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the like whereof hath not been erected in the land; and with Thamud, who hewed the rocks in the valley into houses; and with Pharaoh, the contriver of the stakes: who had behaved insolently in the earth, and multiplied corruption therein? * Wherefore thy LORD poured on them various kinds of chastisement: for thy LORD is surely in a watch-tower, whence he observeth the actions of men. Moreover man, when his LORD trieth him by prosperity, and honoureth him, and is bounteous unto him, saith, My LORD honoureth me; but when he proveth him by afflictions, and withholdeth his provisions from him, he saith, My LORD despiseth me. By no means:1 but ye honour not the orphan, neither do ye excite one another to feed the poor; and ye devour the inheritance of the weak, with undistinguishing greediness, and yelove riches with much affection. By no means should ye do thus. When the earth shall be minutely ground to dust; and thy LORD shall come, and the angels rank by rank; and hell, on that day, shall be brought nigh: on that day shall man call to remembrance his evil deeds; but how shall remembrance avail him? He shall say, Would to GOD that I had heretofore done good works in my life-time !° On that day none shall punish with his punishment; nor shall any bind with his bonds.P

take a view of it; but when they were come within a day's journey of the place, they were all destroyed by a terrible noise from heaven. Al Beidâwi adds that one Abdallah Ebn Kelâbah (whom, after D'Herbelot, I have elsewhere named Colabah ) accidentally hit upon this wonderful place, as he was seeking a camel.

If we suppose the preceding words to relate to the vast stature of the Adites, these must be translated, The like of whom have not been created, &c.

The learned Greaves, in his translation of Abu'lfeda's description of Arabia, has falsely rendered these words, which are there quoted, Quibus petræ vallis responsum dederunt, i. e. To whom the rocks of the valley returned answer: which slip being made by so great a man, I do not at all wonder that la Roque, and Petis de la Croix, from whose Latin version, and with whose assistance, la Roque made his French translation of the aforesaid treatise, have been led into the same mistake, and rendered those words, A qui les pierres de la vallée redirent réponse. The valley here meant, say the commentators, is Wâdi'lkora, lying about one day's journey (not five and upwards, as Abu'lfeda will have it,) from al Hejr.

See chap. 38, p. 372.

"Art thou ignorant how God took vengeance on the Adites; on the Iremites, whose stature equalled the height of columns; (the earth never bore men like unto them;) on the Thamuds, who hewed the rocks into valleys; and on Pharaoh, who, surrounded by a splendid court, ruled Egypt haughtily."-Savary.

The original word signifies a mixture, and also a scourge of platted thongs: whence some suppose the chastisement of this life is here represented by a scourge, and intimated to be as much lighter than that of the next life, as scourging is lighter than death.

1 For worldly prosperity or adversity is not a certain mark either of the favour or disfavour of God.

Not suffering women or young children to have any share in the inheritance of their husbands or parents. See chap. 4, p. 60.

"Are not these your faults?"— Savary.

There is a tradition that at the last day hell will be dragged towards the tribunal by 70,000 halters, each halter being hauled by 70,000 angels; and that it will come with great roaring and fury.5

• Or, For this my latter life.

Pi. e. None shall be able to punish or to bind, as God shall then punish and bind the wicked.


8 Prelim. Disc. p. 5. Page 23. It was published by Dr. Hudson, in the third vol. of the Geographiæ veteris Scriptor. Gr. minor. Descr. de l'Arabie, mise à la suite du Voyage de la Palestine, par La Roque, p. 35. * Jalial., al Ebn Hawkal, apud Abulf. ubi sub. Geogr. Nub. p. 110. 4 Al Al Beidâwi, al Jallal. • lidem.



O thou soul which art at rest, return unto thy LORD, well pleased with thy reward, and well pleasing unto God: enter among my servants; and enter my paradise.




I SWEAR by this territory," (and thou, O prophet, residest in this territory,+) and by the begetter, and that which he hath begotten;" verily we have created man in misery. Doth he think that none shall prevail over him? He saith, I have wasted plenty of riches. Doth he think that none seeth him? Have we not made him two eyes, and a tongue, and two lips; and shown him the two highways of good and evil? Yet he attempteth not the cliff. What shall make thee to understand what the cliff is ? It is to free the captive; or to feed, in the day of famine, the orphan who is of kin, or the poor man who lieth on the ground, Whoso doth this, and is one of those who believe, and recommend perseverance unto each other, and recommend mercy unto each other; these shall be the companions of the right hand. But they who shall disbelieve our signs shall be the companions of the left hand: above them shall be arched fire.

