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bench rewarded his talents and his toils. Five years later, he died suddenly of apoplexy, while charging the grand jury at Stafford. The study of the Greek drama, upon which he wrote an Essay, guided his pen to the production of some noble works. His principal play is Ion, But The Athenian Captive; Glencoe, or the Fate of the Macdonalds; and The Castilian, are all dramas of powerful cast and elevated style. We also owe a Life of Charles Lamb to this accomplished man.

HENRY TAYLOR, born in the beginning of the present century, has contributed to the modern English drama one of its finest works, Philip van Artevelde, founded on the history of the famous brewer of Ghent. This noble and stately play was published in 1834. To its accomplished author we also owe a drama, founded on early English history, called Edwin the Fair. Mr. Taylor, who holds a senior clerkship in the Colonial Office, is author of The Eve of the Conquest and other poems, and of Essays entitled Notes from Life and Notes from Books.

Supplementary List. THOMAS LOVELL BEDDOES.—(1803-1849)—son of a learned physician-The Bride's

Tragedy. RICHARD LALOR SHEIL.—(died 1851)—Dublin-an orator and politician-Evadne;

The Apostate. GILBERT ABBOTT A’BECKETT.-(1810-1856)-London—a police magistrate

many Plays; also Comic Blackstone; Comic Histories of England and

Rome. Tom TAYLOR.—(1817-still living)-Sunderland-Secretary to Board of Health

-many Comedies and Farces; contributions to Punch; Memorials of

Haydon. WESTLAND MARSTON.-(1825—still living)—Boston, Leicestershire-Heart of

the World; Patrician's Daughter. ROBERT B. BROUGH.-(born 1828)-London-brewer's son-What to Eat, Drink,

and Avoid ; Medea (a burlesque), &c. Other names worthy of honourable mention under this head are SHIRLEY BROOKS, the novelist (Our Governess; The Creole)-WILKIE COLLINS (The Frozen Deep)-MARK LEMON, editor of Punch (more than fifty Farces, &c.)--HENRY Mayhew, founder of Punch and author of London Labour and the London Poor, (The Wandering Minstrel, a farce).



HISTORIANS AND BIOGRAPHERS. SIR ARCHIBALD Alison, born in 1792, at Kenley in Shropshire, received his education at the University of Edinburgh. Called to the Scottish bar, he was appointed in 1834 Sheriff of Lanarkshire, a position which he still holds. His great work is The History of Europe from the Commencement of the French Revolution to the Restoration of the Bourbons, published in ten volumes between 1839 and 1842. Eight volumes, carrying the work on to the Accession of Louis Napoleon, have been lately added. Many errors have been detected in this great work; but in spite of imperfection it remains a remarkable monument of the historian's energy, perseverance, and literary skill. Sir Archibald, made a baronet in 1852, is also the author of A Life of Marlborough.

GEORGE GROTE, born in 1794 at Clay Hill, near Beckenham in Kent, was educated at the Charter-house. Amid the toils of a London banking-house, he found time to prosecute historical studies with so much success, that his great work, The History of Greece, from the earliest period to the Death of Alexander the Great, completed in 1856, ranks with the best of our modern histories. The sympathies of the writer throughout the entire narrative are enlisted on the side of Athenian democracy.

THOMAS ARNOLD, the celebrated head-master of Rugby, born in 1795, at East Cowes in the Isle of Wight. Oxford, he became a Fellow of Oriel. His appointment to Rugby School took place in 1828. As an author, he was guished for a fragment of Roman History, closing with the Second Punic War. This work is modelled after Niebuhr. An edition of Thucydides ; eight Historical Lectures, delivered at Oxford, where he became Professor of Modern History in 1841 ; his Sermons to the Rugby boys; and his collected Essays, complete the short list of his published works. He died suddenly at Rugby in the summer of 1842.

CONNOP THIRLWALL, born in 1797, at Stepney in Middlesex, having studied at Trinity College, Cambridge, was called to


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the bar in 1825 at Lincoln's Inn. But after three years he abandoned the law for the Church, and ultimately became Bishop of St. David's. A calm and scholarly History of Greece, written originally for Lardner's “ Cyclopædia,” gives him an honourable place among British authors.

SIR FRANCIS PALGRAVE, born in London, Deputy-keeper of Public Records, has produced several remarkable historical works. The History of the Anglo-Saxons ; The Rise and Progress of the English Commonwealth; and especially The History of Normandy and of England, of which the Norman Conquest is the central subject, are his leading works.

JOHN GIBSON LOCKHART, born in 1794, at Cambusnethan in Lanarkshire, is best known as the biographer of Sir Walter Scott, whose son-in-law he was. Except Boswell's “ Johnson ” we have no finer“ Life” in the language. The diary and letters of Scott are interwoven with the story of his life, in that finished, graceful style, of which Lockhart was a thorough master. Valerius, a tale of Trajan's time; Reginald Dalton, an English story; and two other similar works, entitle Lockhart to a high place among novelists. His Spanish Ballads possess remarkable poetic fire; and his articles in the Quarterly Review, which he edited from 1826 until shortly before his death in 1854, place him in the foremost rank of English essayists and critics.

John FORSTER, born in 1812 at Newcastle, was long the acting editor of the “Examiner." His literary fame rests on the Lives of the Statesmen of the Commonwealth, and still more surely on an admirable Life of Goldsmith, in which the man and his times are all produced with vivid effect. Mr. Forster is Secretary to the Commissioners of Lunacy.

