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knowledge of the time when your punishment will be inflicted is with God; and I only declare unto you that which I am sent to preach; but I see ye are an ignorant people. And when they saw the preparation made for their punishment, namely, a cloud traversing the sky, and tending towards their valleys, they said, This is a traversing cloud, which bringeth us rain. Hud answered, Nay; it is what ye demanded to be hastened: a wind, wherein is a severe vengeance: it will destroy every thing," at the command of its LORD. And in the morning nothing was to be seen, besides their empty dwellings. Thus do we reward wicked people. We had established them in the like flourishing condition wherein we have established you, O men of Mecca; and we had given them ears, and eyes, and hearts: yet neither their ears, nor their eyes, nor their hearts profited them at all, when they rejected the signs of GOD; but the vengeance which they mocked at fell upon them. We heretofore destroyed the cities which were round about you; and we variously proposed our signs unto them, that they might repent. Did those protect them, whom they took for gods, besides GOD, and imagined to be honoured with his familiarity? Nay; they withdrew from them: yet this was their false opinion which seduced them, and the blasphemy which they had devised. Remember when we caused certain of the geniio to turn aside unto thee, that they might hear the Korân: and when they were present at the reading of the same, they said to one another, Give ear: and when it was ended, they returned back unto their people, preaching what they had heard. They said, Our people, verily we have heard a book read unto us, which hath been revealed since Moses,P confirming the scripture which was delivered before it; and directing unto the truth, and the right way. Our people, obey God's preacher and believe in him; that he may forgive you your sins, and may deliver you from a painful punishment. And whoever obeyeth not God's preacher shall by no means frustrate God's vengeance on earth: neither shall he have any protectors besides him. These will be in a manifest error. Do they not know that GOD, who hath created the heavens and the earth, and was not fatigued with the creation thereof, is able to raise the dead to life? Yea verily; for he is almighty. On a certain day the unbelievers shall be exposed unto hell fire; and it shall be said unto them, Is not this really come to pass? They shall answer, Yea, by our LORD. God shall reply,

Which came to pass accordingly: for this pestilential and violent wind killed all who believed not in the doctrine of Hud, without distinction of sex, age, or degree; and entirely destroyed their possessions. See the Prelim. Disc. sect. i. p. 5, and the notes to chap. 7, p. 123.

"As the settlements of the Thamudites, Midianites, and the cities of Sodom and Gomorrah, &c.

These genii, according to different opinions, were of Nisibin, or of Yaman, or of Niniveh; and in number nine, or seven. They heard Mohammed reading the Korân by night, or after the morning prayer, in the valley of al Nakhlah, during the time of his retreat to al Tayef, and believed on him."

Hence the commentators suppose those genii, before their conversion to Mohammedism, to have been of the Jewish religion.

• Al Beidâwi. Jallalo'ddin.

Taste, therefore, the punishment of hell, for that ye have been unbelievers.* Do thou, O prophet, bear the insults of thy people with patience, as our apostles, who were endued with constancy, bare the injuries of their people: and require not their punishment to be hastened unto them. On the day whereon they shall see the punishment wherewith they have been threatened, it shall seem as though they had tarried in the world but an hour of a day. This is a fair warning. Shall they perish except the people who transgress?




God will render of none effect the works of those who believe not, and who turn away men from the way of GOD: but as to those who believe, and work righteousness, and believe the revelation which hath been sent down unto Mohammed (for it is the truth from their LORD), he will expiate their evil deeds from them, and will dispose their heart aright. This will he do, because those who believe not follow vanity, and because those who believe follow the truth from their LORD. Thus GOD propoundeth unto men their examples. When ye encounter the unbelievers, strike off their heads, until ye have made a great slaughter among them; and bind them in bonds; and either give them a free dismission afterwards, or exact a ransom; until the war shall have laid down its arms. This shall ye do. Verily if GOD pleased he could take vengeance on them, without your assistance; but he commandeth you to fight his battles, that he may prove the one of you by the other. And as to those who fightt in defence of GOD's true religion, God


"Is not this really fire? It is fire, they will reply, we call God to witness that it is. Taste, then, the torments the reality of which ye have denied."-Savary. Some intitle this chapter War; which is therein commanded to be vigorously carried on against the enemies of the Mohammedan faith.

Some suppose the whole to have been revealed at Mecca.

"The unbelievers have taken falsehood for their guide; the believers walk enlightened by the torch of the true faith. God offereth this striking contrast unto the consideration of man."-Savary.

