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Solomon; how excellent a servant! for he frequently turned himself unto God. When the horses standing on three feet, and touching the ground. with the edge of the fourth foot,* and swift in the course, were set in parade before him in the evening,' he said, Verily I have loved the love of earthly good above the remembrance of my LORD: and have spent the time in viewing these horses, until the sun is hidden by the veil of night: bring the horses back unto me. And when they were brought back, he began to cut off their legs and their necks. We also tried Solomon, and placed on his throne a counterfeit body:8+ afterwards he turned unto God, and said, O LORD, forgive me, and give me a kingdom which may not be obtained by any after me; for thou art the giver of kingdoms. And we made the wind subject to him; it ran gently at his command, whithersoever we directed. And we also put the devils in subjection under him; and among them such as were every way skilled in building, and in diving for pearls: and others we delivered to him bound in chains, saying, This is our gift: therefore be bounteous, or be sparing unto whom thou shalt think "They ran with such swiftness, that hardly did their feet touch the ground." -Savary.

Some say that Solomon brought these horses, being a thousand in number, from Damascus and Nisibis, which cities he had taken; others say that they were left him by his father, who took them from the Amalekites; while others, who prefer the marvellous, pretend that they came up out of the sea, and had wings. However, Solomon, having one day a mind to view these horses, ordered them to be brought before him, and was so taken up with them that he spent the remainder of the day, till after sunset, in looking on them; by which means he neglected the prayer, which ought to have been said at that time, till it was too late; but when he perceived his omission, he was so greatly concerned at it, that, ordering the horses to be brought back, he killed them all as an offering to God, except only a hundred of the best of them. But God made him ample amends for the loss of these horses, by giving him dominion over the winds."

The most received exposition of this passage is taken from the following Talmudic fable.

Solomon having taken Sidon, and slain the king of that city, brought away his daughter Jerâda, who became his favourite; and because she ceased not to lament her father's loss, he ordered the devils to make an image of him for her consolation; which being done, and placed in her chamber, she and her maids worshipped it morning and evening, according to their custom. At length, Solomon being informed of this idolatry, which was practised under his roof, by his vizir Asaf, he broke the image, and having chastised the woman, went out into the desert, where he wept and made supplications to God; who did not think fit, however, to let his negligence pass without some correction. It was Solomon's custom, while he eased, or washed himself, to intrust his signet, on which his kingdom depended, with a concubine of his named Amîna; one day, therefore, when she had the ring in her custody, a devil, named Sakhar, came to her in the shape of Solomon, and received the ring from her; by virtue of which he became possessed of the kingdom, and sat on the throne in the shape which he had borrowed, making what alterations in the law he pleased. Solomon, in the mean time, being changed in his outward appearance, and known to none of his subjects, was obliged to wander about and beg alms for his subsistence; till at length, after the space of forty days, which was the time the image had been worshipped in his house, the devil flew away, and threw the signet into the sea: the signet was immediately swallowed by a fish, which being taken and given to Solomon, he found the ring in its belly, and having by this means recovered the kingdom, took Sakhar, and tying a great stone to his neck, threw him into the lake of Tiberias.7

"We tempted him, and we seated on his throne a devil in a human form." -Savary.

hi. 6. That I may surpass all future princes in magnificence and power.

I See chap. 21, p. 270; and chap. 27, p. 230, &c.

Al Beidawi, Al Zamakh., Yahya. Vide Talm. En Jacob, part 2, et Yalkut in lib. Reg. p. 182. 7 Al Beid., Jallal., Abu'lfeda.

fit, without rendering an account. And he shall approach near unto us, and shall have an excellent abode in paradise. And remember our servant Job, when he cried unto his LORD, saying, Verily Satan hath afflicted me with calamity and pain. And it was said unto him, Strike the earth with thy foot; which when he had done, a fountainTM sprang up, and it was said to him, This is for thee to wash in, to refresh thee, and to drink. And we restored unto him his family, and as many more with them, through our mercy; and for an admonition unto those who are endued with understanding. And we said unto him, take a handful of rods" in thy hand, and strike thy wife therewith; and break not thine oath.P Verily we found him a patient person: how excellent a servant was he for he was one who frequently turned himself unto us. Remember also our servants Abraham, and Isaac, and Jacob, who were men strenuous and prudent. Verily we purified them with a perfect purification, through the remembrance of the life to come; and they were, in our sight, elect and good men. And remember Ismael, and Elisha," and Dhu'lkefl: for all these were good men. This is an admonition. Verily the pious shall have an excellent place to return unto, namely, gardens of perpetual abode, the gates whereof shall stand open unto them.* As they lie down therein, they shall there ask for many sorts of fruits, and for drink; and near them shall sit the virgins of paradise, refraining their looks from beholding any besides their spouses, and of equal age with them. This is what ye are promised at the day of account. This is our provision, which shall not fail. This shall be the reward of the righteous. But for the transgressors is prepared an evil receptacle, namely, hell: they shall be cast into the same to be burned, and a wretched couch shall it be. This let them taste, to wit, scalding water, and corruption flowing from the bodies of the damned, and divers other things of

Some suppose these words relate to the genii, and that Solomon is thereby empowered to release or to keep in chains such of them as he pleased.

