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the Prosecution, and, in any case, it has not been taken into consideration at the presentation of the facts and the legal conclusions. How great this power is, Gustave le Bon shows in his famous book "Psychology of the Masses" in the chapter "The Leader of the Masses." I quote from it:
"Within the class of leaders a somewhat strict division can be made. The energetic people with strong wills, but without perseverance belong to the one kind; the people with a strong, persevering will belong to the other kind, which is much rarer * The second class of leaders, those with a persevering will, exercises a much more important influence, in spite of its less brilliant appearence."
Hitler belongs to this second class of leaders, who, in agreement with this quotation, exercised an immense influence, and who, on the other hand, was unimpressive in his brown uniform. Gustave le Bon continues:
"The unyielding will, which they possess is an exceedingly rare and powerful attribute which subordinates everything to it. One does not always realize what a strong and persistent will can achieve. Nothing can resist it, neither nature nor Gods nor men." In view of these words, one must realize that Raeder could not resist also.
Accordingly, only the question remains: can revolt ever be a soldier's duty, an open revolt? This question will be denied by every commander all over the world and likewise by any other men with one exception only, if it is the case of a dictator committing a crime the criminality of which is recognized by the military commander himself. Accordingly, Raeder could be made responsible for a military crime only, but not for a political one, because for the political crime, the dictator himself must answer. Should the Prosecution have come to some other conclusion regarding Raeder it has only occurred-as I have already emphasized in my introduction-because, in their misconception of the actual and juridical pacts, they regarded Raeder as politician and soldier. But he was a soldier only. He lived for the navy alone, for the welfare of the navy for which he also is now prepared to bear all responsibility to the full extent. He has led the navy in a unified manner, and, aided by his officer-corps, has taught them to think decently and to fight morally, to fight up to humanity's expectations of a soldier.
It must not be that, as a result of the deeds of a Hitler and his National-Socialism, the officers and soldiers of this navy be defamed by their highest ranking officer being declared a criminal. From an historic viewpoint Raeder may be guilty, because he, as
I regret that the prosecution have tried again and again to defame me and the German navy, as is proved by the submission of its second altered trial brief, which only differs from its first versions in that the number and the severity of the insulting statements have been increased. This fact proves that the Prosecutors themselves felt that the factual accusations were too weak; but it is also my conviction that the British and American Prosecution have rendered a service, a bad service to their own Navies. They lower the esteem of that opponent morally and describe him as inferior against whom the Allied naval arms have conducted a serious, honest, and year-long naval battle. I am convinced that the admiralties of the Allied powers understand me and that they know that they have not fought against a criminal. The only way I can explain to myself this attitude adopted by the Prosecution is by assuming that the representatives of the Prosecution, as I had to find them again and again, had at their disposal only very little judgment regarding the principles of true soldierly conduct and true soldierly leadership, and that, therefore, they hardly seem suited to judge soldierly honor.
I summarize: I have done my duty as a soldier because it was my conviction that this would be the best way for me to serve the German people and the German nation for which I have lived and for which to die I am prepared at every moment. If I have become guilty in any way, then only in this way, that in spite of my purely military position I may not only have been a soldier but, up to a certain point, a politician, something however which, considering my entire career and the tradition of the German Wehrmacht, would not suit me. This, on the other hand, would have been a moral guilt before the German people and it could never at any time brand me a war criminal. This would not be a guilt before the penal courts of humanity; it would have been a guilt before God.
XVI. BALDUR VON SCHIRACH
1. FINAL ARGUMENT by Dr. Fritz Sauter, Defense Counsel Baldur v. Schirach, who at that time was Reich Youth Leader (Reichsjugendfuehrer) welcomed in 1936 the guests to the Olympic Games in Berlin with the following words:
"Youth throws a bridge across all frontiers and seas!"
"I call to the Youth of the World and through them, to Peace." And Baldur v. Schirach, then Gauleiter of Vienna, said to Hitler in 1940: