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he believed not," neither did he pray; but he accused God's apostle of imposture, and turned back from obeying him: then he departed unto his family, walking with a haughty mien. Wherefore, woe be unto thee; woe! And again, woe be unto thee; woe! Doth man think that he shall be left at full liberty, without control? Was he not a drop of seed, which was emitted Afterwards he became a little coagulated blood; and God formed him, and fashioned him with just proportion; and made of him two sexes, the male and the female. Is not he who hath done this able to quicken the dead?*






DID there not pass over man a long space of time; during which he was a thing not worthy of remembrance ? Verily we have created man of the mingled seed of both sexes, that we might prove him and we have made him to hear and to see. We have surely directed him in the way; whether he be grateful, or ungrateful. Verily we have prepared for the unbelievers chains, and collars, and burning fire. But the just shall drink of a cup of wine, mixed with the water of Cafur,d a fountain whereof the servants of GOD shall drink; they shall convey the same by channels whithersoever they please. These fulfil their vow, and dread the day, the evil whereof will disperse itself far abroad; and give food unto the poor, and the orphan, and the bondman, for his sake, saying, We feed you for God's sake only we desire no recompence from you, nor any thanks: verily we dread, from our LORD, a dismal and calamitous day." Wherefore GoD shall

z Or, He did not give alms; or, He was not a man of veracity. Some suppose Abu Jahl, and others one Adi Ebn Rabîa, to be particularly inveighed against in this chapter.

*Did not God form you from a little blood? Hath he not given just proportions to your bodies? Did he not bring from nothing the first pair? Can the creator of the human race be deficient in power to revive the dead?"-Savary.

It is somewhat doubtful, whether this chapter was revealed at Mecca, or at Medina.

Some take these words to be spoken of Adam, whose body, according to the Mohammedan tradition, was at first a figure of clay, and was left forty years to dry, before God breathed life into it; others understand them of man in general, and of the time he lies in the womb.

That he might be capable of receiving the rules and directions given by God for his guidance; and of meriting reward or punishment for his observance or neglect of


Is the name of a fountain in paradise, so called from its resembling camphor (which the word signifies) in odour, and whiteness. Some take the word for an appellative, and think the wine of paradise will be mixed with camphor, because of its agreeable coolness and smell.7

It is related that Hasan and Hosein, Mohammed's grandchildren, on a certain time being both sick, the prophet, among others, visited them; and they wished Ali to make some vow to God for the recovery of his sons; whereupon Ali, and Fâtema, and Fidda, their maid-servant, vowed a fast of three days in case they did well: as it happened they did. This vow was performed with so great strictness, that the • See the notes to chap. 2, pp. 4, 5. • Al Beidâwi. 7 Idem.

deliver them from the evil of that day, and shall cast on them the brightness of countenance, and joy; and shall reward them, for their patient persevering, with a garden and silk garments: therein shall they repose themselves on couches; they shall see therein neither sun nor moon ;* and the shades thereof shall be near spreading above them, and the fruits thereof shall hang low, so as to be easily gathered. And their attendants shall go round about unto them, with vessels of silver, and goblets; the bottles shall be bottles of silver shining like glass; they shall determine the measure thereof by their wish. And therein shall they be given to drink of a cup of wine, mixed with the water of Zenjebil," a fountain in paradise named Salsabil: and youths, which shall continue for ever in their bloom, shall go round to attend them; when thou seest them, thou shalt think them to be scattered pearls: and when thou lookest, there shalt thou behold lights, and a great kingdom. Upon them shall be garments of fine green silk, and of brocades, and they shall be adorned with bracelets of silver: and their LORD shall give them to drink of a most pure liquor; and shall say unto them, Verily this is your reward: and your endeavour is gratefully accepted. Verily we have sent down unto thee the Korân, by a gradual revelation. Wherefore patiently wait the judgment of thy LORD; and obey not any wicked person or unbeliever among them. And commemorate the name of thy LORD, in the morning, and in the evening: and during some part of the night worship him, and praise him a long part of the night.t Verily these men love the transitory life, and leave behind them the heavy day of judgment. We have created them, and have strengthened their joints ; and when we please, we will substitute others like unto them, in their stead. Verily this is an admonition: and whoso willeth, taketh the way unto his LORD but ye shall not will, unless GOD willeth ; for GOD is knowing and wise. He leadeth whom he pleaseth unto his mercy; but for the unjust hath he prepared a grievous punishment.

first day, having no provisions in the house, Ali was obliged to borrow three measures of barley of one Simeon, a Jew of Khaibar; one measure of which Fâtema ground the same day, and baked five cakes of the meal; and they were set before them, to break their fast with after sunset: but a poor man coming to them, they gave all their bread to him, and passed the night without tasting any thing, except water. The next day, Fâtema made another measure into bread, for the same purpose; but an orphan begging some food, they chose to let him have it, and passed that night, as the first: and the third day they likewise gave their whole provision to a famished captive. Upon this occasion Gabriel descended with the chapter before us, and told Mohammed that God congratulated him on the virtues of his family.

