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hearts are hardened against the remembrance of GOD! they are in a manifest error. GOD hath revealed a most excellent discourse; a book conformable to itself, and containing repeated admonitions. The skins of those who fear their LORD shrink for fear thereat; afterwards their skins grow soft, and their hearts also, at the remembrance of their LORD.* This is the direction of GOD: he will direct thereby whom he pleaseth; and whomsoever GoD shall cause to err, he shall have no director. Shall he, therefore, who shall be obliged to screen himself with his face from the severity of the punishment on the day of resurrection, be as he who is secure therefrom? † And it shall be said unto the ungodly, Taste that which ye have deserved. Those who were before them accused their apostles of imposture; wherefore a punishment came upon them from whence they expected it not: and GOD caused them to take shame in this present life; but the punishment of the life to come will certainly be greater. If they were men of understanding, they would know this. Now have we proposed unto mankind, in this Korân, every kind of parable; that they may be warned: an Arabic Korân, wherein there is no crookedness;" that they may fear God. GOD propoundeth as a parable a man who hath several companions which are at mutual variance, and a man who committeth himself wholly to one person :° shall these be held in equal comparison? GOD forbid! But the greater part of them do not understand. Verily thou, O Mohammed, shalt die, and they also shall die: and ye shall debate the matter with one another before your LORD, at the day of resurrection. [* XXIV.] Who is more unjust than he who uttereth a lie concerning GOD, and denieth the truth when it cometh unto him? Is there not a dwelling provided in hell for the unbelievers? But he who bringeth the truth, and giveth credit thereto,a these are they who fear God; they shall obtain whatever they shall desire, in the sight of their LORD: this shall be the recompence of the righteous; that GOD may expiate from them the very worst of that which they have wrought, and may render them their reward according to the utmost merit of the good which they have wrought. Is not GoD a sufficient protector of his servant? yet they will attempt to make thee afraid of the false deities which they worship

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"Those who fear the Lord shudder at the reading thereof; their terror dies away by degrees, and they eagerly receive the divine word."-Savary.

For his hands shall be chained to his neck, and he shall not be able to oppose any thing, but his face to the fire."

"Feareth not the unbeliever that the seal of reprobation shall be imprinted on his forehead at the day of resurrection?"-Savary.

i. e. No contradiction, defect, or doubt.

• This passage represents the uncertainty of the idolater, who is distracted in the service of different masters; and the satisfaction of mind which attends the worshipper of the only true God."

For the prophet will represent his endeavours to reclaim them from idolatry, and their obstinacy: and they will make frivolous excuses; as that they obeyed their chiefs, and kept to the religion of their fathers, &c.

9 i. e. Mohammed and his followers: some suppose that by the latter words Abu Becr is particularly intended, because he asserted the prophet's veracity in respect to his journey to heaven.

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besides GOD. direct him and he whom GOD shall direct, shall have none to mislead him. Is not GOD most mighty, able to avenge? If thou ask them who hath created the heavens and the earth, they will surely answer, GOD. Say, Do ye think, therefore, that the deities which ye invoke besides GOD, if God be pleased to afflict me, are able to relieve me from his affliction? or if he be pleased to show mercy unto me, that they are able to withhold his mercy? Say, GOD is my sufficient support: in him let those put their trust, who seek in whom to confide.* Say, O my people, do ye act according to your state; verily I will act according to mine:† hereafter shall ye know on which of us will be inflicted a punishment that shall cover him with shame, and on whom a lasting punishment shall fall. Verily we have revealed unto thee the book of the Korán, for the instruction of mankind, with truth. Whoso shall be directed thereby, shall be directed to the advantage of his own soul; and whoso shall err, shall only err against the same: and thou art not a guardian over them. GOD taketh unto himself the souls of men at the time of their death; and those which die not he also taketh in their sleep: and he withholdeth those on which he hath passed the decree of death, but sendeth back the others till a determined period." Verily herein are signs unto people who consider. Have the Koreish taken idols for their intercessors with God? Say, What, although they have not dominion over any thing, neither do they understand? Say, Intercession is altogether in the disposal of GOD: his is the kingdom of heaven and earth; and hereafter shall ye return unto him. When the one sole GOD is mentioned, the hearts of those who believe not in the life to come, shrink with horror: but when the false gods, which are worshipped besides him, are mentioned, behold, they are filled with joy. Say, O GOD, the creator of heaven and earth, who knowest that which is secret, and that which is manifest; thou shalt judge between thy servants concerning that wherein they disagree. If those who act unjustly were matters of whatever is in the earth, and as much more therewith, verily they would give it to ransom themselves from

