functions of any organs provided in the present Charter, and, except as provided for in Article 12, may make recommendations to the Members of the United Nations or to the Security Council or to both on any such questions or matters.

and may make recommendations with regard to such principles to the Members or to the Security Council or to both.

2. The General Assembly may discuss any questions relating to the maintenance of international peace and security brought before it by any Member of the United Nations, or by the Security Council, or by a state which is not a Member of the United Nations in accordance with Article 35, paragraph 2, and, except as provided in Article 12, may make recommendations with regard to any such questions to the state or states concerned or to the Security Council or to both. Any such question on which action is necessary shall be referred to the Security Council by the General Assembly either before or after discussion.

3. The General Assembly may call the attention of the Security Council to situations which are likely to endanger international peace and security.

4. The powers of the General Assembly set out in this Article shall not limit the general scope of Article 10.

Article 12 1. While the Security Council is exercising in respect of any dispute or situation the functions assigned to it

Article 11 1. The General Assembly may consider the general principles of cooperation in the maintenance of international peace and security, including the principles governing disarmament and the regulation of armaments,

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Voting

in the present Charter, the General Assembly shall not 3. The General Assembly shall consider and approve make any recommendation with regard to that dispute any financial and budgetary arrangements with special. or situation unless the Security Council so requests.

ized agencies referred to in Article 57 and shall examine 2. The Secretary-General, with the consent of the Se the administrative budgets of such specialized agencies curity Council, shall notify the General Assembly at each with a view to making recommendations to the agencies session of any matters relative to the maintenance of concerned, international peace and security which are being dealt with by the Security Council and shall similarly notify the General Assembly, or the Members of the United Na

Article 18 tions if the General Assembly is not in session, im

1. Each Member of the General Assembly shall have mediately the Security Council ceases to deal with such

one vote. matters.

2. Decisions of the General Assembly on important Article 13

questions shall be made by a two-thirds majority of the 1. The General Assembly shall initiate studies and members present and voting. These questions shall inmake recommendations for the purpose of:

clude: recommendations with respect to the maintea. promoting international cooperation in the political

nance of international peace and security, the election of field and encouraging the progressive development the non-permanent members of the Security Council, the of international law and its codification;

election of the members of the Economic and Social b. promoting international cooperation in the economic, Council, the election of members of the Trusteeship social, cultural, educational, and health fields, and

Council in accordance with paragraph 1 (c) of Article assisting in the realization of human rights and 86, the admission of new Members to the United Nations, fundamental freedoms for all without distinction as the suspension of the rights and privileges of memberto race, sex, language, or religion.

ship, the expulsion of Members, questions relating to the 2. The further responsibilities, functions, and powers operation of the trusteeship system, and budgetary ques. of the General Assembly with respect to matters men tions. tioned in paragraph 1 (b) above are set forth in Chapters 3. Decisions on other questions, including the deterIX and X.

mination of additional categories of questions to be deArticle 14

cided by a two-thirds majority, shall be made by a ma-
Subject to the provisions of Article 12, the General jority of the members present and voting.
Assembly may recommend measures for the peaceful ad-

Article 19
justment of any situation, regardless of origin, which it
deems likely to impair the general welfare or friendly re-

A Member of the United Nations which is in arrears lations among nations, including situations resulting

in the payment of its financial contributions to the Orfrom a violation of the provisions of the present Charter

ganization shall have no vote in the General Assembly if setting forth the Purposes and Principles of the United

the amount of its arrears equals or exceeds the amount Nations.

of the contributions due from it for the preceding two Article 15

full years. The General Assembly may, nevertheless, per:

mit such a Member to vote if it is satisfied that the fail1. The General Assembly shall receive and consider

ure to pay is due to conditions beyond the control of the annual and special reports from the Security Council;

Member.
these reports shall include an account of the measures
that the Security Council has decided upon or taken to Procedure
maintain international peace and security.

Article 20
2. The General Assembly shall receive and consider
reports from the other organs of the United Nations.

The General Assembly shall meet in regular annual

sessions and in such special sessions as occasion may re. Article 16

quire. Special sessions shall be convoked by the Secretary-
The General Assembly shall perform such functions General at the request of the Security Council or of a
with respect to the international trusteeship system as majority of the Members of the United Nations.
are assigned to it under Chapters XII and XIII, including

Article 21
the approval of the trusteeship agreements for areas not
designated as strategic.

The General Assembly shall adopt its own rules of pro

cedure. It shall elect its President for each session. Article 17

Article 22
1. The General Assembly shall consider and approve
the bridget of the Organization.

The General Assembly may establish such subsidiary 2. The expenses of the Organization shall be borne by organs as it deems necessary for the performance of its the Members as apportioned by the General Assembly. functions.

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CHAPTER V
THE SECURITY COUNCIL

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Composition

Article 23
1. The Security Council shall consist of eleven Members
of the United Nati~73 The Republic of China, France,

the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, and the United States of America shall be permanent members of the Security Council. The General Assembly shall elect six other Members of the United Nations to be non-per

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