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WHATEVER is in heaven and in earth celebrateth the praise of GOD; for he is mighty and wise. O true believers, why do ye say that which ye do not ?** It is most odious in the sight of GOD, that ye say that which ye do not. Verily GOD loveth those who fight for his religion in battle array, as though they were a well-compacted building. Remember when Moses said unto his people, O my people, why do ye injure me.; since ye know that I am the apostle of God sent unto you? And when they had deviated from the truth, God made their hearts to deviate from the right way; for GOD directeth not wicked people. And when Jesus the son of Mary said, O children of Israel, verily I am the apostle of GOD sent unto you, confirming the law which was delivered before me, and bringing good tidings of an apostle who shall come after me, and whose name shall be Ahmed. And when he produced unto them evident miracles, they said, This is manifest sorcery. But who is more unjust than he who forgeth a lie against GOD, when he is invited unto Islam? And GoD directeth not the unjust people. They seek to extinguish GOD's light with their mouths: but GOD will perfect his light, though the infidels be averse thereto. It is he who hath sent his apostle with the direction, and the religion of truth, that he may exalt the same above every religion, although the idolaters be averse thereto. O true believers, shall I show you a merchandise which will deliver you from a painful torment hereafter? Believe in GoD and his apostle; and defend GOD's true religion with your substance, and in your own persons. This will be better for you, if ye knew it. He will forgive you your sins, and will introduce you into gardens through which rivers flow, and agreeable habitations in gardens of perpetual abode. This will be great felicity. And d ye shall obtain other things which ye desire, namely, assistance from GOD, and a speedy victory. And do thou bear good tidings to the true believers. O Or, as some rather judge, at Medina; which opinion is confirmed by the explication in the next note.

The commentators generally suppose these words to be directed to the Moslems, who, notwithstanding they had solemnly engaged to spend their lives and fortunes in defence of their faith, yet shamefully turned their backs at the battle of Ohod. They may however be applied to hypocrites of all sorts, whose actions contradict their words.

"O believers! why do you yet not fulfil the promise made unto God?"-Savary, Viz., by your disobedience; or by maliciously aspersing me? 1

For Mohammed also bore the name of Ahmed; both names being derived from the same root, and nearly of the same signification. The Persian paraphrast, to support what is here alleged, quotes the following words of Christ, I go to my Father, and the Paraclete shall come: the Mohammedan doctors unanimously teaching, that by the Paraclete (or, as they choose to read it, the Periclyte, or Illustrious), their prophet is intended, and no other.3

+"He is an impostor."-Savary.

"O believers, shall I teach unto you a means of averting the rigour of torments."—Savary.

See chap. 3, pp. 36, 50, &c.
See the Prelim. Disc. sect. iv. p. 53,

1 See chap. 33, p. 350. • See John xvi. 7, &c.

true believers, be ye the assistants of GOD; as Jesus the son of Mary said to the apostles, Who will be my assistants with respect to GOD?" The apostles answered, We will be the assistants of God. So a part of the children of Israel believed, and a part believed not: but we strengthened those who believed, above their enemy; wherefore they became victorious over them.




WHATEVER is in heaven and earth praiseth GOD; the King, the Holy, the Mighty, the Wise. It is he who hath raised up amidst the illiterate Arabians an apostle from among themselves, to rehearse his signs unto them, and to purify them, and to teach them the scriptures and wisdom; whereas before they were certainly in a manifest error; * and others of them have not yet attained unto them, by embracing the faith; though they also shall be converted in God's good time; for he is mighty and wise. This is the free grace of GoD: he bestoweth the same on whom he pleaseth: and GOD is endued with great beneficence. The likeness of those who were charged with the observance of the law, and then observed it not, is as the likeness of an ass laden with books. How wretched is the likeness of the people who charge the signs of GOD with falsehood! † and GOD directeth not the unjust people. Say, O ye who follow the Jewish religion, if ye say that ye are the friends of GOD above other men, wish for death," if ye speak truth. But they will never wish for it, because of that which their hands have sent before them: and GOD well knoweth the unjust. Say, Verily death, from which ye fly, will surely meet you: then shall ye be brought before him who knoweth as well what is concealed as what is discovered; and he will declare unto you that which ye have done. O true believers, when ye are called to prayer on the day of the assembly, hasten to the

See chap. 3, p. 42.

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Either by rejecting him, or by affirming him to be God, and the Son of God.* See the Prelim. Disc. sect. ii. p. 30.

