Hidden Death: Landmines and Civilian Casualties in Iraqi Kurdistan
Human Rights Watch, 1992 - Всего страниц: 67
8. Control, eradication, marking and awareness initiatives.
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amputation anti-personnel appear armed attack attempts authorities border buried casualties City civilian population clear clearance continue Convention danger designed destroyed devices direct effective facility field Findings forces four front governorate grazing groups Hospital Initiatives injuries Interviewed Interviewed in Sulemaniya involved Iran Iranian Iraq Iraqi army Iraqi government Iraqi Kurdistan Italian killed Kurdish Kurdistan Kurds laid Land Mines Protocol lives Long majority manufactured maps March marked Meters Middle East Watch military minefield months objects operations organized parties Penjwin pesh merga Position presence pressure probably prohibition protect records refugees removed requires result risk road Rules September September 11 sides signs situation specific suffered Sulemaniya Sulemaniya City Hospital surveyed Technical told tripwire United Nations unmarked Valmara 69 villages warning weapons X1 Lat Zakho
Стр. 60 - Refrain from deciding to launch any attack which may be expected to cause incidental loss of civilian life, injury to civilians, damage to civilian objects, or as combination thereof, which would be excessive in relation to the concrete and direct military advantage anticipated...
Стр. 63 - ... remotely delivered mine" means any mine so defined delivered by artillery, rocket, mortar or similar means or dropped from an aircraft. 2. "Booby-trap" means any device or material which is designed, constructed or adapted to kill or injure and which functions unexpectedly when a person disturbs or approaches an apparently harmless object or performs an apparently safe act. 3. "Other devices...
Стр. 62 - Starvation of civilians as a method of combat is prohibited. It is therefore prohibited to attack, destroy, remove or render useless for that purpose, objects indispensable to the survival of the civilian population such as food-stuffs, agricultural areas for the production of food-stuffs, crops, livestock, drinking water installations and supplies and irrigation works.
Стр. 64 - ... children's toys or other portable objects or products specially designed for the feeding, health, hygiene, clothing or education of children...
Стр. 59 - ... circumstances to direct weapons to which this Article applies, either in offence, defence or by way of reprisals, against the civilian population as such or against individual civilians.
Стр. 5 - Iraq allow immediate access by international humanitarian organizations to all those in need of assistance in all parts of Iraq and to make available all necessary facilities for their operations; 4.
Стр. 64 - ... historic monuments, works of art or places of worship which constitute the cultural or spiritual heritage of peoples; (x) animals or their carcasses.
Стр. 58 - ... c) that distinction must be made at all times between persons taking part in the hostilities and members of the civilian population to the effect that the latter be spared as much as possible; 2.
Стр. 58 - ... those objects which by their nature, location, purpose or use make an effective contribution to military action and whose total or partial destruction, capture or neutralisation, in the circumstances ruling at the time, offers a definite military advantage.