Some expound this of the soul which having, by pursuing the concatenation of natural causes, raised itself to the knowledge of that Being which produced them, and exists of necessity, rests fully contented, or acquiesces in the knowledge of him, and the contemplation of his perfections. By this the reader will observe that the Mohammedans are no strangers to Quietism. Others, however, understand the words of the soul which, having attained the knowledge of the truth, rests satisfied, and relies securely thereon, undisturbed by doubts; or of the soul which is secure of its salvation, and free from fear or sorrow."

"The faithful who shall read this chapter devoutly, says Zamakhshari, shall enjoy the protection of heaven; at the day of resurrection, God will give them a safe-guard against his wrath."-Savary.

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Or, I will not swear, &c. See chap. 56, p. 437, note 4. (Savary prefers this reading.)

• Viz., the sacred territory of Mecca.

* Or, Thou shalt be allowed to do what thou pleasest in this territory; the words, in this sense, importing a promise of that absolute power which Mohammed attained on the taking of Mecca.&

"It is thy asylum."-Savary.

Some understand these words generally; others of Adam, or Abraham, and of their offspring, and of Mohammed in particular.

Or, to trouble. This passage was revealed to comfort the prophet under the persecutions of the Koreish.1

Some expositors take a particular person to be here intended, who was one of Mohammed's most inveterate adversaries; as al Walid Ebn al Mogheira: 3 others suppose Abu'l Aɛhadd Ebn Calda to be the man who was so very strong, that a large skin being spread under his feet, and ten men pulling at it, they could not make him fall, though they tore the skin to pieces.3

In a vain and ostentatious manner; or, in opposing of Mohammed.* "We have made him experience the one and the other fortune. But we have not put him to the last proof. What is that proof?”—Savary,

See chap. 56, p. 435.

b See ibid.

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By the Sun, and its rising brightness; † by the moon, when she followeth him; by the day, when it showeth his splendour; by the night, when it covereth him with darkness; ‡ by the heaven, and him who built it; by the earth, and him who spread it forth; by the soul, and him who completely formed it, and inspired into the same its faculty of distinguishing, and power of choosing, wickedness and piety: now is he who hath purified the same, happy; but he who hath corrupted the same, is miserable. Thamud accused their prophet Saleh of imposture, through the excess of their wickedness: when the wretch among them was sent to slay the camel; and the apostle of GOD said unto them, Let alone the camel of GOD; and hinder not her drinking. But they charged him with imposture; and they slew her. Wherefore their LORD destroyed them, for their crime, and made their punishment equal unto them all: and he feareth not the issue thereof.




By the night, when it covereth all things with darkness; by the day when it shineth forth; || by his who hath created the male, and the female: verily your endeavour is different. Now whoso is obedient, and feareth God,** and professeth the truth of that faith which is most excellent; unto him will we facilitate the way to happiness: but whoso shall be covetous, and shall be wholly taken up with this world, and shall deny the truth of that which is most excellent; unto him will we facilitate the way to misery;

"The Mohammedan, says Zamakhshari, who shall devoutly read this chapter shall be rewarded as if he had bestowed in alms all that the sun and the moon enlighten in their course."-Savary

"By the sun, and its brilliant fires."-Savary.

i. e. When she rises just after him, as she does at the beginning of the month: or when she sets after him, as happens when she is a little past the full.5

"By the night, which covereth his luminous countenance."-Savary.

à Viz., Kedar Ebn Sâlef. See chap. 7, p. 124, and chap. 54, p. 430.

"God will fulfil all the desires of the faithful who shall read this chapter; he will mitigate for them the troubles of life, and will crown all their undertakings with success. Such is the opinion of the Mohammedan theologians."-Savary. "By the day when it shineth with the purest radiance."-Savary. "Your zeal shall have a different success.”—Savary.

