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faith availed them not, after they had beholden our vengeance.* This was the ordinance of GOD, which was formerly observed in respect to his servants: and then did the unbelievers perish.




H. M. This is a revelation from the most Merciful; a book, the verses whereof are distinctly explained,' an Arabic Korân, for the instruction of people who understand; bearing good tidings, and denouncing threats: but the greater part of them turn aside, and hearken not thereto. And they say, Our hearts are veiled from the doctrine to which thou invitest us: and there is a deafness in our ears, and a curtain between us and thee ; wherefore act thou as thou shalt think fit: for we shall act according to our own sentiments. Say, Verily I am only a man like you. It is revealed unto me that your GOD is one GOD: wherefore direct your way straight unto him; and ask pardon of him for what is past. And woe be to the idolaters: who give not the appointed alms, and believe not in the life to come! But as to those who believe and work righteousness, they shall receive an everlasting reward. Say, Do ye indeed disbelieve in him who created the earth in two days:* and do ye set up equals unto him? He is the LORD of all creatures. And he placed in the earth mountains firmly rooted,' rising above the same: and he blessed it; and provided therein the food of the creatures designed to be the inhabitants thereof, in four days;" equally, for those who ask." Then he set his mind to the creation of heaven, and it was smoke ;° and he said unto it, and to the earth, Come, either "But their faith hath been in vain. They believed not until they felt the avenging scourge."-Savary.

Some intitle this chapter Worship, or Adoration, because the infidels are herein commanded to forsake the worship of idols, and to worship God: but the thirtysecond chapter bearing the same title, that which we have here prefixed, is, for distinction, generally used.

See the Prelim. Disc. sect. iii. p. 42, &c.

See chap. 11, p. 175, note.

* Viz., The two first days of the week."

See chap. 16, p. 215.

That is, including the two former days wherein the earth was created.

For all, in proportion to the necessity of each, and as their several appetites require. Some refer the word sawâan here translated equally, and which also signifies completely, to the four days; and suppose the meaning to be, that God created these things in just so many entire and complete days.?

• Or darkness. Al Zamakhshari says this smoke proceeded from the waters under the throne of God (which throne was one of the things created before the heavens and the earth), and rose above the water; that the water being dried up, the earth was formed out of it, and the heavens out of the smoke which had mounted aloft.

• Jallalo'ddin.

'Jallalo'ddin, al Beidâwi.

obediently, or against your will. They answered, We come, obedient to thy command.* And he formed them into seven heavens, in two days;" and revealed unto every heaven its office. And we adorned the lower heaven with lights, and placed therein a guard of angels. This is the disposition of the mighty, the wise God. If the Meccans withdraw from these instructions, say, I denounce unto you a sudden destruction, like the destruction of Ad and Thamud. When the apostles came unto them before them and behind them," saying, Worship God alone; they answered, If our LORD had been pleased to send messengers, he had surely sent angels: and we believe not the message with which ye are sent. As to the tribe of Ad, they behaved insolently in the earth, without reason, and said, Who is more mighty than we in strength? Did they not see that GOD, who had created thein, was more mighty than they in strength? And they knowingly rejected our signs. Wherefore we sent against them a piercing wind, on days of ill luck, that we might make them taste the punishment of shame in this world; but the punishment of the life to come will be more shameful; and they shall not be protected therefrom. And as to Thamud, we directed them; but they loved blindness better than the true direction: wherefore the terrible noise of an ignominious punishment assailed them, for that which they had deserved; but we delivered those who believed, and feared God. And warn them of the day on which the enemies of GOD shall be gathered together unto hell fire, and shall march in distinct bands; until, when they shall arrive thereat, their ears, and their eyes, and their skins, shall bear witness against them of that which they shall have wrought. And they shall say unto their skins,† Wherefore do ye bear witness against us? They shall answer, God hath caused us to speak, who giveth speech unto all things: he created you the first time; and unto him are ye returned. Ye did not hide yourselves, while ye sinned, so that your ears, and your eyes, and your skins could not bear witness against you:" but ye thought that GOD was ignorant of many things which ye did. This was your opinion, which ye imagined of your LORD: it hath ruined you; and ye are become lost people. Whether they bear their torment, hell firo shall be their abode; or whether they beg for favour, they shall not obtain

* "He cast his glance on the heaven, which was only a pile of smoke. He said unto heaven and earth, Come, obey my voice. Heaven and earth replied, We obey-Savary.

