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He shall

THE hands of Abu Laheb shall perish, and he shall perish.' riches shall not profit him, neither that which he hath gained." go down to be burned into flaming fire; and his wife also, bearing wood, having on her neck a cord of twisted fibres of a palm-tree.




SAY, God is one GOD; the eternal GOD: he begetteth not, neither is he begotten and there is not any one like unto him.

1 Abu Laheb was the surname of Abd'al Uzza, one of the sons of Abd'almotalleb, and uncle to Mohammed. He was a most bitter enemy to his nephew, and opposed the establishment of his new religion to the utmost of his power. When that prophet, in obedience to the command he had received to admonish his relations, had called them all together, and told them that he was a warner sent unto them before a grievous chastisement, Abu Laheb cried out, Mayest thou perish! hast thou called us together for this? and took up a stone to cast at him. Whereupon this passage was revealed.

By the hands of Abu Laheb some commentators, by a synecdoche, understand his person; others, by a metonymy, his affairs in general, they being transacted with those members; or his hopes in this world, and the next.

He died of grief and vexation at the defeat his friends had received at Bedr, surviving that misfortune but seven days. They add, that his corpse was left above ground three days, till it stank, and then some negroes were hired to bury him."

"The power of Abu Laheb hath vanished. He himself hath perished."-Savary. And accordingly his great possessions, and the rank and esteem in which he lived at Mecca, were of no service to him, nor could protect him against the vengeance of God. Al Beidâwi mentions also the loss of his son Otba, who was torn to pieces by a lion, in the way to Syria, though surrounded by the whole caravan. Arab, når dhât laheb; alluding to the surname of Abu Laheb, which signifies the father of flames.

P Her name was Omm Jemil; she was the daughter of Harb, and sister of Abu Sofiân.

a For fuel in hell; because she fomented the hatred which her husband bore to Mohammed; or, bearing a bundle of thorns and brambles, because she carried such, and strewed them by night in the prophet's way.

This chapter is held in particular veneration by the Mohammedans, and declared, by a tradition of their prophet, to be equal in value to a third part of the whole Korân. It is said to have been revealed in answer to the Koreish, who asked Mohammed concerning the distinguishing attributes of the God he invited them to worship.1

See the Prelim. Disc. sect. ii. p. 31. Vit. Mohammed, p. 57. ? Al Beidâwi.

Al Beidâwi, Jallalo'ddin, &c.
Idem, Jallalo'ddin.

1 Abulf Iidem.





SAY, I fly for refuge unto the LORD of the day-break,* that he may deliver me from the mischief of those things which he hath created;* and from the mischief of the night, when it cometh on;"+ and from the mischief of women blowing on knots; and from the mischief of the envious, when he envieth.




SAY, I fly for refuge unto the LORD of men, the king of men, the God of men, that he may deliver me from the mischief of the whisperer who slily withdraweth, who whispereth evil suggestions into the breasts of men ; from genii and men.

The original word properly signifies a cleaving, and denotes, says al Beidâwi, the production of all things in general from the darkness of privation to the light of existence, and especially of those things which proceed from others, as springs, rain, plants, children, &c., and hence it is used more particularly to signify the breaking forth of the light from darkness, which is a most wonderful instance of the divine power.

"Say, I put my trust in the God of the morning."-Savary.

i. e. From the mischiefs proceeding either from the perverseness and evil choice of those beings which have a power to choose, or the natural effects of necessary agents, as fire, poison, &c., the world being good in the whole, though evils may

follow from those two causes.5

"Or, as the words may be rendered, From the mischief of the moon when she is eclipsed.

"That he may deliver me from the evils with which the human race is surrounded; from the influence of the moon, shrouded in darkness.”—Savary.

* That is, of witches, who used to tie knots in a cord, and to blow on them, uttering at the same time certain magical words over them, in order to work on, or debilitate the person they had a mind to injure. This was a common practice in former days: what they call in France, Nouër l'eguillette, and the knots which the wizards in the northern parts tie, when they sell mariners a wind, (if the stories told of them be true,) are also relics of the same superstition.

