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forth and they thought that their fortresses would protect them against GOD. But the chastisement of GOD came upon them, from whence they did not expect; and he cast terror into their hearts. They pulled down their houses with their own hands, and the hands of the true believers. Wherefore take example from them, O ye who have eyes. And if GOD had not doomed them to banishment, he had surely punished them in this world;1t and in the world to come they shall suffer the torment of hell fire. This, because they opposed GOD and his apostle and whoso opposeth God verily GOD will be severe in punishing him. What palm-trees ye cut down or left standing on their roots, were so cut down or left by the will of God; and that he might disgrace the wicked doers. And as to the spoils of these people which God hath granted wholly to his apostle, ye did not push forward any horses or camels against the same;" but God giveth unto his apostles dominion over whom he pleaseth: for GOD is almighty. The spoils of the inhabitants of the towns which God hath granted to his apostle are due unto God and to the apostle, and to him who is of kin to the apostle, and the orphans, and the poor, and the traveller; that they may not be for ever divided in a circle among such of you as are rich. What the apostle shall give you, that accept: and what he shall forbid you, that abstain from: and fear GOD; for GOD is severe in chastising. A part also belongeth to the


league with Abu Sofiân, which they confirmed by oath. Upon this, Mohammed got Caab despatched, and, in the fourth year of the Hejra, set forward against al Nadir, and besieged them in their fortress, which stood about three miles from Medina, for six days, at the end of which they capitulated, and were allowed to depart, on condition that they should entirely quit that place: and accordingly some of them went into Syria, and others to Khaibar and Hira.

This was the first emigration, mentioned in the passage before us. The other happened several years after, in the reign of Omar, when that Khalif banished those who had settled at Khaibar, and obliged them to depart out of Arabia.

Dr. Prideaux, speaking of Mohammed's obliging those of al Nadir to quit their settlements, says that a party of his men pursued those who fled into Syria, and having overtaken them, put them all to the sword, excepting only one man that escaped. With such cruelty, continues he, did those barbarians first set up to fight for that imposture they had been deluded into.1 But a learned gentleman has already observed that this is all grounded on a mistake, which the doctor was led into by an imperfection in the printed edition of Elmacinus; where, after mentioning the expulsion of the Nadirites, are inserted some incoherent words relating to anothe action, which happened the month before, and wherein seventy Moslems, instead of putting others to the sword, were surprised and put to the sword themselves, together with their leader al Mondar Ebn Omar, Caab Ebn Zeid alone escaping.2

"It was He who made to descend from their fortress the unbelieving Jews, assembled for the first time. You did not think that they could be forced from thence."-Savary.

Doing what damage they could, that the Moslems might make the less advantage of what they were obliged to leave behind them.

By delivering them up to slaughter and captivity, as he did those of Koreidha. +"He would have exterminated them."-Savary.

It is remarkable that in this expedition the spoils were not divided according to the law given for that purpose in the Korân, but were granted to the apostle, and declared to be entirely in his disposition: and the reason was, because the place was taken without the assistance of horse; which became a rule for the future.

For the settlement of those of al Nadir being so near Medina, the Moslems went

all on foot thither, except only the prophet himself."

8 Al Beidâwi, Jallalo'ddin, &c. Vide Abulf. vit. Moh. cap. 35. • Idem, Interpp. 1 Prid. Life of Moh. p. 82. 2 Vide Gagnier, not. in Abulf. vit. Moh. p. 72. Chap. 8, p. 143. 4 Vide Abulf. vit. Moh. p. 91. Al Beidawi.



poor Mohajerin," who have been dispossessed of their houses and their substance, seeking favour from GOD, and his good will, and assisting GOD and his apostle. These are the men of veracity. And they who quietly possessed the town of Medina, and professed the faith without molestation, before them," love him who hath fled unto them, and find in their breasts no want of that which is given the Mohajerin, but prefer them before themselves, although there be indigence among them. And whoso is preserved from the covetousness of his own soul, those shall surely prosper. And they who have come after them say, O LORD, forgive us and our brethren who have preceded us in the faith, and put not into our hearts ill-will against those who have believed: O LORD, verily thou art compassionate and merciful. Hast thou not observed them who play the hypocrites? They say unto their brethren who believe not, of those who have received the scriptures," Verily, if ye be expelled your habitations, we will surely go forth with you; and we will not pay obedience, in your respect, unto any one for ever: and if ye be attacked, we will certainly assist you. But GOD is witness that they are liars. Verily if they be expelled, they will not go forth with them: and if they be attacked, they will not assist them ; and if they do assist them, they will surely turn their backs: and they shall not be protected. Verily ye are stronger than they, by reason of the terror cast into their breasts from GOD. This, because they are not people of prudence. They will not fight against you in a body, except in fenced towns, or from behind walls. Their strength in war among themselves is great :" thou thinkest them to be united; but their hearts are divided. This, because they are people who do not understand. Like those who lately preceded them, they have tasted the evil consequence of their deed; and a painful torment is prepared for them hereafter. Thus have the hypocrites deceived the Jews: like the devil, when he saith unto a man, Be thou an infidel; and when he is become an infidel, he saith, Verily I am clear of thee; for I fear GOD, the LORD of all creatures. Wherefore the end of them both shall be that they shall dwell in hell fire,

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• Wherefore Mohammed distributed those spoils among the Mohajerin, or those who had fled from Mecca, only; and gave no part thereof to the Ansârs, or those of Medina, except only to three of them, who were in necessitous circumstances. "Those who aid God and the prophet are the true believers.”—Savary.

