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THE UNITED STATES
AND THE PEACE
Of the Plenary Sessions of
IT NOTE: Part I contained texts of documents, Aug. 14, 1941, to March 5, 1945, including |
Interim Arrangements for a Preparatory Commission.................23-A
Address by Harry S. Truman
President of the United States of America.........
Governor of the State of California..............
Mayor of the City of San Francisco.
THE CHARTER OF THE UNITED NATIONS
We, The Peoples Of The United Nations, Determined
-to.save succeeding generations from the scourge of war, which twice in our lifetime has brought untold sorrow to mankind, and
-to reaffirm faith in fundamental human rights, in the dignity and worth of the human person, in the equal rights of men and women and of nations large and small, and
-to establish conditions under which justice and respect for the obligations arising from treaties and other sources of international law can be maintained, and
—to promote social progress and better standards of lite in larger freedom, And For These Ends
-to practice tolerance and live together in peace with one another as good neighbors, and
-to unite our strength to maintain international peace and security, and
—to insure, by the acceptance of principles and the institution of methods, that armed force shall not be used, save in the common interest, and
—to employ international machinery for the promotion of the economic and social advancement of all peoples, Have Resolved To Combine Our Efforts To Accom
plish These Aims.
Accordingly, our respective governments, through representatives assembled in the City of San Francisco, who have exhibited their full powers found to be in good and due form, have agreed to the present Charter of the United Nations and do hereby establish an international organization to be known as the United Nations.
PURPOSES AND PRINCIPLES
1. To maintain international peace and security, and to that end: to take effective collective measures for the prevention and removal of threats to the peace and for the suppression of acts of aggression or other breaches of the peace, and to bring about by peaceful means, and in conformity with the principles of justice and international law, adjustment or settlement of international dis- . putes or situations which might lead to a breach of the peace;
2. To develop friendly relations among nations based on respect for the principle of equal rights and self-determination of peoples, and to take other appropriate measures to strengthen universal peace;
3. To achieve international cooperation in solving international problems of an economic, social, cultural, or humanitarian character, and in promoting and encouraging respect for human rights and for fundamental freedoms for all without distinction as to race, sex, language, or religion; and
4. To be a center for harmonizing the actions of nations in the attainment of these common ends.
1. The Organization is based on the principle of the sovereign equality of all its Members.
2. All Members, in order to ensure to all of them the rights and benefits resulting from membership, shall fulfill in good faith the obligations assumed by them in accordance with the present Charter.
3. All Members shall settle their international disputes by peaceful means in such a manner that international peace and security, and justice, are not endangered.
4. All Members shall refrain in their international relations from the threat or use of force against the territorial integrity or political independence of any state, or in any other manner inconsistent with the purposes of the United Nations.
5. All Members shall give the United Nations every assistance in any action it takes in accordance with the present Charter, and shall refrain from giving assistance to any state against which the United Nations is taking preventive or enforcement action.
6. The Organization shall ensure that states which are not Members of the United Nations act in accordance with these Principles so far as may be necessary for the maintenance of international peace and security.
7. Nothing contained in the present Charter shall authorize the United Nations to intervene in matters which are essentially within the domestic jurisdiction of any state or shall require the Members to submit such matters to settlement under the present Charter; but this princinle shall not prejudice the application of enforcement measures under Chapter VII.
Article 2 The Organization and its Members, in pursuit of the Purposes stated in Article 1, shall act in accordance with the following Principles.
Articles The original Members of the United Nations shall be the states which, having participated in the United Nations Conference on International Organization at San Francisco, or having previously signed the Declaration by United Nations of January 1, 1942, sign the present Charter and ratify it in accordance with Article 110.
Article 4 1. Membership in the United Nations is open to all other peace-loving states which accept the obligations contained in the present Charter and, in the judgement of the Organization, are able and willing to carry out these obligations.
2. The admission of any such state to membership in the United Nations will be effected by a decision of the
General Assembly upon the recommendation of the Secur. ity Council.
Article 5 A Member of the United Nations against which preventive or enforcement action has been taken by the Se. curity Council may be suspended from the exercise of the rights and privileges of membership by the General Assembly upon the recommendation of the Security Council. The exercise of these rights and privileges may be restored by the Security Council.
Article 6 A Member of the United Nations which has persistently violated the Principles contained in the present Charter may be expelled from the Organization by the General Assembly upon the recommendation of the Security Council.