But he whom GOD shall cause to err, shall have none to

The Koreish used to tell Mohammed that they feared their gods would do him some mischief, and deprive him of the use of his limbs, or of his reason, because he spoke disgracefully of them. It is thought by some that this passage was verified in Khâled Ebn al Walîd; who, being sent by Mohammed to demolish the idol of Uzza, was advised by the keeper of her temple to take heed what he did, because the goddess was able to avenge herself severely: but he was so little moved at the man's warning, that he immediately stepped up to the idol, and broke her nose. To support the latter explication, they say, that what happened to Khâled is attributed to Mohammed, because the former was then executing the prophet's orders. A circumstance not much different from the above-mentioned is told of the demolition of Allat.10

"The arm of the Almighty is my support. It is in him that the wise put their trust."-Savary.

"Say unto them, Unite all your efforts; I will act on my side, and soon shall ye know."-Savary.

That is, seemingly, and to outward appearance; sleep being the image of death. Not permitting them to return again into their bodies.

" Viz., into their bodies, when they awake.1

▾ For none can or dare presume to intercede with him unless by his permission.

Al Beidawi, 10 Vide Gagnier, Not. in AbNof Vit. Moh. p. 127. 1 Al Beidawi

the evil of the punishment, on the day of resurrection: and there shall appear unto them, from GOD, terrors which they never imagined; and there shall appear unto them the evils of that which they shall have gained; and that which they mocked at shall encompass them. When harm befalleth man, he calleth upon us; yet afterwards, when we have bestowed on him favour from us, he saith, I have received it merely because of God's knowledge of my deserts. On the contrary, it is a trial; but the greater part of them know it not. Those who were before them said the same: • but that which they had gained, profited them not; and the evils which they had deserved, fell upon them. And whoever of these Meccans shall have acted unjustly, on them likewise shall fall the evils which they shall have deserved; neither shall they frustrate the divine vengeance. Do they not


know that GOD bestoweth provision abundantly on whom he pleaseth, and is sparing unto whom he pleaseth? Verily herein are signs unto people who believe. Say, O my servants who have transgressed against your own souls, despair not of the mercy of GOD: seeing that GOD forgiveth all sins, for he is gracious and merciful. And be turned unto your LORD, and resign yourselves unto him, before the threatened punishment overtake you; for then ye shall not be helped. And follow the most excellent instructions which have been sent down unto you from your LORD, before the punishment come suddenly upon you, and ye perceive not the approach thereof; and a soul say, Alas! for that I have been negligent in my duty to GOD; verily I have been one of the scorners: or say, If GOD had directed me, verily I had been one of the pious: or say when it seeth the prepared punishment, If I could return once more into the world, I would become one of the righteous. But God shall answer, My signs came unto thee heretofore, and thou didst charge them with falsehood, and wast puffed up with pride; and thou becamest one of the unbelievers. On the day of resurrection, thou shalt see the faces of those who have uttered lies concerning GOD, become black: is there not an abode prepared in hell for the arrogant? But GoD shall deliver those who shall fear him, and shall set them in their place of safety: evil shall not touch them, neither shall they be grieved. GOD is the creator of all things, and he is the governor of all things. His are the keys of heaven and earth and they who believe not in the signs of GOD, they shall perish. Say, Do ye therefore bid me to worship other than GOD, oh ye fools? since it hath been spoken by revelation unto thee, and also unto the prophets who have been before thee, saying, Verily, if thou join any partners with God thy work will be altogether unprofitable, and thou shalt certainly be one of

Or by means of my own wisdom.

"Scarcely have we stretched forth unto him a succouring hand, before he saith, I have deserved this favour."-Savary.

* As did Karan in particular.

As it happened accordingly; for they were punished with a sore famine for even years, and had the bravest of their warriors cut off at the battle of Bedr.3

To those who sincerely repent, and profess his unity: for the sins of idolaters will not be forgiven.*

See chap. 28, p. 323.

• Al Beidâwi.

See p. 11, note h

those who perish: wherefore rather fear GOD, and be one of those who give thanks. But they make not a due estimation of GOD:" since the whole earth shall be but his handful, on the day of resurrection; and the heavens shall be rolled together in his right hand. Praise be unto him! and far be he exalted above the idols which they associate with him! The trumpet shall be sounded, and whoever are in heaven, and whoever are on earth, shall expire; except those whom GOD shall please to exempt from the common fate. Afterwards it shall be sounded again; and behold, they shall arise and look up. And the earth shall shine by the light of its LORD; and the book shall be laid open,d and the prophets and the martyrs shall be brought as witnesses; and judgment shall be given between them with truth, and they shall not be treated unjustly. And every soul shall be fully rewarded, according to that which it shall have wrought; for he perfectly knoweth whatever they do. And the unbelievers shall be driven unto hell by troops, until, when they shall arrive at the same, the gates thereof shall be opened: and the keepers thereof shall say unto them, Did not apostles from among you come unto you, who rehearsed unto you the signs of your LORD, and warned you of the meeting of this your day? They shall answer, Yea: but the sentence of eternal punishment hath been justly pronounced on the unbelievers. It shall be said unto them, Enter ye the gates of hell, to dwell therein for ever; and miserable shall be the abode of the proud! But those who shall have feared their LORD shall be conducted by troops towards paradise, until they shall arrive at the same: and the gates thereof shall be ready set open; and the guards thereof shall say unto them, Peace be on you! ye have been good wherefore enter ye into paradise, to remain therein for ever. And they shall answer, Praise be unto God, who hath performed his promise unto us, and hath made us to inherit the earth, that we may dwell in paradise wherever we please! How excellent is the reward of those

See chap. 6, p. 107, note

b The first time, says al Beidawi, who consequently supposes there will be no more than two blasts (and two only are distinctly mentioned in the Korân), though others suppose there will be three.

These, some say, will be the angels Gabriel, Michael, and Israfil, and the angel of death, who yet will afterwards all die, at the command of God; it being the constant opinion of the Mohammedan doctors, that every soul, both of men, and of animals, which live either on land, or in the sea, and of the angels also, must necessarily taste of death:7 others suppose those who will be exempted are the angels who bear the throne of God; or the black-eyed damsels, and other inhabitants of paradise.9

The space between these two blasts of the trumpet will be forty days, according to Yahya and others; there are some, however, who suppose it will be as many years. d See the Prelim. Disc. sect. iv. p. 62.

See chap. 74, and the Prelim. Disc. sect. iv. p. 66.

See chap. 7, p. 118; chap. 11, p. 186. It seems as if the damned, by these words, attributed their ruin to God's decree of predestination.

8 This is a metaphorical expression, representing the perfect security, and abundance, which the blessed will enjoy in paradise.

5 See the Prelim. Disc. sect. iv. p. 59. not. in Port. Mosis, p. 266. 8 Al Beidâwi. Disc. ubi sup.

• Al Beidâwi, Yahya.

7 Vide Pocock, 1 See the Prelim.


who work righteousness! And thou shalt see the angels going in procession round the throne, celebrating the praises of their LORD:* and judgment shall be given between them with truth; and they shall say, Praise be unto GOD, the Lord of all creatures!




H. M. THE revelation of this book is from the mighty, the wise God; the forgiver of sin and the accepter of repentance; severe in punishing; long suffering. There is no God but he before him shall be the general assembly at the last day. None disputeth against the signs of God, except the unbelievers: but let not their prosperous dealing in the land deceive thee with vain allurement. The people of Noah, and the confederated infidels which were after them, accused their respective prophets of imposture before these; and each nation hatched ill designs against their apostle, that they might get him into their power; and they disputed with vain reasoning, that they might thereby invalidate the truth: wherefore I chastised them; and how severe was my punishment! Thus hath the sentence of thy LORD justly passed on the unbelievers; and they shall be the inhabitants of hell fire. The angels who bear the throne of God, and those who stand about it, celebrate the praise of their LORD, and believe in him; and they ask pardon for the true believers, saying, O LORD, thou encompassest all things by thy mercy and knowledge; wherefore forgive those who repent, and follow thy path, and deliver them from the pains of hell: O LORD, lead them also into gardens of eternal abode, which thou hast promised unto them, and unto every one who shall do right, of their fathers, and their wives, and their children; for thou art the mighty, the wise God. And deliver them from evil; for whomsoever thou shalt deliver from evil on that day, on him wilt thou show mercy; and this will be great salvation. But the infidels at the day of judgment, shall hear a voice crying unto them, Verily the hatred of GOD towards you is more grievous than your hatred towards yourselves: since ye were called unto the faith, and would not believe. They shall say, O LORD, thou hast given us death twice, and thou

"The angels, bare-footed, around the sublime throne, shall publish the praises of the Highest."-Savary.

This title is taken from the passage wherein mention is made of one of Pharaoh's family, who believed in Moses.

See the Prel. Disc. sect. iii. p. 42, &c.

k By trading into Syria and Yaman. See chap. 3, p. 58, notel.

These are the Cherubim, the highest order of angels, who approach nearest to God's presence.1

• Al Beidâwi.

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