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and tilled their countrey indifferent well, notwithstanding he was afrayed to go upon shore. But the countrey of the Terfynnes lay all waste, and not inhabited, except it were, as we have sayd, whereas dwelled certeine hunters, fowlers, and fishers. The Biarmes tolde him a number of stories both of their owne countrey, and of the countreyes adjoyning. Howbeit, he knew not, nor could affirme any thing for certeine trueth : forsomuch as he was not upon land, nor saw any himselfe. This onely he judged, that the Fynnes and Biarmes speake but one language. The principall purpose of his traveile this way, was to encrease the knowledge and discoverie of these coasts and countreyes, for the more commoditie of fishing of horse-whales, which have in their teeth bones of great price and excellencie : whereof he brought some at his returne unto the king. Their skinnes are also very good to make cables for shippes, and so used. This kinde of whale is much lesse in quantitie then other kindes, having not in length above seven elles. And as for the common kind of whales, the place of most and best hunting of them is in his owne countrey : whereof some be 48. elles of length, and some 50. of which sort he affirmed that he himselfe was one of the sixe, which in the space of 3. dayes killed threescore.
He was a man of exceeding wealth in such riches, wherein the wealth of that countrey doth consist. At the same time that he came to the king, he had of his owne breed 600. tame Deere, of that kinde which they call Rane Deere : of the which number 6. were stall Rane Deere, a beast of great value, and marveilously esteemed among the Fynnes, for that with them they catch the wilde Rane Deere. He was among the chiefe men of his countrey one: and yet he had but 20. kine, and 20. swine, and that little which he tilled, he tilled it all with horses. Their principall wealth consisteth in the tribute which the Fynnes pay them, which is all in skinnes of wilde beasts, feathers of birds, whale bones, and cables, and tacklings for shippes made of Whales or Seales skinnes. Every man payeth according to his abilitie. The richest pay ordinarily 15. cases of Marterns, 5. Rane Deere skinnes, and one Beare, ten bushels of feathers, a coat of a Beares skinne, two cables threescore elles long a piece, the one made of Whales skin, the other of Seales.
He sayd, that the countrey of Norway was very long and small. So much of it as either beareth any good pasture, or may be tilled, lieth upon the Sea coast, which notwithstanding in some places is very rockie and stonie : and all Eastward, all along against the inhabited land, lie wilde and huge hilles and mountaines, which are in some places inhabited by the Fynnes. The inhabited land is broadest toward the South, & the further it stretcheth towards the North, it groweth evermore smaller and smaller. Towards the South it is peradventure threescore miles in bredth or broader in some places : about the middest, 30. miles or above, and towards the North where it is smallest, he affirmeth that it proveth not three miles from the Sea to the mountaines. The mountaines be in breadth of such quantitie, as a man is able to traveile over in a fortnight, and in some places no more then may be traveiled in sixe dayes. Right over against this land, in the other side of the mountaines, somewhat towards the South, lieth Swethland, and against the same towards the North, lieth Queeneland. The Queenes sometimes passing the mountaines, invade and spoile the Normans: and on the contrary part, the Normans likewise sometimes spoile their countrey. Among the mountaines be many and great lakes in sundry places of fresh water, into the which the Queenes use to carie their boats upon their backs over land, and thereby invade and spoile the countrey of the Normans. These boats of theirs be very little and very light. The voyage of Octher out of his countrey of Halgoland
into the sound of Denmarke unto a port called Hetha,
which seemeth to be Wismer or Rostorke. OCTHER sayd that the countrey wherein he dwelled, was called Halgoland : and affirmed that there was no man dwelling towards the North from him. From this countrey towards the South, there is a certeine port called Scirings hall, whither, he sayth, that a man was not able to saile in a moneths space, if he lay still by night, although he had every day á full winde. And he shall saile all the way along the coast, having on his steereboord, first Jutland and the Islands which lie betwixt this countrey & Jutland, still along the coast of this countrey, till he came to Scirings hall, having it on his larboord. At Scirings hall there entreth into the land a maine gulfe of the Sea, which is so broad, that a man cannot see over it: and on the other side against the same, is Gotland, and then Silland. This sea stretcheth many hundreth miles up into the land. From Scirings hall he sayd that he sailed in 5. dayes to the port which is called Hetha, which lieth betwixt the countries of Wendels, Saxons, and Angles, whereunto it is subject. And as he sailed thitherward from Scirings hall, he had upon his steereboord Denmarke, and on his leereboord the maine sea, for the space of 3. dayes : and 2. dayes before, he arrived in Hetha, he had Gotland on leerboord, and Silland, with divers other Islands.