This law the Hanifites judge to be abrogated, or to relate particularly to the war of Bedr; for the severity here commanded, which was necessary in the beginning of Mohammedism," they think too rigorous to be put in practice in its flourishing state. But the Persians, and some others, hold the command to be still in full force: for, according to them, all the men of full age, who are taken in battle, are to be slain, unless they embrace the Mohammedan faith; and those who fall into the hands of the Moslems after the battle are not to be slain, but may either be set at liberty gratis, or on payment of a certain ransom, or may be exchanged for Mohammedan prisoners, or condemned to slavery, at the pleasure of the Imâm or prince.

See chap. 8. p. 140, and 146. Jure Militari Mohammedanor. p. 32.

7 Al Beidawi. Vide Reland. Dissert. de

will not suffer their works to perish: he will guide them, and will dispose their heart aright; and he will lead them into paradise, of which he hath told them. O true believers, if ye assist GOD, by fighting for his religion, he will assist you against your enemies; and will set your feet fast: but as for the infidels, let them perish; and their works shall God render vain. This shall befall them, because they have rejected with abhorrence that which GOD hath revealed: wherefore their works shall become of no avail. Do they not travel through the earth, and see what hath been the end of those who were before them? GOD utterly destroyed them: and the like catastrophe awaiteth the unbelievers. This shall come to pass, for that GOD is the patron of the true believers, and for that the infidels have no protector. Verily GOD will introduce those who believe, and do good works, into gardens beneath which rivers flow :t but the unbelievers indulge themselves in pleasures, and eat as beasts eat;* and their abode shall be hell fire. How many cities were more mighty in strength than thy city which hath expelled thee; yet have we destroyed them, and there was none to help them? Shall he therefore, who followeth the plain declaration of his LORD, be as he whose evil works have been dressed up for him by the devil; and who follow their own lusts ? The description of paradise, which is promised unto the pious: therein are rivers of incorruptible water; and rivers of milk, the taste whereof changeth not; and rivers of wine, pleasant unto those who drink; and rivers of clarified honey; and therein shall they have plenty of all kinds of fruits; and pardon from their LORD. † Shall the man for whom these things are prepared be as he who must dwell for ever in hell fire; and will have the boiling water given him to drink, which shall burst their bowels? Of the unbelievers there are some who give ear unto thee, until, when they go out from thee, they say, by way of derision unto those to whom knowledge hath been given," What hath he said now? These are they whose hearts God hath sealed up, and who follow their own lusts: but as to those who are directed, God will grant them a more ample direction, and he will instruct them what to avoid. Do the infidels wait for any other than the last hour, that it may come upon them suddenly? Some signs thereof are already come: and when it shall actually overtake them, how can they then receive admonition? Know therefore, that there is no god but GoD: and ask pardon for thy sin, and for the true believers, both men and


Some copies, instead of kâtilu, read kûtilu, according to which latter reading should be rendered, who are slain, or suffer martyrdom, &c.

"The unbelievers, intoxicated with earthly pleasures, live in a brutish state." -Savary.

"The grace of the Lord watcheth there over those whom he hath chosen." -Savary.

i.e. The more learned of Mohammed's companions; such as Ebn Masud, and Ebn Abbâs.8

Or, as the words may also be translated, And he will reward them for their piety.

As the mission of Mohammed, the splitting of the moon, and the smoke mentioned in the 44th chap.

Though Mohammed here and elsewhere1 acknowledges himself to be a sinner,


Idem, al Beidâwi. 1 See chap. 48, in the beginning.

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women. GOD knoweth your busy employment in the world, and the place of your abode hereafter.* The true believers say, Hath not a Sura been revealed commanding war against the infidels? But when a Sura without any ambiguity is revealed, and war is mentioned therein, thou mayest see those in whose hearts is an infirmity look towards thee with the look of one whom death overshadoweth. But obedience would be more eligible for them, and to speak that which is convenient. And when the command is firmly established, if they give credit unto GOD, it will be better for them. Were ye ready, therefore, if ye had been put in authority, to commit outrages in the earth, and to violate the ties of blood? These are they whom GOD hath cursed, and hath rendered deaf, and whose eyes he hath blinded. Do they not therefore attentively meditate on the Korân? Are there locks upon their hearts Verily they who turn their backs, after the true direction is made manifest unto them, Satan shall prepare their wickedness for them, and God shall bear with them for a time. This shall befall them, because they say privately unto those who detest what God hath revealed, We will obey you in part of the matter." But GOD knoweth their secrets. How therefore will it be with them, when the angels shall cause them to die, and shall strike their faces, and their backs? This shall they suffer, because they follow that which provoketh GOD to wrath, and are adverse to what is well pleasing unto him: and he will render their works vain. Do they in whose hearts is an infirmity imagine that GOD will not bring their malice to light? If we pleased, we could surely show them unto thee, and thou shouldest know them by their marks; but thou shalt certainly know them by their perverse pronunciation of their words. GOD knoweth your actions: and we will try you, until we know those among you who fight valiantly, and who persevere with constancy: and we will try the reports of your behaviour. Verily those who believe not, and turn away men from the way of GOD, and make opposition against the apostle, after the divine direction hath been manifested unto them, shall not hurt GOD at all; but he shall make their works to perish. O true believers, obey GOD; and obey the apostle : and render not your works of no effect. Verily those who believe not, and who turn away men from the