The commentators relate, that Lobeid, a Jew, with the assistance of his daughters, bewitched Mohammed, by tying eleven knots on a cord, which they hid in a well: whereupon Mohammed falling ill, God revealed this chapter and the following, and Gabriel acquainted him with the use he was to make of them, and of the place where the cord was hidden: according to whose directions the prophet sent Ali to fetch the cord, and the same being brought, he repeated the two chapters over it, and at every verse (for they consist of eleven,) a knot was loosed, till on finishing the last words, he was entirely freed from the charm.7

(The Mohammedans have an implicit faith in the efficacy of the words contained in these two chapters. They consider them as a sovereign specific against magic lunar influences, and the temptations of the evil spirit. They never fail to repeat them evening and morning.)-Savary.

This chapter was revealed on the same occasion, and at the same time with the former.

i. e. The devil; who withdraweth when a man mentioneth God, or hath recourse to his protection.

"That he may deliver me from the temptations of Satan.”—Savary.

• Al Beidawi.

• Vide Virgil. in Pharmaceutria. 7 Al Beidâwi, Jallalo'ddin.




AARON, vide Moses.

Al Abbâs, one of Mohammed's uncles,
taken at Bedr, and obliged to ransom
himself, 146, n.; professes Islâm, 147,
n.; confesses a passage of the Korân to
be fulfilled in respect to himself, ib. n.;
remarkable for his loud voice, 151, n.
Abda'lhareth, a son of Adam so named
Abda'llah Dhu'lbajadîn, 161, n.
Abdallah Ebn Obba Solûl the hypocrite,
admired for his person and eloquence,
451, n.; threatens to drive Mohammed
from Medina, 453; raises and inflames
a scandalous story of Ayesha, 288, n.;
is present at an interview between Mo-
hammed and his adversaries, 341, n.;
occasions a quarrel, 418, n.; promises
to assist the Nadirites, but fails them,
445, n.; endeavours to debauch Mo-
hammed's men at Ohod, 50, n.; excused
from going on the expedition to Tabûc,
154, n.; desires Mohammed's prayers
in his last sickness, 159, n. ; and to be
buried in the prophet's shirt, ib. |
Abdallah Ebn Omm Mactâm, a blind
man, occasions a passage of the Korân,
480, n.

Abdallah Ebn Rawaha, rebukes Ebn
Obba, 341, n.

Abda'llah Ebn Saad, one of Mohammed's
amanuenses, imagines himself inspired,
and corrupts the Korân, 108, n.; apos-
tatizes and is proscribed, but escapes
with life, ib.

Abda'llah Ebn Salam, a Jew intimate
with Mohammed, his honesty, 45, n.;
supposed to have assisted in composing
the Korân, 223, n.; confounded by Dr.
Prideaux with Salman the Persian, ib.;
commended for his knowledge and
faith, 79.

Abd Menâf, a dispute between his de-
scendants and the Sahmites, 498; n.
Abda'lrahmân Ebn Awf, one of Moham-
med's first converts, Prelim. Disc. 31.
n.; an instance of his charity, 158, n.
Abel, vide Cain; his ram sacrificed by
Abraham, 369, n.

Abraha al Ashram, king of Yaman, his
expedition against Mecca; the occasion
and success thereof, 499, n.

Abraham, the patriarch, an idolater in his
youth, 106, n.; how he came to the
knowledge of the true God, b.; de-
molishes the idols of the Chaldeans,
268; preaches to his people, 326; his
religion commended, 15, 16, 47, 115;
disputes with Nimrod, 31; escapes the
fire into which he was thrown by Nim-
rod's order, 269; his praying for his
father, 163, 447; desires to be convinced
of the resurrection, 31, 32; his sacrifice
of birds, 32; entertains the angels, 182,
423; receives the promise of Isaac, 182;
called the friend of God, 75; is miracu-
lously supplied by the changing of sand
into meal, ib. n.; his sacrifice of his
son, 369; praises God for Ismael and
Isaac, 208; commanded, together with
Ismael, to build and cleanse the Caaba,
16; prays to God to raise up a prophet
of their seed, and for the plenty and
security of Mecca, ib.; bequeaths the
religion of Islâm to his children, ib.
Abu Amer, vide Amer, &c.