In that countrey dwelt English men, before they came into this land. And these 2. dayes he had upon his leereboord the Islands that are subject to Denmarke. Wolstans navigation in the East sea, from Hetha
to Trusco, which is about Dantzig. WOLSTAN sayd, that he departed from Hetha, and arrived at Trusco, in the space of 7. dayes, and 7. nights : during which time, his shippe kept her course continually under saile. All this voyage Wenedland was still upon
his steerboord, and on his leerboord was Langland, Layland, Falster, and Sconie : all which countreyes are subject to Denmarke. Upon his leerboord also, was Bargenland, which hath a private king, unto whom it is subject. Having left Bargenland, he passed by Blekingie, Meere, Eland and Gotland, having them on his leerboord : all which countreys are subject to Sweden : and Wenedland was all the way upon his steerboord, until he came to Wixel mouth. Wixel is a very great river which runneth along betwixt Witland and Wenedland. Witland is apperteining to the Easterlings : and the river of Wixel runneth out of Wenedland into Eastmeere, which Eastmeere is at the least 15. miles in breadth. There runneth also another river called Ilsing from the East, and falleth into Eastmeere, out of another lake upon the banke, whereupon is situated Fruso. So that Ilsing comming out of Eastland, and Wixel out of Wenedland, fall both together into Eastmeere, and there Wixel depriveth Ilsing of his name, and runneth thence West & North into the sea; whereof the place is called Wixelmouth.
Eastland is a very large land, and there be many cities and townes within it, and in every one of them is a king : whereby there is continually among them great strife
and contention. There is great plentie of hony and fish. The wealthiest men drinke commonly Mares milke, and the poore people and staves meade. There is no ale brewed among the Easterlings, but of mead there is plentie. The navigation of King Edgar, taken out of Florentius
Wigorniensis, Hoveden, and M. Dee his discourse of
the Brittish Monarchie, pag. 54, 55, &c. I HAVE often times (sayd he) and many wayes looked into the state of earthly kingdomes, generally the whole world over (as farre as it may be yet knowen to Christian men commonly) being a studie of no great difficultie, but rather a purpose somewhat answerable to a perfect Cosmographer, to finde himselfe Cosmopolites, a citizen and member of the whole and onely one mysticall citie universall, and so consequently to meditate of the Cosmopoliticall government thereof, under the King almightie, passing on very swiftly toward the most dreadfull and most comfortable terme prefixed.
And I finde (sayd he) that if this Brittish Monarchie would heretofore have followed the advantages which they have had onward, they might very well, yer this, have surpassed by justice, and godly sort, any particular Monarchie els, that
on earth since creation : and that to all such purposes as to God are most acceptable, and to all perfect common wealths, most honorable, profitable, and comfortable.
But yet (sayd he) there is a little locke of Lady Occasion Aickering in the aire, by our hands to catch hold on, whereby we may yet once more (before all be utterly past, and for ever) discreetly and valiantly recover and enjoy, if not all our ancient & due appurtenances to this Imperiall Brittish monarchie, yet at the least some such notable portion thereof, as (al circumstances duely and justly apperteining to peace & amitie with forrein princes being offred & used) this may become the most peaceable, most rich, most puissant, & most florishing monarchie of al els (this day) in christendome. Peaceable, I say, even with the most part of the selfe same respects that good king Edgar had (being but a Saxon) and by sundry such meanes, as he chiefly in this Empire did put in proofe and ure triumphantly, whereupon his sirname was Pacificus, most aptly and justly. This peaceable king
Edgar had in his minde about six hundred yeeres past, the representation of a great part of the selfe same Idæa, which from above onely, & by no mans devise hath streamed downe into my imagination, being as it becommeth a subject carefull for the godly prosperitie of this British Empire under our most peaceable Queene Elizabeth.
For, Ædgarus pacificus, Regni sui prospiciens utilitati, pariter & quieti, quatuor millia octingentas sibi robustas congregavit naves è quibus mille ducentas, in plaga Angliæ Orientali, mille ducentas in Occidentali, mille ducentas in Australi, mille ducentas in Septentrionali pelago constituit, ut ad defensionem regni sui, contra exteras nationes, bellorum discrimina sustinerent.
O wisedome imperiall, most diligently to be imitated, videlicet, prospicere, to foresee. o charitable kingly parent, that was touched with ardent zeale, for procuring the publike profite of his kingdome, yea and also the peaceable enjoying therof. O, of an incredible masse of treasure, a kingly portion, yet, in his coffers remayning: if then he had, (or late before) any warres, seeing no notable taxe, or contribution publike is historically mentioned to have bene for the charges levied : if in peace he himselfe flourished so wealthily : O marveilous politicall, & princely prudencie, in time of peace to foresee, and prevent, and that most puissantly, and invincibly) all possible malice, fraude, force, and' mischiefe forrain.
O most discreet liberalitie to such excellent uses, powring • out his treasure so abundantly. O faithfull English
people (then,) and worthy subjects, of such an Imperiall and godly Governour. O your true, and willing hearts, and blessed ready hands (then) so to impart such abundance of victuals for those huge Navies maintenance : so (I say) as neither dearth of famine, seemed (fondly) to be feared of you, for any intolerable want likely to ensue thereby, nor prices of victuals complained of to be unreasonable enhaunsed by you, finding for their great sales so good, and rare opportunitie.
This peaceable king Edgar, was one of the perfect Imperiall Monarches of this British Empire, and therefore thus his fame remaineth (for ever) recorded. Anglici orbis Basileus, flos, & Decus Ædgarus, non
minùs memorabilis Anglis, quàm Cyrus Persis, Romulus Romanis, Alexander Macedonibus,