yet several Mohammedan doctors pretend he was wholly free from sin, and suppose he is here commanded to ask forgiveness, not that he wanted it, but that he might set an example to his followers: wherefore he used to say of himself, if the tradition be true, I ask pardon of God an hundred times a day.2

"He seeth you while that ye wake, and while that ve slumber."-Savary, As hypocrisy, cowardice, or instability in their religion.

Or, as the words may also be translated, If ye had turned back, and apostatized from your faith.

+ "Satan shall deck vice with flowers to the eyes of the recreant who shall go back unto impiety. He shall procure for him delusive riches.”—Savary.

a i. e. In part of what ye desire of us; by staying at home and not going forth

with Mohammed to war, and by private combination against him.s

b These words are supposed to allude to the examination of the sepulchre, These were the tribes of Koreidha and al Nadîr; or those who distributed provision to the army of the Koreish at Bedr.

2 Jallalo'ddin.

8 Al Beidâwi.

* Idem.

See chap. 8, p. 143, note,

way of GOD, and then die, being unbelievers, GOD will by no means forgive. Faint not therefore, neither invite your enemies to peace, while ye are the superior for GOD is with you, and will not defraud you of the merit of your works. Verily, this present life is only a play and a vain amusement: but if ye believe, and fear God, he will give you your rewards. He doth not require of you your whole substance: if he should require the whole of you, and earnestly press you, ye would become niggardly, and it would raise your hatred against his apostle. Behold, ye are those who are invited to expend part of your substance for the support of God's true religion; and there are some of you who are niggardly. But whoever shall be niggardly shall be niggardly towards his own soul: for GoD wanteth nothing, but ye are needy: and if ye turn back, he will substitute another people in your stead, who shall not be like unto you.d





VERILY we have granted thee a manifest victory: that GOD may forgive thee thy preceding and thy subsequent sin, and may complete his favour on thee, and direct thee in the right way;* and that God may assist thee with a glorious assistance. It is he who sendeth down secure tranquillity

die. In backwardness and aversion to the propagation of the faith. The people here designed to be put in the place of these lukewarm Moslems are generally supposed to be the Persians; there being a tradition that Mohammed, being asked what people they were, at a time when Salman was sitting by him, clapped his hand on his thigh, and said, This man and his nation. Others, however, are of opinion that the Ansars, or the angels, are intended in this place."

This victory, from which the chapter takes its title, according to most received interpretation, was the taking of the city of Mecca. The passage is said to have been revealed on Mohammed's return from the expedition of al Hodeibiya, and contains a promise or prediction of this signal success, which happened not till two years after; the preterite tense being therein used, according to the prophetic style, for the future."

There are some, notwithstanding, who suppose the advantage here intended was the pacification of al Hodeibiya, which is here called a victory, because the Meccans sued for peace, and made a truce there with Mohammed, their breaking of which occasioned the taking of Mecca. Others think the conquest of Khaibar, or the victory over the Greeks at Mûta, &c., to be meant in this place.

That is to say, That God may give thee an opportunity of deserving forgiveness by eradicating of idolatry, and exalting his true religion, and the delivering of the weak from the hands of the ungodly, &c.

i. e. Whatever thou hast done worthy of reprehension; or, thy sins committed as well in the time of ignorance, as since. Some expound the words more particularly, and say the preceding or former fault was his lying with his handmaid Mary, contrary to his oath; and the latter his marrying of Zeinab, the wife of Zeid his adopted son."

"God hath pardoned unto thee thy faults: he hath fulfilled his favours; and he will lead thee in the way of justice.”—Savary.

• Al Beidâwi.

notes thereon.

• Al Zamakh, al Beidâwi, &c.

See chap. 33, and the notes thereon.

7 See chap. 66, and the Al Zamakh.

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