Ad, a potent tribe of Arabs, destroyed for
their infidelity, 123, 282, 305, 390, 408,
490; vide Hud.

Adam, traditions concerning his creation,
4, n., 228, n.; worshipped by the angels,
5, 117, 211, 232, 243, 376; his fall, 5,
117; repents and prays, 6; meets Eve
at Mount Arafat, 5, n.; retires with
her to Ceylon, ib.; their stature, ib.;
his posterity extracted from his loins
by God to acknowledge him for their
Lord, 135, n.; names his eldest son as
directed by the devil, 137, n.
Adoption creates no matrimonial impedi-
ment, 341.

Adulterers, Mohammed's sentence against
them, 37, n, 87, n.
Adultery, its punishment, 37, 63; what
evidence required to convict a woman
of it, 61.

Adversaries, the dispute of two terminated
by David, 373.

Ahmed, the name under which Moham-

med was foretold by Christ, 449.
Al Ahkâf, the habitation of the Adites, 406.
Aila, or Elath, the Sabbath-breakers
there changed into apes, 9, 134.

Al Akhnas, a hypocrite, 24, n., 460, n.
Alexander, vide Dhu'lkarnein.
Ali is sent to Mecca to publish part of the
Korân, 148, n.; the abstinence and cha-
rity of him and his family, 474, n.
Allât an idol of the Koreish, 74, n., 427.
Alms recommended, 6, 14, 23, 118, 438;
the punishment of not giving alms, in the
next life, 56, n.

Amena, Mohammed's mother, he is not
permitted to pray for her, 163.
Amer and Arbad attempt to kill Moham-
med, and their punishment, 201, n.
Amer (Abu), a Christian monk, and violent
enemy to Mohammed, 162, n.
Amer (Banu), their abstinence on the pil-
grimage, 118, n.

Ammar Ebn Yaser, tortured on account of
his faith, 224, n.

Amru Ebn Lohai, the great introducer of
idolatry among the Arabs, 113, n., 167, n.
Amru (Banu) build a mosque at Koba,
162, n.

Anam, the name of Lokmân's son, 336, n.
Angel of Death, vide Azraîl.
Angels, their original, 117, 376; worship
Adam, vide Adam; impeccable, 243, n.;
of different forms and orders, 357; not the
objects of worship, 280; nor ought to be
hated, 13; the number of them which sup-
port God's throne, 463; are deputed to
take an account of men's actions, 421;
some of them appointed to take the souls
of men, 478; to preside over hell, and to
keep guard against the devils, 472; assist
the Moslems at Bedr, 36, 145; believed
by the Arabs to be daughters of God, 74,
218, &c.; appear to Abraham and Lot,
182, 183, 423.

Animals, irrational, will be raised at the
resurrection and judged, 102, n.; created
of water, 293.

Ans Ebn al Nadar, his behaviour at Ohod,
52, n.

Ansars, or helpers, who, 160, n.; three of
them excommunicated for refusing to at-
tend Mohammed to Tabûc, 164.
Ants, the valley of, 310; their queen's
speech to them on the approach of Solo-
mon's army, ib.

Apostles were not believed who wrought
miracles, 57; those before Mohammed
accused likewise of imposture, 57, 101;
of Christ, 42; two of them sent to preach
at Antioch, 361.
Apparel, what kind ought to be worn by
those who approach the divine presence,


Arabians, their acuteness, 115; their cus-
toms in relation to divorce, 341, n.; to
adoption, ib.; in burying their daughters
alive, 112, 481; their chief idols, 137, n.;
their superstitions in relation to eating,
113, 295, &c.; and in relation to cattle,
&c., 74, 95; used to worship naked, and
why, 118, n.; their injustice to orphans
and women, 75, n.; deem the birth of a

daughter a misfortune, 218, n.; the re-
conciliation of their tribes deemed mira-
culous, 145, n.; quit their new religion in
great numbers on Mohammed's death,


Arabs of the desert, more obstinate, 160.
Al Arâf, what, 116, n.