GEORGE HENRY LEWES, born in 1817 in London, early forsook the study of medicine for the more congenial toils of the pen. His literary talent has been directed to a great variety of subjects; and in all, his power of clothing a dry theme with living interest manifests itself clearly. His chief works are A Biographical History of Philosophy, and a Life of Goëthe. But he has also written a Life of Robespierre; The Physiology of Common Life; The Spanish

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Drama; besides two novels, a tragedy, and serial articles without number.

DAVID MASSON, born in 1823 at Aberdeen, wrought his way steadily with his pen, through journalism and magazine-work, up to his present position as Professor of English Literature in University College, London, and editor of “Macmillan's Magazine.” He has written British Novelists and their Styles, and other works; and is at present engaged upon the Life and Times of John Milton, of which the volume already published affords a fine sample.

HENRY THOMAS BUCKLE is the author of a remarkable History of Civilization, of which the second volume appeared a short time ago. To tracing the development of national intellect he has devoted patient attention, and has marshalled an array of evidence in support of his views that tells of deep and long research. But he follows Comte, the French author of Positive Philosophy, in ignoring that all-wise Providence whom we gratefully recognise as the Supreme Agent in the advancement of mankind. This is the radical fault of a learned and finely written work.

JAMES ANTHONY FROUDE, an ex-Fellow of Exeter College, Oxford, is distinguished as the author of a graphic and eloquent History of England from the Fall of Wolsey to the Death of Elizabeth. In the portion of the work already published, Henry VIII.—the English Bluebeard, as he has been not unfitly styledis set in a much more favourable light than in all previous histories of his reign. Mr. Froude has lately assumed the editorship of " Fraser's Magazine."


Supplementary List.

LORD CAMPBELL.-(1779–1861)—Springfield, Fife-originally a reporter for the

“Morning Chronicle"-Lord Chancellor of England-Lives of the Lord

Chancellors; Lives of the Chief-Justices. CHARLES KNIGHT.—(1790—still living)-Windsor-publisher and author-Old

Printer and Modern Press ; Popular History of England; Edition of

Shakspere. ROBERT VAUGHAN.-(about 1798—still living)—an Independent minister John de

Wycliffe; England under the Stuarts; Revolutions of English History (Vols. I. and II.)



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AGNES STRICKLAND.-Reydon-hall, Suffolk-Lives of the Queens of England

and of Scotland. Her sister ELIZABETH aided her in this work, Walter FARQUHAR HOOK.-Dean of Chichester-Ecclesiastical Biography ;

Church Dictionary; Lives of the Archbishops of Canterbury (Vol. I.) ROBERT CHAMBERS.-(1802—still living)—Peebles—an Edinburgh publisher

Traditions of Edinburgh; History of the Rebellion of 1745–46; Domestic

Annals of Scotland.
Cosmo INNES. – Professor of History, Edinburgh-Scotland in the Middle Ages ;

Sketches of Early Scottish History.
EARL STANHOPE.—(1805–still living)—Walmer-formerly Lord Mahon-Life of

Belisarius; War of Succession in Spain; History of England from the

Peace of Utrecht to the Peace of Versailles.
SIR GEORGE CORNEWALL LEWIS.-(1806-still living)-The Credibility of Early

Roman History; Influence of Authority on Opinion.
John HILL BURTON.--(1809-still living)- Aberdeen-a Scottish advocate-Life

of Hume; Lives of Lord Lovat and Duncan Forbes of Culloden; History

of Scotland.
THOMAS ADOLPHUS TROLLOPE.-son of the celebrated lady-novelist-Girlhood of

Catherine de Medici ; A Decade of Italian Women.
WILLIAM HOWARD RUSSELL.—(1816—still living)—Dublin-Special Correspon-

dent of the “ Times”—Letters on the Crimean War; Diary in India. GEORGE Wilson.—(1818–1859)— Edinburgh-chemist and lecturer-Lives of

John Reid and Henry Cavendish; Five Gateways of Knowledge (popular

science); Life of Edward Forbes (completed by Geikie). WILLIAM STIRLING.–(1818-still living)-Kenmure, near Glasgow-Laird of

Keir-Annals of Spanish Artists ; Cloister-Life of Charles V.; Life of

William HEPWORTH Dixon.—(1821–still living)-Yorkshire-barrister-editor

of the “ Athenæum”—Lives of John Howard, William Penn, Admiral

Blake, and Lord Bacon.
Hanna's Life of Chalmers ; MUIRHEAD's Life of James Watt; SMILES' Life of
Gcorge Stephenson; CARRUTHERS' Life of Pope; Miss PARDOE's Lives of Francis I.
and Marie de Medici; Miss FREER’s Reign of Henry IV. of France; MERI-
VALE's History of the Romans under the Empire; EYRE CROWE's History of
France; JAMES WHITE's Eighteen Christian Centuries, and Histories of France
and England; and GEORGE FINLAY'S Histories of Mediceval and Modern
Greece, are among the works to which we cannot here do justice.

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ESSAYISTS, CRITICS, ETC. JOHN WILSON, born in 1785 at Paisley, was the son of a wealthy manufacturer. During his course at Magdalen College, Oxford, he won the Newdigate prize for English poetry. Settling down at Elleray, on the banks of Windermere, he enjoyed for some

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