**"He who giveth alms and who feareth God."-Savary.

Al Beidâwi.

and his riches shall not profit him, when he shall fall headlong into hell. Verily unto us appertaineth the direction of mankind: and ours is the life to come, and the present life. Wherefore I threaten you with fire which burneth fiercely, which none shall enter to be burned except the most wretched; who shall have disbelieved, and turned back. But he who strictly bewareth idolatry and rebellion shall be removed far from the same; who giveth his substance in alms, and by whom no benefit is bestowed on any, that it may be recompensed, but who bestoweth the same for the sake of his LORD, the most High, and hereafter he shall be well satisfied with his reward.*




By the brightness of the morning; and by the night, when it groweth dark:† thy IORD hath not forsaken thee, neither doth he hate thee, Verily the life to come shall be better for thee than this present life: and thy LORD shall give thee a reward wherewith thou shalt be well pleased. Did he not find thee an orphan, and hath he not taken care of thee? And did he not find thee wandering in error, and hath he not guided thee into the truth? And did he not find thee needy, and hath he not enriched thee? Wherefore oppress not the orphan: neither repulse the beggar: but declare the goodness of thy LORD.

•Jallalo'ddin thinks this whole description belongs peculiarly to Abu Becr: for when he had purchased Belâl, the Ethiopian (afterwards the prophet's Muedhdhin, or crier to prayers), who had been put to the rack on account of his faith, the infidels said he did it only out of a view of interest; upon which this passage was revealed.

"The pious man shall dwell in a far different abode. He made the sacrifice of that which he possessed, that he might become more pure. He never allowed a benefit to remain unrecompensed. To please God was his sole desire. The enjoyment of paradise shall constitute his felicity."-Savary.

The original word properly signifies the bright part of the day, when the sun shines full out, three or four hours after it is risen.

"By the sun in his meridian splendour, by the shades of night."—Savary.

It is related, that no revelation having been vouchsafed to Mohammed for several days in answer to some questions put to him by the Koreish, because he had confidently promised to resolve them the next day, without adding the exception, If it please God, or because he had repulsed an importunate beggar, or else because a dead puppy lay under his seat, or for some other reason; his enemies said that God had left him: whereupon this chapter was sent down for his consolation.7

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HAVE we not opened thy breast ;*i and eased thee of thy burden,* which galled thy back; and raised thy reputation for thee? Verily a difficulty shall be attended with ease.t Verily a difficulty shall be attended with ease. When thou shalt have ended thy preaching; labour to serve God in return for his favours; and make thy supplication unto thy LORD.





By the fig, and the olive; and by mount Sinai, and this territory of security;" verily we created man of a most excellent fabric; afterwards we rendered him the vilest of the vile: except those who believe, and work

"Have we not expanded thy heart!”—Savary.

By disposing and enlarging it to receive the truth, and wisdom, and prophecy; or, by freeing thee from uneasiness and ignorance? This passage is thought to intimate the opening of Mohammed's heart, in his infancy, or when he took his journey to heaven, by the angel Gabriel; who, having wrung out the black drop, or seed of original sin, washed and cleansed the same, and filled it with wisdom and faith: 8 but some think it relates to the occasion of the preceding chapter."

i. e. Of thy sins committed before thy mission; or of thy ignorance, or trouble of mind.

"By the side of pain is pleasure; by the side of misfortune is happiness.”— Sarary.

Or, When thou shalt have finished thy prayer, labour in preaching the faith.10 m God, say the commentators, swears by these two fruits, because of their great uses and virtues; for the fig is wholesome and easy of digestion, and physically good to carry off phlegm, and gravel in the kidneys or bladder, and to remove obstructions of the liver and spleen, and also cures the piles, and the gout, &c.; the olive produces oil, which is not only excellent to eat, but otherwise useful for the compounding of ointments; the wood of the olive-tree, moreover, is good for cleansing the teeth, preventing their growing rotten, and giving a good odour to the mouth; for which reason the prophets, and Mohammed in particular, made use of no other for toothpicks."

Some, however, suppose that these words do not mean the fruits or trees abovementioned, but two mountains in the Holy Land, where they grow in plenty; or else the temple of Damascus and that at Jerusalem.3

"And this faithful land."- Savary.

Viz., the territory of Mecca. These words seem to argue the chapter to have been revealed there.

ie. As the commentators generally expound this passage, We created man of comely proportion of body, and great perfection of mind; and yet we have doomed him, in case of disobedience, to be an inhabitant of hell. Some, however, understand the words of the vigorous constitution of man in the prime and strength of his age, and of his miserable decay when he becomes old and decrepit: but they seem rather to intimate

Al Beidâwi, Yahya. Vide Abulf. vit. Moh. p. 9, and 33. Prid. Life of Moh. 105, &c. Al Beidâwi. 10 Idem. 1 Idem, al Zamakh. Al Zamakh. Idem, Yahya, al Beidawi, Jallalo'ddin. 4 See the Prelim. Disc. sect. iv.

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