Article 9 1. The General Assembly shall consist of all the Members of the United Nations.
2. Each Member shall have not more than five representatives in the General Assembly.
Functions and Powers
Article 10 The General Assembly may discuss any questions or any matters within the scope of the present Charter or relating to the powers and functions of any organs provided in the present Charter, and, except as provided for in Article 12, may make recommendations to the Members of the United Nations or to the Security Council or to both on any such questions or matters.
and may make recommendations with regard to such principles to the Members or to the Security Council or to both.
2. The General Assembly may discuss any questions relating to the maintenance of international peace and security brought before it by any Member of the United Nations, or by the Security Council, or by a state which is not a Member of the United Nations in accordance with Article 35, paragraph 2, and, except as provided in Article 12, may make recommendations with regard to any such questions to the state or states concerned or to the Security Council or to both. Any such question on which action is necessary shall be referred to the Security Council by the General Assembly either before or after discussion.
3. The General Assembly may call the attention of the Security Council to situations which are likely to endanger international peace and security.
4. The powers of the General Assembly set out in this Article shall not limit the general scope of Article 10.
Article 12 1. While the Security Council is exercising in respect of any dispute or situation the functions assigned to it
Article 11 1. The General Assembly may consider the general principles of cooperation in the maintenance of international peace and security, including the principles governing disarmament and the regulation of armaments,
in the present Charter, the General Assembly shall not 3. The General Assembly shall consider and approve make any recommendation with regard to that dispute any financial and budgetary arrangements with special. or situation unless the Security Council so requests.
ized agencies referred to in Article 57 and shall examine 2. The Secretary-General, with the consent of the Se the administrative budgets of such specialized agencies curity Council, shall notify the General Assembly at each with a view to making recommendations to the agencies session of any matters relative to the maintenance of concerned, international peace and security which are being dealt with by the Security Council and shall similarly notify the General Assembly, or the Members of the United Na
Article 18 tions if the General Assembly is not in session, im
1. Each Member of the General Assembly shall have mediately the Security Council ceases to deal with such
one vote. matters.
2. Decisions of the General Assembly on important Article 13
questions shall be made by a two-thirds majority of the 1. The General Assembly shall initiate studies and members present and voting. These questions shall inmake recommendations for the purpose of:
clude: recommendations with respect to the maintea. promoting international cooperation in the political
nance of international peace and security, the election of field and encouraging the progressive development the non-permanent members of the Security Council, the of international law and its codification;
election of the members of the Economic and Social b. promoting international cooperation in the economic, Council, the election of members of the Trusteeship social, cultural, educational, and health fields, and
Council in accordance with paragraph 1 (c) of Article assisting in the realization of human rights and 86, the admission of new Members to the United Nations, fundamental freedoms for all without distinction as the suspension of the rights and privileges of memberto race, sex, language, or religion.
ship, the expulsion of Members, questions relating to the 2. The further responsibilities, functions, and powers operation of the trusteeship system, and budgetary ques. of the General Assembly with respect to matters men tions. tioned in paragraph 1 (b) above are set forth in Chapters 3. Decisions on other questions, including the deterIX and X.
mination of additional categories of questions to be deArticle 14
cided by a two-thirds majority, shall be made by a ma-
A Member of the United Nations which is in arrears lations among nations, including situations resulting
in the payment of its financial contributions to the Orfrom a violation of the provisions of the present Charter
ganization shall have no vote in the General Assembly if setting forth the Purposes and Principles of the United
the amount of its arrears equals or exceeds the amount Nations.
of the contributions due from it for the preceding two Article 15
full years. The General Assembly may, nevertheless, per:
mit such a Member to vote if it is satisfied that the fail1. The General Assembly shall receive and consider
ure to pay is due to conditions beyond the control of the annual and special reports from the Security Council;
The General Assembly shall meet in regular annual
sessions and in such special sessions as occasion may re. Article 16
quire. Special sessions shall be convoked by the Secretary-
The General Assembly shall adopt its own rules of pro
cedure. It shall elect its President for each session. Article 17
The General Assembly may establish such subsidiary 2. The expenses of the Organization shall be borne by organs as it deems necessary for the performance of its the Members as apportioned by the General Assembly. functions.
the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, and the United States of America shall be permanent members of the Security Council. The General Assembly shall elect six other Members of the United Nations to be non-per
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