Because they shall not need the light of either." The word Zamharîr, here translated moon, properly signifies extreme cold: for which reason some understand the meaning of the passage to be, that in paradise there shall be felt no excess either of heat, or of cold.

"They repose on the nuptial couch; they shall not be incommoded by the splendour of the sun or of the moon.”—Savary,

The word signifies ginger, which the Arabs delight to mix with the water they drink; and therefore the water of this fountain is supposed to have the taste of that spice.10

Signifies water which flows gently and pleasantly down the throat.

"Adore him during the night. Make known his praise in the midst of the darkness."-Savary.

8 Al Beidawi.

See Rev. xxi, ??

10 Al Beidâwi, Jallalo’ddin.




By the angels which are sent by God, following one another in a continual series; and those which move swiftly, with a rapid motion; and by those which disperse his commands, by divulging them through the earth ; and by those which separate truth from falsehood, by distinguishing the same; and by those which communicate the divine admonitions, to excuse, or to threaten: verily that which ye are promised is inevitable.* When the stars, therefore, shall be put out, and when the heaven shall be cloven in sunder, and when the mountains shall be winnowed, and when the apostles shall have a time assigned to them to appear and bear testimony against their respective people; to what a day shall that appointment be deferred! to the day of separation: and what shall cause thee to understand what the day of separation is? On that day, woe be unto them who accused the prophets of imposture! Have we not destroyed the obstinate unbelievers of old? We will also cause those of the latter times to follow them. Thus do we deal with the wicked. Woe be, on that day, unto them who accused the prophets of imposture! Have we not created you of a contemptible drop of seed, which we placed in a sure repository, until the fixed term of delivery? And we were able to do this: for we are most powerful. On that day, woe be unto those who accused the prophets of imposture! Have we not made the earth to contain the living and the dead, and placed therein stable and lofty mountains, and given you fresh water to drink? Woe be, on that day, unto those who accused the prophets of imposture! It shall be said unto them, Go ye to the punishment which ye denied as a falsehood: go ye into the shadow of the smoke of hell, which shall ascend in three columns, and shall not shade you from the heat, neither shall it be of service against the flame; but it shall cast forth sparks as big as towers, resembling yellow camels in colour.'+ Woe be, on that day,

1 Some understand the whole passage of the verse of the Korân: which continued to be sent down, parcel after parcel, during the space of several years, and which rescind (for so the verb ásaƒ may also be translated) and abolish all former dispensations, divulging and making known the ways of salvation, distinguishing truth from falsehood, and communicating admonition, &c. Some interpret the first three verses of the winds sent in a continual succession, blowing with a violent gust, and dispersing rain over the earth: and others give different explications.

Viz., the day of judgment.

"By the messengers which follow each other, by the frightful tempests, by the winds which bring fruitfulness, by the verses of the Korân, by the angels who bear warnings, the punishments which are announced to you will come."-Savary.

Being of a fiery colour. Others, however, suppose these sparks will be of a dusky hue, like that of black camels, which always inclines a little to the yellow; the word translated yellow signifying sometimes black. Some copies, by the variation of a vowel, have cables instead of camels.

"Go ye under the trees which have only three branches to cover you. That shade shall bring unto you no coolness, neither shall it afford unto you a refuge from the flames. They shall dart up on all sides in pyramids lofty as the roofs of palaces. Their colour shall be like unto that of red camels."-Savary.

unto those who accused the prophet of imposture! This shall be a day whereon they shall not speak to any purpose; neither shall they be permitted to excuse themselves. Woe be, on that day, unto those who accused the prophets of imposture! This shall be the day of separation; we will assemble both you and your predecessors. Wherefore, if ye have any cunning stratagem, employ stratagems against me. Woe be, on that day, unto those who accused the prophets of imposture! But the pious shall dwell amidst shades and fountains, and fruits of the kinds which they shall desire; and it shall be said unto them, Eat and drink with easy digestion, in recompence for that which ye have wrought; for thus do we reward the righteous doers.* Woe be, on that day, unto those who accuse the prophets of imposture! Eat, 0 unbelievers, and enjoy the pleasures of this life, for a little while: verily ye are wicked men. Woe be, on that day, unto those who accused the prophets of imposture! And when it is said unto them, Bow down; they do not bow down. Woe be, on that day, unto those who accused the prophets of imposture! In what new revelation will they believe, after this?