P Viz., On the fifth and sixth days of the week. It is said the heavens were created on Thursday, and the sun, moon, and stars, on Friday; in the evening of which last day Adam was made.

4 See chap. 15, p. 210.

That is, on every side; persuading and urging them continually, and by arguments drawn from past examples, and the expectation of future rewards or punish


It is said that this wind continued from Wednesday to Wednesday inclusive, being the latter end of the month Shawal; and that a Wednesday is the day whereon God sends down his judgments on a wicked people.9

See chap. 7, p. 125, &c.

†“Why,” shall the guilty say unto them, "do ye bear witness against us?"— Savary.


i. e. Ye hid your crimes from men, tue thinking that your very members, from which ye could not hide them, would rise up as witnesses against you.

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favour. And we will give them the devils to be their companions; for they dressed up for them the false notions which they entertained of this present world, and of that which is to come; and the sentence justly fitteth them, which was formerly pronounced on the nations of genii and men who were before them; for they perished.* The unbelievers say, Hearken not unto this Korân: but use vain discourse during the reading thereof; that ye may overcome the voice of the reader by your scoffs and laughter. Wherefore we will surely cause the unbelievers to taste a grievous punishment, and we will certainly reward them for the evils which they shall have wrought. This shall be the reward of the enemies of GOD, namely, hell fire; therein is prepared for them an everlasting abode, as a reward for that they have wittingly rejected our signs. And the infidels shall say in hell, O LORD, show us the two who seduced us, of the genii and men, and we will cast them under our feet, that they may become most base and despicable. As for those who say, Our LORD is GOD, and who behave uprightly; the angels shall descend unto them, and shall say, Fear not, neither be ye grieved; but rejoice in the hopes of paradise, which ye have been promised. We are your friends in this life, and in that which is to come: therein shall ye have that which your souls shall desire, and therein shall ye obtain whatever ye shall ask for; as a gift from a gracious and merciful God. Who speaketh better than he who inviteth unto GOD, and worketh righteousness, and saith, I am a Moslem? Good and evil shall not be held equal. Turn away evil with that which is better; and behold, the man between whom and thyself there was enmity shall become, as it were, thy warmest friend: but none shall attain to this perfection, except they who are patient; nor shall any attain thereto, except he who is endued with a great happiness of temper. And if a malicious suggestion be offered unto thee from Satan, have recourse unto GOD; for it is he who heareth and knoweth. Among the signs of his power are the night, and the day, and the sun and the moon. Worship not the sun, neither the moon: but worship GOD, who hath created them; if ye serve him. But if they proudly disdain his service; verily the angels, who are with thy LORD, praise him night and day, and are not wearied. And among his signs another is, that thou seest the land waste; but when we send down rain thereon, it is stirred and fermenteth. And he who quickeneth the earth will surely quicken the dead; for he is almighty. Verily those who impiously wrong our signs are not concealed from us. Is he, therefore,

"Worshippers of the devils who drew unto them delusive pictures of the present and the future, they have been included in the sentence which hath been denounced against the past generations and the rebel spirits: reprobation is their portion."— Savary.

* Or, Talk aloud.

i. e. Those of either species, who drew us into sin and ruin. Some suppose that the two more particularly intended here are Eblis and Cain; the two authors of infidelity and murder.1

Either while they are living on earth, to dispose their minds to good, to preserve them from temptations, and to comfort them; or at the hour of death, to support them in their last agony; or at their coming forth from their graves, at the resurrection.

