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THE PRINCIPALL NAVIGATIONS
OF THE ENGLISH NATION
Certeine testimonies concerning K.
Arthur and his conquests of the North regions, taken out of the historie of the Kings of Britaine, written by Galfridus Monumetensis, and newly printed at Heidelberge, Anno 1587
Lib. 9. cap. 10. In the yere of Christ, 517. king Arthur in the second yeere of his reigne, having subdued all parts of Ireland, sailed with his feet into Island, and brought it and the people thereof under his subjection. The rumour afterwards being spread thorowout all the other Islands, that no countrey was able to withstand him, Doldavius the king of Gotland, and Gunfacius the king of Orkney, came voluntarily unto him, and yeelded him their obedience, promising to pay him tribute. The Winter being spent, he returned into Britaine, and establishing his kingdome in perfect peace, he continued there for the space of twelve yeres.
Lib. 9 cap. 12. AFTER that king Arthur sending his messengers into divers kingdomes, he summoned such as were to come to his Court, aswell out of France, as out of the adjacent Islands of the sea, &c. and a little after : From those adjacent Islands came Guillaumurius king of Ireland, Malvasius king of Island, Doldavius king of Gotland, Gunnasius king of Orkney, Lot the king of Norway, and Aschilius the king of Denmarke.
Lib. 9 cap. 19. But the kings of the other Islands, because it was not their custome to breed up horses, promised the king as many footmen, as every man was bound to send : so that out of the six Islands, namely, of Ireland, Island, Gotland, Orkney, Norway, and Denmarke, the king had sixe score thousand souldiers sent him.
A testimonie of the right and appendances of the crowne
of the kingdome of Britaine, taken out of M. Lambard
his A'pkalovopía, fol. 137. pag. 2. ARTHUR which was sometimes the most renowmed king of the Britains, was a mightie, and valiant man, and a famous warriour. This kingdome was too litle for him, & his minde was not contented with it. He therefore valiantly subdued all Scantia, which is now called Norway, and all the Islands beyond Norway, to wit, Island and Greenland, which are apperteining unto Norway, Sweveland, Ireland, Gotland, Denmarke, Semeland, Windland, Curland, Roe, Femeland, Wireland, Flanders, Cherilland, Lapland, and all the other lands & Islands of the East sea, even unto Russia (in which Lapland he placed the Easterly bounds of his Brittish Empire) and many other Islands beyond Norway, even under the North pole, which are appendances of Scantia, now called Norway. These people were wild and savage, and had not in them the love of God nor of their neighbors, because all evill commeth from the North, yet there were among them certeine Christians living in secret. But king Arthur
an exceeding good Christian, and caused them to be baptized, and thorowout all Norway to worship one God, and to receive and keepe inviolably for ever, faith in Christ onely. At that time all the noble men of Norway tooke wives of the noble nation of the Britaines, whereupon the Norses say, that they are descended of the race and blood of this kingdome. The aforesayd king Arthur obteined also in those dayes of the Pope & court of Rome, that Norway should be for ever annexed to the crowne of Britaine for the inlargement of this kingdome, and he called it the chamber of Britaine. For this cause the Norses say, that they ought to dwell with us in this kingdome, to wit, that they belong to the crowne of Britaine : for they had rather dwell here then in their owne native countrey, which is drie and full of mountaines, and barren, and no graine growing there, but in certeine places. But this countrey of Britaine is fruitfull, wherein corne and all other good things do grow and increase : for which cause many cruell battels have bene oftentimes fought betwixt the Englishmen and the people of Norway, and infinite numbers of people have bene slaine, & the Norses have possessed many
lands and Islands of this Empire, which unto this day they doe possesse, neither could they ever afterwards be fully expelled. But now at length they are incorporated with us by the receiving of our religion and sacraments, and by taking wives of our nation, and by affinitie, and mariages. For so the good king Edward (who was a notable mainteiner of peace) ordeined and granted unto them by the generall consent of the whole kingdome, so that the people may, and ought from hencefoorth dwell and remaine in this kingdome with us as our loving sworne brethren. A testimonie out of the foresayd Galfridus Monumetensis,
concerning the conquests of Malgo, king of England.