1 See chap. 21, p. 271.

Some say there were two springs, one of hot water, wherein he bathed, and the other of cold, of which he drank.

The original not expressing what this handful was to consist of, one supposes it was to be only a handful of dry grass, or of rushes; and another that it was a branch of a palm-tree."

The commentators are not agreed what fault Job's wife had committed, to deserve this chastisement: we have mentioned one opinion already.10 Some think it was only because she stayed too long on an errand.

P For he had sworn to give her a hundred stripes if he recovered,

Or, as the words may be interpreted, according to al Zamakhshari, We have purified them, or peculiarly destined and fitted them for paradise.

See chap. 6, p. 107.

See chap. 21, p. 271. Al Beidâwi here takes notice of another tradition concerning this prophet; viz. that he entertained and took care of a hundred Israelites, who fled to him from a certain slaughter: from which action he probably had the surname of Dhu'lkefl given him; the primary signification of the verb cafala being to maintain or take care of another. If a conjecture might be founded on this tradition, I should fancy the person intended was Obadiah, the governor of Ahab's house.1

"The earth cherisheth the memory of them. Those who fear the Lord shall enjoy felicity. The gates of the garden of Eden shall open before them."

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the same kind. And it shall be said to the seducers, This troop which was guided by you shall be thrown, together with you, headlong into hell: they shall not be bidden welcome; for they shall enter the fire to be burned. And the seduced shall say to their seducers, Verily ye shall not be bidden welcome: ye have brought it upon us; and a wretched abode is hell. They shall say, O LORD, doubly increase the torment of him who hath brought this punishment upon us, in the fire of hell. And the infidels shall say, Why do we not see the men whom we numbered among the wicked, and whom we received with scorn? Or do our eyes miss them? Verily this is a truth; to wit, the disputing of the inhabitants of hell fire. Say, O Mohammed, unto the idolaters, Verily I am no other than a warner: and there is no god, except the one only GOD, the Almighty, the LORD of heaven and earth, and of whatsoever is between them; the mighty, the forgiver of sins. Say, it is a weighty message, from which ye turn aside. I had no knowledge of the exalted princes, when they disputed concerning the creation of man: (it hath been revealed unto me only as a proof that I am a public preacher :) when thy LORD said unto the angels, Verily I am about to create man of clay: when I shall have formed him, therefore, and shall have breathed my spirit into him, do ye fall down and worship him.” And all the angels worshipped him, in general, except Eblis, who was puffed up with pride, and became an unbeliever. God said unto him, O Eblis, what hindereth thee from worshipping that which I have created with my hands? Art thou elated with vain pride? Or art thou really one of exalted merit? He answered, I am more excellent than he thou hast created me of fire, and thou hast created him of clay. God said unto him, Get thee hence therefore; for thou shalt be driven away from mercy; and my curse shall be upon thee, until the day of judgment. He replied, O LORD, Respite me, therefore, until the day of resurrection. God said, Verily thou shalt be one of those who are respited until the day of the determined time. Eblis said, By thy might do I swear, I will surely seduce them all, except thy servants who shall be peculiarly chosen from among them. God said, It is a just sentence; and I speak the truth: I will surely fill hell with thee, and with such of them as shall follow thee, altogether. Say unto the Meccans, I ask not of you any reward for this my preaching: neither am I one of those who assume a part which belongs not to them. The Korán is no other than an admonition unto all creatures and ye shall surely know what is delivered therein to be true, after

a season.

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* "The unbelievers shall say unto their seducers, You are not deserving of any pardon: you have outgone us in error. Horrible will be our mutual habitations." -Savary.

That is, the angels.

See chap. 2, p. 5.

"Art thou instigated by pride? Does thy greatness consider itself humiliated?" -Savary.

See chap. 7, p. 117; and chap. 15, p. 211, &c.