P That is, the Ansârs; who enjoyed their houses, and the free exercise of their religion before the Hejra, while the converts of Mecca were persecuted and harassed by the idolaters.

a i. e. And bear them no grudge or envy on that account.

The persons here meant seem to be those who fled from Mecca after Mohammed began to gain strength, and his religion had made a considerable progress.

That is, the Jews of the tribe of al Nadir.

And it happened accordingly: for Ebn Obba and his confederates wrote to the Nadirites to this purpose, but never performed their promise."

i. e. It is not their weakness or cowardice which makes them decline a field battle with you, since they show strength and valour enough in their wars with one another; but both fail them when they enter into the lists with God and his apostle.

Viz., the idolaters who were slain at Bedr; or the Jews of Kainokâ, who were plundered and sent into exile before those of al Nadir.

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abiding therein for ever: and this shall be the recompence of the unjust. O true believers, fear GOD; and let a soul look what it sendeth before for the morrow: and fear GOD, for GOD is well acquainted with that which ye do. And be not as those who have forgotten GOD, and whom he hath caused to forget their own souls: these are the wicked doers. The inhabitants of hell fire and the inhabitants of paradise shall not be held equal. The inhabitants of paradise are they who shall enjoy felicity. If we had sent down this Korân on a mountain, thou wouldest certainly have seen the same humble itself, and cleave in sunder for fear of GOD. These similitudes do we propose unto men, that they may consider. He is GOD, besides whom there is no GOD; who knoweth that which is future, and that which is present: he is the most Merciful; he is GOD, besides whom there is no GOD: the King, the Holy, the Giver of peace, the Faithful, the Guardian, the powerful, the Strong, the most High. Far be God exalted above the idols which they associate with him! He is GOD, the Creator, the Maker, the Former. He hath most excellent names. Whatever is in heaven and in earth praiseth him: and he is the Mighty, the Wise.




O TRUE believers, take not my enemy and your enemy for your friends, showing kindness towards them; since they believe not in the truth which hath come unto you, having expelled the apostle and yourselves from your native city, because ye believe in GOD, your LORD. If ye go forth to fight in defence of my religion, and out of a desire to please me, and privately

That is, For the next life, which may be called the morrow, as this present life may be called to-day.

See chap 7, p. 136, note".

a The chapter bears this title, because it directs the women who desert and come over from the infidels to the Moslems to be examined, and tried whether they be sincere in their profession of the faith.

b This passage was revealed on account of Hateb Ebn Abi Baltaa, who, understanding that Mohammed had a design to surprise Mecca, wrote a letter to the Koreish, giving them notice of the intended expedition, and advised them to be on their guard: which letter he sent by Sarah, a maid-servant belonging to the family of Hashem. The messenger had not been gone long before Gabriel discovered the affair to the prophet, who immediately sent after her, and having intercepted the letter, asked Hateb how he came to be guilty of such an action? to which he replied, that it was not out of infidelity, or a desire to return to idolatry, but merely to induce the Koreish to treat his family, which was still at Mecca, with some kindness; adding, that he was well assured his intelligence would be of no service at all to the Meccans, because he was satisfied God would take vengeance on them. Whereupon Mohammed received his excuse, and pardoned him; but it was thought proper to forbid any such practices for the future.8

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show friendship unto them ;** verily I well know that which ye conceal, and that which ye discover: and whoever of you doth this, hath already erred from the straight path. If they get the better of you, they will be enemies unto you, and they will stretch forth their hands and their tongues against you with evil: and they earnestly desire that ye should become unbelievers. Neither your kindred nor your children will avail you at all on the day of resurrection, which will separate you from one another: and GOD seeth that which ye do. Ye have an excellent pattern in Abraham, and those who were with him, when they said unto their people, Verily we are clear of you, and of the idols which ye worship, besides GOD: we have renounced you; and enmity and hatred is begun between us and you for ever, until ye believe in God alone: except Abraham's saying unto his father, Verily I will beg pardon for thee:d but I cannot obtain aught of GOD in thy behalf. O LORD, in thee do we trust, and unto thee are we turned; and before thee shall we be assembled hereafter. O LORD, suffer us not to be put to trial by the unbelievers: and forgive us, O Lord; for thou art mighty and wise. Verily ye have in them an excellent example, unto him who hopeth in GOD and the last day: and whoso turneth back; verily GOD is self-sufficient, and praiseworthy. Peradventure GOD will establish friendship between yourselves and such of them as ye now hold for enemies:f for GOD is powerful; and GOD is inclined to forgive, and merciful. As to those who have not borne arms against you on account of religion, nor turned you out of your dwellings, GOD forbiddeth you not to deal kindly with them, and to behave justly towards them : for God loveth those who act justly. But as to those who have borne arms against you on account of religion, and have dispossessed you of your habitations, and have assisted in dispossessing you, GOD forbiddeth you to enter into friendship with them: and whosoever of you entereth into friendship with them, those are unjust doers. O true believers, when believing women come unto you as refugees, try them:† GOD well knoweth their faith. And if ye know them to be true believers, send them not back to

"If ye fight against them in defence of my law, and to merit, my rewards, will ye retain friendship for them."-Savary.