"Before his time, the Arabs were involved in the profoundest darkness."Savary.

Because they understand not the prophecies contained in the law, which bear witness to Mohammed, no more than the ass does the books which he carries. "Woe unto those who abjure the holy religion."-Savary.

i. e. Make it your request to God, that he would translate you from this troublesome world to a state of never-fading bliss.

b See chap. 2, p. 12.

That is, Friday, which being more peculiarly set apart by Mohammed for the public worship of GOD, is therefore called Yawm al joma, i. e. the day of the assembly or congregation; whereas it was before called al Arûba. The first time this day was particularly observed, as some say, was on the prophet's arrival at Medina, into which city he made his first entry on a Friday: but others tell us that Caab

* Jallalo'ddin.

commemoration of GOD and leave merchandising.. This will be better for you, if ye knew it. And when prayer is ended, then disperse yourselves through the land as ye list, and seek gain of the liberality of GOD:a and remember GOD frequently, that ye may prosper. But when they see any merchandising, or sport, they flock thereto, and leave thee standing up in the pulpit. Say, The reward which is with GOD is better than any sport or merchandise: and GoD is the best provider.*




WHEN the hypocrites come unto thee, they say, We bear witness that thou art indeed the apostle of GOD. And God knoweth that thou art indeed his apostle: but GOD beareth witness that the hypocrites are certainly liars. They have taken their oaths for a protection, and they turn others aside from the way of GOD: it is surely evil which they do. This is testified of them, because they believed, and afterwards became unbelievers: wherefore a seal is set on their hearts, and they shall not understand. When thou beholdest them, their persons please thee: and if they speak, thou hearest their discourse with delight. They resemble pieces of timber set up against a wall. They imagine every shout to be against them. They are enemies; wherefore beware of them. GOD curse them: how are they turned aside from the truth! And when it is said unto them, Come, that Ebn Lowa, one of Mohammed's ancestors, gave the day its present name, because on that day the people used to be assembled before him. One reason given for the observation of Friday, preferably to any other day of the week, is because on that day GoD finished the creation.

By returning to your commerce and worldly occupations, if ye think fit: for the Mohammedans do not hold themselves obliged to observe the day of their public assembly with the same strictness as the Christians and Jews do their respective Sabbath; or particularly to abstain from work, after they have performed their devotions. Some, however, from a tradition of their prophet, are of opinion that works of charity, and religious exercises, which may draw down the blessing of GOD, are recommended in this passage.

It is related that one Friday, while Mohammed was preaching, a caravan of merchants happened to arrive with their drums beating, according to custom; which the congregation hearing, they all ran out of the mosque to see them, except twelve only.?

"Say, the treasures which God offers unto you are more precious than any momentary advantages. God is the most magnificent of dispensers."—Savary.

The commentators tell that Abdallah Ebn Obba, a chief hypocrite, was a tall man of a very graceful presence, and of a ready and eloquent tongue; and used to frequent the prophet's assembly, attended by several like himself: and that these men were greatly admired by Mohammed, who was taken with their handsome appearance, and listened to their discourse with pleasure,8

Being tall and big, but void of knowledge and consideration."

Living under continual apprehensions; because they are conscious of their bypocrisy towards GOD, and their insincerity towards the Moslems.

"They have beauty for their portion. They speak with elegance. Their stature is straight and majestic; but they shudder at the slightest sound. They are

Al Beidawi. • Al Beidawi.

• Idem.

Vide Gol. Alfrag. p. 15.

7 Al Beidawi, Jallalo'ddin.

the apostle of GOD may ask pardon for you; they turn away their heads, and thou seest them retire big with disdain. It shall be equal unto them, whether thou ask pardon for them, or do not ask pardon for them: GOD will by no means forgive them; for GOD directeth not the prevaricating people. These are the men who say to the inhabitants of Medina, Do not bestow any thing on the refugees who are with the apostle of GOD, that they may be obliged to separate from him. Whereas unto God belong the stores of heaven and earth: but the hypocrites do not understand. They say, Verily, if we return to Medina, the worthier shall expel thence the meaner.i Whereas superior worth belongeth unto God and his apostle, and the true believers but the hypocrites know it not.* O true believers, let not your riches or your children divert you from the remembrance of GOD: for whosoever doth this, they will surely be losers. And give alms out of that which we have bestowed on you; before death come unto one of you, and he say, O LORD, wilt thou not grant me respite for a short term: that I may give alms, and become one of the righteous ? For GOD will by no means grant further respite to a soul, when its determined time is come: and GOD is fully apprised of that which ye do.




