American Encounters with Arabs: The "soft Power" of U.S. Public Diplomacy in the Middle East

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Greenwood Publishing Group, 2006 - Всего страниц: 220

For sixty years, U.S. government officials have conducted public diplomacy programs to try to reach Arab public opinion--to inform, educate, and understand Arab attitudes. American public affairs officers have met serious challenges in the past, but Arab public criticism of the United States has reached unprecedented levels since September 11, 2001. Polls show that much of the negative opinion of the United States, especially in the Middle East, can be traced to dissatisfaction with U.S. foreign policy. Rugh, a retired career Foreign Service officer who twice served as ambassador to countries in the region, explains how U.S. government officials have dealt with key problem issues over the years, and he recommends ways that public diplomacy can better support and enhance U.S. national interests in the Middle East. This struggle for the hearts and minds of the Arab world, so crucial to the success of American efforts in post-occupation Iraq, is carried out through broadcasting, cultural contacts, and educational and professional exchanges.

Rugh describes the difference between public diplomacy and propaganda. He points out that public diplomacy uses open means of communication and is truthful. Its four main components are explaining U.S. foreign policy to foreign publics; presenting them with a fair and balanced picture of American society, culture, and institutions; promoting mutual understanding; and advising U.S. policy makers on foreign attitudes. Public diplomacy supports the traditional diplomatic functions of official business between governments. Whereas diplomats from the United States deal with diplomats of foreign governments, public affairs officers deal with opinion leaders such as media editors, reporters, academics, student leaders, and prominent intellectuals and cultural personalities. Rugh provides an up-close-and-personal look at how public affairs officers do their jobs, how they used innovation in their efforts to meet the challenges of the past, and how they continue to do so in the post-September 11 era.

 

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Public Diplomacy Resources and Instruments
9
Beginnings in the Arab World 1940s1953
25
President Eisenhower and USIA 19531961
33
The Kennedy and Johnson Presidencies 19611969
49
The Nixon and Ford Presidencies 19691977
69
The Carter Presidency 19771981
83
The Reagan Era 19811989
95
The Presidency of George H W Bush 19891993
111
President George W Bushs First Two Years 20012002
147
The Bush Presidency and Iraq
165
Democratic Reform and Other Issues
181
Conclusion
195
Notes
199
Selected Bibliography
213
Index
215
Авторские права

The Clinton Era 19932001
129

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Стр. 13 - VOA will represent America, not any single segment of American society, and will therefore present a balanced and comprehensive projection of significant American thought and institutions. "(3) VOA will present the policies of the United States clearly and effectively, and will also present responsible discussion and opinion on these policies.
Стр. 18 - States to promote a better understanding of the United States in other countries, and to increase mutual understanding between the people of the United States and the people of other countries.
Стр. 13 - The long-range interests of the United States are served by communicating directly with the peoples of the world by radio. To be effective, the Voice of America (the Broadcasting Service of the United States Information Agency) must win the attention and respect of listeners.

Об авторе (2006)

WILLIAM A. RUGH was a career Foreign Service officer with the U.S. Information Agency (1964-1995). He served as U.S. ambassador to Yemen and to the United Arab Emirates. He is the author of Arab Mass Media (Praeger, 2004) and the editor of Engaging the Arab and Islamic Worlds through Public Diplomacy (Public Diplomacy Council, 2004). He is a Trustee of the American University in Cairo, a Board Member and past President of AMIDEAST, an Associate of Georgetown's Institute for the Study of Diplomacy, an Adjunct Scholar of the Middle East Institute, and an Executive Committee member of the Public Diplomacy Council.

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