Arafat, Mount, why so called, 5, n.; the
procession thereto, 23.
Arbad, vide Amer

Al Arem, the inundation of, 353, n.
Ark of Israel taken by the Amalekites, 30, n.
Arrows for divination forbidden, 81.
Al As Ebn Wayel, an enemy of Moham-
med's, 214, 254.

Asaf, Solomon's vizir, 312, n.
Asem, his charity, 158.
Ashadd (Abu'l), his extraordinary strength,

490, n.

Ashama, king of Ethiopia, embraces Mo
hammedism, 92, n.; prayed for after his
death by Mohammed, 58, n.

Asia, the wife of Pharaoh, martyred by
her husband for believing in Moses, 458,
n.; is taken alive into paradise, ib. ; one
of the four perfect women, ib.
Aslam, 414, n.

Astrology, hinted at, 57.

Al Aswad al Ansi, the false prophet, 89, n.
Al Aswad Ebn Abd Yaghuth, al Aswad
Ebn al Motalleb, two of Mohammed's
enemies, 214.

As and Khazrai, their enmity, 48, n.
Ayesha, Mohammed's wife; the history of
her accusation, 288, n.

Azer, the name given to Terah, Abraham's
father, 105, n.

Azrail, the angel of death, why appointed
to that office, 4, n.; a story of him and
Solomon, 338, n.

BAAL, the chief idol of the Chaldeans, 268, n.
Babel, the tower of, destroyed, 216, n.
Backbiting, vide Slander.
Bahira, 95.

Bakhtnasr, vide Nebuchadnezzar.
Balaam, his punishment for cursing the
Israelites, 135, n.

Balkis, queen of Saba, visits Solomon, and
her reception, 312; her legs hairy, 313;
marries Solomon, ib.

Barnabas, his apocryphal gospel, some ex-
tracts thence, 42, n., 117, n.
Al Barzakh, what, 285, n.
Becca, the same with Mecca, 47.
Becr (Abu), attends Mohammed in his flight
from Mecca, 154, n.; bears testimony to
the truth of Mohammed's journey to hea-
ven, 232, n.; his wages with Obba Ebn
Khalf, 330, n.; strikes a Jew on the face
for speaking irreverently of God, 56, n.;
gives all he has towards the expedition of
Tabûc, 158, n.; purchases Belâl, 492, n. ;
compared to Abraham, 146, n.
Bedr, Mohammed's victory there, 36, 50,

Bees made use of as a similitude, 219.

Believers, the sincere ones, described, 281;
their reward, 67; their sentence, 119.
Benjamin, son of Jacob, 195, &c.
Birds, omens taken from them, 228, n.
Blessed, their future happiness described,
364, 404.

Blood forbidden, 20.

Boath, the battle of, 48, n.

Bodeil, a dispute concerning his effects, oc-
casions a passage of the Korân, 96, n.
Boheira, the monk, 223.

Bribery to pervert justice, forbidden, 22.
Burden, every soul to bear its own, 358.

CAAB Ebn al Ashraf, a Jew, Mohammed's
inveterate enemy, 45, n., 204, n.; slain by
his means, 45, n., 443, n.; mistaken by
Dr. Prideaux for another person, 45, n.
Caab Ebn Asad, persuades the Jews in
league with Mohammed to desert him,
345, n.

Al Caaba, appointed for a place of worship,
16, 276; built and cleansed by Abraham
and Ismael, 16; the keys of it returned
to Othmân Ebn Telha, 67, n.
Cafur, a fountain in paradise, 474.
Cain and Abel, their sacrifices, 85; kills his
brother, ib.; instructed by a raven to
bury him, ib.