Lib. II. cap. 7. MALGO succeeded Vortiporius which was the goodliest man in person of all Britaine, a prince that expulsed many tyrants. He was strong and valiant in warre, taller then most men that then lived, and exceeding famous for his vertues. This king also obteined the government of the whole Island of Britaine, and by most sharpe battailes he recovered to his Empire the sixe Islands of the Ocean sea, which before had bene made tributaries by king Arthur, namely Ireland, Island, Got-land, Orkney, Norway, and Denmarke. The conquest of the Isles of Anglesey and Man by Edwin
the Saxon king of Northumberland written in the second Booke and fift Chapter of Beda his Ecclesi
asticall historie of the English nation. Edwin king of the people of Northumberland, that is to say, of them which inhabit to the North of the river Humber, being of greater authoritie then any other potentate in the whole Isle of Britaine, bare rule as well over the English as the British nation, except onely the people of Kent: who also brought in subjection under the English, the Isles of Man and Anglesey, and the other Northwesterne Isles of the Britons, which are situate betweene Britaine and Ireland.
Another testimonie alledged by Beda to the same
Lib. 2. cap. 9. In the yeere from the incarnation of our Lord, sixe hundreth twentie and foure, the people of Northumber
land, to wit, those English people which inhabit on the North side of the river of Humber, together with their king Edwin, at the Christian preaching and perswasion of Paulinus above mentioned, embraced the Gospel. Under which king, after he had once accepted of the Christian faith, the power both of the heavenly & of his earthly kingdome was inlarged; insomuch, that he (which no English king had done before him) brought under his subjection all the provinces of Britaine, which were inhabited either by the English men themselves, or by the Britons. Moreover, he subdued unto the crowne of England (as we have above signified) the Hebrides, commonly called the Westerne Islands. The principals wherof being more commodiously and pleasantly seated towards the South, and more abounding with corne then the rest, conteineth according to the estimation of the English, roome enough for 960. families, and the second for 300. and above.
The voyage of Bertus, generall of an armie sent into
Ireland by Ecfridus ķing of Northumberland, in the yere of our Lord 684, out of the 4. Booke and 26.
Chapter of Beda his Ecclesiasticall Hystorie. In the yeere of our Lord 684, Ecfrid the king of Northumberland sent captaine Bert into Ireland with an armie, which Bert miserably wasted that innocent nation being alwayes most friendly unto the people of England, insomuch that the fury of the enemy spared neither churches nor monasteries. Howbeit the Islanders to their power repelled armes with armes, and craving Gods aid' from heaven with continuall imprecations and curses, they pleaded for revenge. And albeit cursed speakers can by no meanes inherit the kingdome of God, it was thought notwithstanding, that they which were accursed for their impiety did not long escape the vengeance of God imminent for their offences.
The voyage of Octher made to the Northeast parts beyond
Norway, reported by himselfe unto Alfred the famous
king of England, about the yere 890. OCTHER said, that the countrey wherein he dwelt was called Helgoland. Octher tolde his lord king Alfred that he dwelt furthest North of any other Norman.
that he dwelt towards the North part of the land toward the West coast: and affirmed that the land, notwithstanding it stretcheth marveilous farre towards the North, yet it is all desert and not inhabited, unlesse it be very few places, here and there, where certeine Finnes dwell upon the coast, who live by hunting all the Winter, and by fishing in Summer. He said that upon a certeine time he fell into a fantasie and desire to proove and know how farre that land stretched Northward, and whether there were any habitation of men North beyond the desert. Whereupon he tooke his voyage directly North along the coast, having upon his steereboord alwayes the desert land, and upon the leereboord the maine Ocean : and continued his course for the space of 3. dayes. In which space he was come as far towards the North, as commonly the whale hunters use to travell. Whence he proceeded in his course still towards the North so farre as he was able to saile in other 3. dayes. At the end whereof he perceived that the coast turned towards the East, or els the sea opened with a maine gulfe into the land, he knew not how farre. Well he wist and remembred, that he was faine to stay till he had a Westerne winde, and somewhat Northerly: and thence he sailed plaine East along the coast still so far as he was able in the space of 4. dayes. At the end of which time he was compelled againe to stay till he had a full Northerly winde, forsomuch as the coast bowed thence directly towards the South, or at least wise the sea opened into the land he could not tell how farre : so that he sailed thence along the coast continually full South, so farre as he could travaile in 5. dayes; and at the fifth dayes end he discovered a mightie river which opened very farre into the land. At the entrie of which river he stayed his course, and in conclusion turned backe againe, for he durst not enter thereinto for feare of the inhabitants of the land : perceiving that on the other side of the river the countrey was thorowly inhabited : which was the first peopled land that he had found since his departure from his owne dwelling : whereas continually thorowout all his voyage, he had evermore on his steereboord, a wildernesse and desert countrey, except that in some places, he saw a few fishers, fowlers, and hunters, which were all Fynnes : and all the way upon his leereboord was the maine ocean. The Biarmes had inhabited