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better, who shall be cast into hell fire, or he who shall appear secure on the day of resurrection? Work that which ye will: he certainly beholdeth whatever ye do. Verily they who believe not in the admonition of the Korán, after it hath come unto them, shall one day be discovered. It is certainly a book of infinite value: vanity shall not approach it, either from before it, or from behind it :' "it is a revelation from a wise God, whose praise is justly to be celebrated. No other is said unto thee by the infidels of Mecca than what hath been formerly said unto the apostles before thee: verily thy LORD is inclined to forgiveness, and is also able to chastise severely. If we had revealed the Koran in a foreign language, they had surely said, Unless the signs thereof be distinctly explained, we will not receive the same: is the book written in a foreign tongue, and the person unto whom it is directed an Arabian? Answer, It is, unto those who believe, a sure guide, and a remedy for doubt and uncertainty: but unto those who believe not, it is a thickness of hearing in their ears, and it is a darkness which covereth them; these are as they who are called unto from a distant place.† We heretofore gave the book of the law unto Moses; and a dispute arose concerning the same:‡ and if a previous decree had not proceeded from thy LORD, to respite the opposers of that revelation, verily the matter had been decided between them, by the destruction of the infidels; for they were in a very great doubt as to the same. He who doth right, doth it to the advantage of his own soul; and he who doth evil, doth it against the same: for thy LORD is not unjust towards his servants. [*XXV.] Unto him is reserved the knowledge of the hour of judgment: and no fruit cometh forth from the knops which involve it; neither doth any female conceive in her womb, nor is she delivered of her burden, but with his knowledge. On the day whereon he shall call them to him, saying, Where are my companions which ye ascribed unto me? they shall answer, We assure thee there is no witness of this matter among us :d and the idols which they called on before shall withdraw themselves from them; and they shall perceive that there will be no way to escape. Man is not wearied with asking good; but if evil befall him, he despondeth, and despaireth. And if we cause him to taste mercy from us, after affliction hath touched him, he surely saith, This is due to me on account of my deserts: I do not think the hour of judgment will ever come: and if I be brought before my LORD, I shall surely attain, with him, the most excellent condition. But we will then declare unto

That is, It shall not be prevailed against, or frustrated by any means, or in any respect whatever.

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'They have refused to believe in the Korân, and it is the supremely excellent book. None of the sacred books accuse it of falsehood."-Savary. b See chap. 16, p. 223, &c.

Being so far off that they hear not, or understand not the voice of him who calls to them.

"Had we written the Korân in a foreign idiom, they would have exclaimed, Why is it not written in our own language? Reply to them, Is its style barbarous ? Is its author an Arabian? This book is the light and remedy of believers. The ears of the unbelievers are closed up. A cloud obscures their eyes. They will not understand."-Savary.

"The subject of a thousand disputes."-Savary.
For they shall disclaim their idols at the resurrection.

those who shall not have believed, that which they have wrought; and we will surely cause them to taste a most severe punishment. When we conter favours on man, he turneth aside, and departeth without returning thanks: but when evil toucheth him, he is frequent at prayer. Say, What think ye? if the Korân be from GOD, and ye believe not therein; who will lie under a greater error than he who dissenteth widely therefrom? Hereafter we will show them our signs in the regions of the earth, and in themselves; until it become manifest unto them that this book is the truth. Is it not sufficient for thee that thy LORD is witness of all things? Are they not in a doubt as to the meeting of their LORD at the resurrection? Doth not he encompass all things?





H.M. A.S.K. THUS doth the mighty, the wise GOD reveal his will unto thee; and in like manner did he reveal it unto the prophets who were before thee. Unto him belongeth whatever is in heaven, and in earth; and he is the high, the great God. It wanteth little but that the heavens be rent in sunder from above, at the awfulness of his majesty: the angels celebrate the praise of their LORD, and ask pardon for those who dwell in the earth. Is not GOD the forgiver of sins, the merciful? But as to those who take other gods for their patrons, besides him, GOD observeth their actions: for thou art not a steward over them. Thus have we revealed unto thee an Arabic Korân, that thou mayest warn the metropolis of Mecca, and the Arabs who dwell round about it; and mayest threaten them with the day of the general assembly, of which there is no doubt: one part shall then be placed in paradise, and another part in hell. If GOD had pleased, he had made them all of one religion; but he leadeth whom he pleaseth into his mercy; and the unjust shall have no patron or helper. Do they take other patrons, besides him? whereas GOD is the only true patron: he quickeneth the dead; and he is almighty. Whatever matter ye disagree about, the

By the surprising victories and conquests of Mohammed, and his successors. The title is taken from the verse wherein the believers are commended, among other things, for using deliberation in their affairs, and consulting together in order to act for the best. Some, instead of this word, prefix the five single letters with which the chapter begins.

Jallalo'ddin excepts three verses beginning with these words, Say, I ask not of you, for this my preaching, any reward, &c.

See the Prelim. Disc. sect. iii. p. 42, &c.

3 Al Beidâwi.

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