The verb here used has also a contrary signification, according to which the word may be rendered, and yet openly show friendship unto them.

d For in this, Abraham's example is not to be followed. See chap. 9.

i. e. Suffer them not to prevail against us, lest they thence conclude themselves to be in the right, and endeavour to make us deny our faith by the terror of persecution.

f And this happened accordingly on the taking of Mecca; when Abu Sofiân and others of the Koreish, who had till then been inveterate enemies to the Moslems, embraced the same faith, and became their friends and brethren. Some suppose the marriage of Mohammed with Omm Habiba, the daughter of Abu Sofiân, which was celebrated the year before, to be here intended.1

This passage, it is said, was revealed on account of Koteila bint Abd'al Uzza, who having, whilst she was an idolatress, brought some presents to her daughter, Asma bint Abi Becr, the latter not only refused to accept them, but even denied her admittance.2

(When such women sought an asylum at Medina, Mohammed obliged them to swear that they were prompted only by the desire of embracing Islamism, and that hatred of their husbands, or love of some Mussulman, had not had any influence on their conduct.)—Savary.

Al Beidâwi. 1 Vide Gagnier, not. in Abulf. Vit. Moham. p. 91. ' Al Beidâwi,

the infidels they are not lawful for the unbelievers to have in marriage; neither are the unbelievers lawful for them. But give their unbelieving husbands what they shall have expended for their dowers. Nor shall it be any crime in you if ye marry them, provided ye give them their dowries. And retain not the patronage of the unbelieving women: but demand back that which ye have expended for the dowry of such of your wives as go over to the unbelievers; and let them demand back that which they have expended for the dowry of those who come over to you. This is the judgment of God, which he establisheth among you: and GOD is knowing and wise. If any of your wives' escape from you to the unbelievers, and ye have your turn by the coming over of any of the unbelievers' wives to you; give unto those believers whose wives shall have gone away, out of the dowries of the latter, so much as they shall have expended for the dowers of the former: and fear GOD, in whom ye believe. O prophet, when believing women come unto thee, and plight their faith unto thee,1 that they will not associate any thing with GOD, nor steal, nor commit fornication, nor kill their children," nor come with a calumny which they have forged between their hands and their feet," nor be disobedient to thee in that which shall be reasonable: then do thou plight thy faith unto them, and ask pardon for them of GOD; for GOD is inclined to forgive, and merciful. O true believers, enter not into friendship with a people against whom GOD is incensed; they despair of the life to come," as the infidels despair of the resurrection of those who dwell in the graves.

h For according to the terms of the pacification of al Hodeibiya, each side was to return whatever came into their power belonging to the other; wherefore when the Moslems were, by this passage, forbidden to restore the married women who should come over to them, they were at the same time commanded to make some sort of satisfaction, by returning their dowry.

It is related, that after the aforesaid pacification, while Mohammed was yet at al Hodeibiya, Sobeia bint al Hareth, of the tribe of Aslam, having embraced Mohammedism, her husband, Mosâfer the Makhzumite, came and demanded her back; upon which this passage was revealed: and Mohammed, pursuant thereto, administered to her the oath thereafter directed, and returned her husband her dower; and then Omar married her.

i For what is returned to their former husbands is not to be considered as their dower.

J Literally, any thing of your wives; which some interpret, any part of their dowry. Or, as the original verb may be translated, and ye take spoils: in which case the meaning will be, that those Moslems, whose wives shall have gone over to the infidels, shall have a satisfaction for their dower out of the next booty. This law, they say, was given, because the idolaters, after the preceding verse had been revealed, refused to comply therewith, or to make any return of the dower of those women who went over to them from the Moslems; so that the latter were obliged to indemnify themselves as they could.

I See the Prelim. Disc. sect. ii. p. 34. Some are of opinion that this passage was not revealed till the day of the taking of Mecca; when, after having received the solemn submission of the men, he proceeded to receive that of the women."

m See chap. 81.


Jallalo'ddin understands these words of their laying their spurious children to their husbands.

• i. e. The infidels in general; or the Jews in particular.7

P By reason of their infidelity; or because they well know they cannot expect to be made partakers of the happiness of the next life, by reason of their rejecting of the prophet foretold in the law, and whose mission is confirmed by miracles.$

P. 1.

See chap. 48, p. 417, &c. • Al Beidâwi

8 Al Beidawi.

Idem. • Idem. 7 See chap 1,

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