WHATEVER is in heaven and earth celebrateth the praises of GOD: his is the kingdom, and unto him is the praise due; for he is almighty. It is he who hath created you;t and one of you is predestined to be an unbeliever, and another of you is predestined to be a believer: and GOD beholdeth that which ye do. He hath created the heavens and the earth with truth; and he hath fashioned you, and given you beautiful forms: and unto him must ye all go. He knoweth whatever is in heaven and earth: and he knoweth that which ye conceal, aud that which ye discover; for GOD knoweth the innermost part of men's breasts. Have ye not been acquainted with the story of those who disbelieved heretofore, and tasted the evil consequence of their behaviour? And for them is prepared in the life to come a tormenting your enemies beware of their perfidy. The Almighty shall fight against them, because that they have abandoned the faith."-Savary.

i These, as well as the preceding, were the words of Ebn Obba to one of Medina, who in a certain expedition, quarrelling with an Arab of the desert about water, received a blow on the head with a stick, and made his complaint thereof to him.10

"Power belongeth unto God. He imparteth it to his prophet, and to the faithful; and the impious know it not."-Savary.

The commentators are not agreed whether this chapter was revealed at Mecca, or at Medina, or partly at the one place, and partly at the other.

"He hath created all men from nothing."-Savary.

10 Al Beidawi.

punishment. This shall they suffer, because their apostles came unto them with evident proofs of their mission, and they said, shall men direct us? Wherefore they believed not, and turned their backs. But GOD standeth in need of no person: for GOD is self-sufficient, and worthy to be praised. The unbelievers imagine that they shall not be raised again. Say, Yea, by my LORD, ye shall surely be raised again: then shall ye be told that which ye have wrought; and this is easy with God. Wherefore believe in GoD and his apostle, and the light which we have sent down: for GOD is well acquainted with that which ye do. On a certain day he shall assemble you, at the day of the general assembly: that will be the day of mutual deceit.1* And whoso shall believe in GOD, and shall do that which is right, from him will he expiate his evil deeds, and he will lead him into gardens beneath which rivers flow, to remain therein for ever. This will be great felicity. But they who shall not believe, and shall accuse our signs of falsehood, those shall be the inhabitants of hell fire, wherein they shall remain for ever; and a wretched journey shall it be thither! No misfortune happeneth but by the permission of GOD; and whoso believeth in GOD, he will direct his heart: and GOD knoweth all things. Wherefore obey GOD, and obey the apostle; but if ye turn back, verily the duty incumbent on our apostle is only public preaching. GOD! there is no GOD but he wherefore in God let the faithful put their trust. O true believers, verily of your wives and your children ye have an enemy:" wherefore beware of them. But if ye pass over their offences, and pardon, and forgive them;" GOD is likewise inclined to forgive, and merciful. Your wealth and your children are only a temptation; but with GOD is a great reward. Wherefore fear GOD, as much as ye are able; and hear, and obey :‡ and give alms, for the good of your souls; for whoso is preserved from the covetousness of his own soul, they shall prosper. If ye lend unto God an acceptable loan, he will double the same unto you, and will forgive you : for GOD is grateful, and long suffering, knowing both what is hidden, and what is divulged; the Mighty, the Wise.§


I When the blessed will deceive the damned, by taking the places which they would have had in paradise, had they been true believers; and contrariwise.1

* "On the day of the universal assembling, ye shall all appear before his tribunal. Fraud shall be unmasked."-Savary.

For these are apt to distract a man from his duty, especially in time of distress; 2 a married man caring for the things that are of this world, while the unmarried careth for the things that belong to the Lord."

Considering that the hindrance they may occasion you proceeds from their affection, and their ill bearing your absence in time of war, &c.

"O believers, your wives and your children are oftentimes your enemies; distrust their caresses; but if the voice of nature, or if condescension should induce you to yield to their wishes, God is indulgent and merciful."-Savary.

"Fear God with all your hearts. Listen! Obey!"-Savary.

"If ye enter into a glorious covenant with God, he will multiply his favours, he will pardon your offences: he is grateful and beneficent. He knoweth that which is unveiled, and that which is hidden in the shades of mystery: he is mighty and wise."-Savary.

1 Al Beidâwi, Jallalo'ddin, Yahya.

⚫ lidem.

See 1 Cor. vii. 25, &c.

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