THE revelation of this book is from the mighty, the wise GOD. Verily we have revealed this book unto thee with truth: wherefore serve GOD, exhibiting the pure religion unto him. Ought not the pure religion to be exhibited unto GOD? But as to those who take other patrons besides him, saying, We worship them only that they may bring us nearer unto God; verily GOD will judge between them concerning that wherein they disagree. Surely God will not direct him who is a liar or ungrateful. If GOD had been minded to have had a son, he had surely chosen what he pleased out of that which he hath created. But far be such a thing from him! He is the sole, the almighty GOD. He hath created the heavens and the earth with truth: he causeth the night to succeed the day, and he causeth the day to succeed the night, and he obligeth the sun and the moon to perform their services; each of them hasteneth to an appointed period. Is not he the mighty, the forgiver of sins? He created you of one man, and afterwards out of him formed his wife: and he hath bestowed on you four pair of cattle. He formeth you in the wombs of your mothers, by several gradual formations, within three veils of darkness.g This is GOD, your LORD: his is the kingdom: there is no GOD but he. Why therefore are ye turned aside from the worship of him to idolatry? If ye be ungrateful, verily God hath no need of you; yet he liketh not ingratitude in his servants: but if ye be thankful, he will be well pleased with you. A burdened soul shall not bear the burden of another: hereafter shall ye return unto your LORD, and he shall declare unto you that which ye have wrought, and will reward you accordingly; for he knoweth the innermost parts of your breasts. When harm befalleth a man, he calleth upon his LORD, and turneth unto him: yet afterwards, when God hath bestowed on him favour from himself, he forgetteth that Being which he invoked before, and setteth up equals unto GOD, that he may seduce men from his

This title is taken from the latter end of the chapter, where it is said the wicked shall be sent to hell, and the righteous admitted into paradise by troops.

Except the verse beginning, Say, O my servants, who have transgressed against your own souls, &c.3

Because, says al Beidâwi, there is no being besides himself, but what hath been created by him; since there cannot be two necessarily-existent beings: and hence appears the absurdity of the imagination here condemned, because no creature can resemble the Creator, or be worthy to bear the relation of a son to him.

d Literally, he hath sent down; from which expression some have imagined that these four kinds of beasts were created in paradise, and thence sent down to earth. See chap. 6, p. 113, 114.

See chap. 22, p. 274.

i. e. The belly, the womb, and the membranes which enclose the embryo. Or, He forgetteth the evil which he before prayed against.

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way. Say unto such a man, Enjoy this life in thy infidelity for a little while but hereafter shalt thou surely be one of the inhabitants of hell fire. Shall he who giveth himself up to prayer in the hours of the night, prostrate, and standing, and who taketh heed as to the life to come, and hopeth for the mercy of his LORD, be dealt with as the wicked unbeliever? Say, Shall they who know their duty, and they who know it not, be held equal? Verily the men of understanding only will be warned. Say, O my servants who believe, fear your LORD. They who do good in this world shall obtain good in the next; and GOD's earth is spacious: verily those who persevere with patience shall receive their recompence without measure. Say, I am commanded to worship GoD, and to exhibit the pure religion unto him: and I am commanded to be the first Moslem. Say, Verily I fear, if I be disobedient unto my LORD, the punishment of the great day. Say, I worship GoD, exhibiting my religion pure unto him: but do ye worship that which ye will, besides him. Say, verily they will be the losers, who shall lose their own souls, and their families, on the day of resurrection: is not this manifest loss? Over them shall be roofs of fire, and under them shall be floors of fire.* With this doth GOD terrify his servants: wherefore, O my servants, fear me. But those who eschew the worship of idols, and are turned unto God, shall receive good tidings. Bear good tidings therefore unto my servants, who hearken unto my word, and follow that which is most excellent therein these are they whom GOD directeth, and these are men of understanding. Him, therefore, on whom the sentence of eternal punishment shall be justly pronounced, canst thou, O Mohammed, deliver him who is destined to dwell in the fire of hell? But for those who fear their LORD will be prepared high apartments in paradise, over which shall be other apartments built; and rivers shall run beneath them: this is the promise of GOD; and GOD will not be contrary to the promise. Dost thou not see that GOD sendeth down water from heaven, and causeth the same to enter and form sources in the earth; and produceth thereby corn of various sorts? Afterwards he causeth the same to wither; and thou seest it become yellow: afterwards he maketh it crumble into dust. Verily, herein is an instruction to men of understanding. Shall he, therefore, whose breast GOD hath enlarged to receive the religion of Islam, and who followeth the light from his LORD, be as he whose heart is hardened? But woe unto those whose

Or, They who do good shall obtain good even in this world.

Wherefore let him who cannot safely exercise his religion where he was born or resides, fly to a place of liberty and security."

i. e. The first of the Koreish who professeth the true religion; or the leader in chief of the Moslems.

*“Say, A whirlwind of fire shall cover their heads, and shall enwrap their feet."-Savary.

"Wilt thou save him against whom the fatal sentence is pronounced? He is already the victim of flames."-Savary.

"The heat embrowneth the harvest. They fall under the edge of the sirkle.”— Savary.

Al Beidawi

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