[* XXX.] CONCERNING what do the unbelievers ask questions of one another? Concerning the great news of the resurrection, about which they disagree. Assuredly they shall hereafter know the truth thereof. Again, Assuredly they shall hereafter know the truth thereof. Have we not made the earth for a bed, and the mountain for stakes to fix the same ?+ And have we not created you of two sexes; and appointed you sleep for rest; and made the night a garment to cover you; and destined the day to the gaining your livelihood; and built over you seven solid heavens; and placed therein a burning lamp? And do we not send down from the clouds pressing forth rain, water pouring down in abundance, that we may thereby produce corn, and herbs, and gardens planted thick with trees? Verily the day of separation is a fixed period: the day whereon the trumpet shall sound, and ye shall come in troops to judgment; and the heavens shall be opened, and shall be full of gates for the angels to pass through; and the mountains shall pass away, and become as a vapour; verily hell shall be a place of ambush, a receptacle for the transgressors, who shall remain therein for ages: they shall not taste any refreshment therein, or any drink, except boiling water, and filthy corruption: § a fit recompence for their deeds! For

"Eat and drink at pleasure. Enjoy the reward of your virtue."-Savary. "Have we not spread out the earth like unto a carpet? Have we not raised the mountains to serve for a support unto it."-Savary.

See chap. 16, p. 215, and chap. 31, p. 335.

"We have drawn man and woman from nothing."-Savary.

$"Boiling and putrid water shall be their only drink"-Savary.

they hoped that they should not be brought to an account, and they disbelieved our signs, accusing them of falsehood. But every thing have we computed, and written down. Taste, therefore: we will not add unto you any other than torment." But for the pious is prepared a place of bliss: gardens planted with trees, and vineyards, and damsels with swelling breasts, of equal age with themselves, and a full cup. They shall hear no vain discourse there nor any falsehood. This shall be their recompence from thy LORD; a gift fully sufficient: from the LORD of heaven and earth, and of whatever is between them; the Merciful. The inhabitants of heaven or of earth shall not dare to demand audience of him: the day whereon the spirit Gabriel and the other angels shall stand in order, they shall not speak in behalf of themselves or others, except he only to whom the Merciful shall grant permission, and who shall say that which is right. This is the infallible day. Whoso, therefore, willeth, let him return unto his LORD, Verily we threaten you with a punishment nigh at hand: the day whereon a man shall behold the good or evil deeds which his hands have sent before him; and the unbelievers shall say, Would to GOD I were dust!




By the angels who tear forth the souls of some with violence; and by those who draw forth the souls of others with gentleness; by those who glide swimmingly through the air with the commands of God; and those who precede and usher the righteous to paradise; and those who subordinately govern the affairs of this world: on a certain day, the disturbing blast of the trumpet shall disturb the universe; and the subsequent blast shall follow it. On that day men's hearts shall tremble: their looks shall be cast down. The infidels say, Shall we surely be made to return whence we came?? After we shall have become rotten bones, shall we be again raised to life? They

This, say the commentators, is the most severe and terrible sentence in the whole Korân, pronounced against the inhabitants of hell; they being hereby assured that every change in their torments will be for the worse.

"In that day Gabriel shall remain standing, the angels shall keep their ranks. They shall speak to no one without the permission of the Highest, and they shall say only that which is fitting."-Savary.

These are the angel of death, and his assistants; who will take the souls of the wicked in a rough and cruel manner, from the inmost part of their bodies, as a man drags up a thing from the bottom of the sea; but will take the souls of the good in a gentle and easy manner, from their lips, as when a man draws a bucket of water at one pull.1

There are several other interpretations of this whole passage; some expounding all the five parts of the cath of the stars, others of the souls of men,others of the souls of warriors in particular, and others of war-horses; a detail of which, I appre hend, would rather tire than please.

Pi. e. Shall we be restored to our former condition?

Al Beidâwi.

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