Caleb, vide Joshua.

Calf, the golden, of what and by whom
made, 7, n.; animated, ib.; worshipped
by the Israelites, ib.
Calumny forbidden, 78.

Camels, an instance of God's wisdom, 488;

appointed for sacrifice, 277; Jacob ab-
stains from their flesh and milk, 47, n.
Canaan, an unbelieving son of Noah, 179.
Caravans of purveyors sent out by the Ko-
reish, 501.

Carrion forbidden to be eaten, 20.

Cattle, their use, 113, 388; superstitions of
the old Arabs concerning them, 95, 113.
Al Cawthar, a river in paradise, 502.
Ceylon, the isle of, vide Serendib.
Charity recommended, 65.
Chastity recommended, 82.

Children, to inherit their parents' substance,
28, 60.

Christ, vide Jesus.

tains sing praises with him, 352; makes
breast-plates, 30, 270; his repentance for
taking the wife of Uriah, 372; his and
Solomon's judgment, 270.

Days appointed to commemorate God, 276.
Dead body raised to life by a part of the
sacrificed cow, 10.

Debtors to be mercifully dealt with, 34.
Devil, vide Eblis and Satan; the occasion
of his fall, 4, 117.

Devils, included under the name Genii, 111;
the patrons of unbelievers, 56, 118, 308;
their plot to defame Solomon, 13; were
permitted to enter all the seven heavens
till the birth of Christ, 210, n.
Dhu'lkarnein, who he was, 246, n.; builds
a wall to prevent the incursions of Gog
and Magog, 247, &c.

Dhu'lkefl, the prophet, opinions concerning
him, 271, n.; saves a hundred Israelites
from slaughter, 375, n.
Dhu'lnûn, vide Jonas.

Dhu Nowâs, king of Yaman, a Jew, perse-
cutes the Christians, 458.

Disputes to be carried on with mildness, 328.
Ditch, (War of the) 342, &c.

Divorce, laws concerning it, 28, 62, 348.
Dogs, &c., allowed to be trained up for
hunting, 82.

Al Dorâh, the celestial model of the Caaba,
425, n.

Drink of the damned, 104, 105.

Dying persons, what part of the Korân
usually read to them, 316, n.

EARTH, its creation, 389, 390; remonstrates
against the creation of man, 4, n.; is kej 1
steady by the mountains, 215, 335.
Earthquake, a sign of the approach of the
last day, 496.

Eblis refuses to worship Adam at Gode
command, and why, 4, 117, 211, 232, 243,
&c.; his sentence, ib.; occasions the fall
of Adam, ib.

Eden, the meaning of the word in Arabic,
157, n.

Edris, supposed to be the same with Enoch.
252, n.

Education makes a man an infidel, 332, n.
Elephant, (War of the) 499.

Christians declared infidels, 83; and ene-Elias, vide al Khedr.
mies of the Moslems, ib. Vide Jews.
Collars to be worn by the unbelievers in the
life to come, 200.

Commandments given the Jews, 236, n.
Commerce, from God, 233.

Companions of God, what, 112.

Elisha, the prophet, 107.
Enoch, vide Edris.

Entering into houses and apartments ab
ruptly, forbidden, 290, 294.

Envy forbidden, 64.

Esop, vide Lokman.

Congealed blood, the matter of which man Eucharist, seems to have occasioned a fable

is created, 494.

Contracts to be performed, 81.

Cow ordered to be sacrificed by the Israel-
ites, 9.

Creation, some account of it, 389, 390.
Crimes to be punished with death, 230.

DAVID kills Goliah, 30, 227; his extraordi-
nary devotion, 372; the birds and moun-

in the Korân, 97, n.
Eve, vide Adam.
Evidence, vide Witness.
Evil, vide Good.

Examination of the sepulchre, 145, n.,


Exhortation to the worship of God, 384; to
a good life, 186.

Ezekiel raises the dry bones, 29, n.

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