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Congress. Senate. Committee on Labor and Public Welfare.
"Full Opportunity Act." Hearings before the Special Subcommittee
on Evaluation and Planning of Social Programs of the ... on S. 5,
To Promote the Public Welfare. July 7, 8, 10, 18; December 18,
1969; and March 13, 1970. 91st Congress, first and second ses-
sions. Washington, U.S. Government Printing Office, 1970,

439 pages.

This hearings record contains: Federal department reports
on s. 5, the bill to create a Council of Social Advisors;
testimony of witnesses who appeared in 1969 and 1970; and
extensive appendix materials on social science and public
policy, and background materials on the need for improving
Congressional sources of information on social goals and
programs.

Among the statements included are those of: Wilbur J. Cohen;
Whitney M. Young, Jr.; Dr. llarvey S. Perloff; Dr. Mancur
Olson, Jr.; Dr. Talcott Parsons; Maurice Mann; Lewis Butler;
Dr. Francis Keppel; Dr. Donald N. Michael; Hon. Claude
Pepper; Dr. Otis Dudley Duncan; Dr. John Meyer; Dr.
Frederick 0.1. Hayes; Joseph A. Califano, Jr.; Dr. Ernest
R. Hilgard; Joseph W. Barr; Hon. Charles Percy; Charles J.
Zwick; and Hon. Charles A. Vanik.

U.S. Office of Management and Budget. "Outline for a social statistics

publication." Office of Statistical Policy and Management, In-
formation Systems Division, Washington, D.C., May 18, 1970,
Draft No. 4. 15 pages. Available from Robert B. Pearl,
Statistical Policy and Management, Information Systems Division,
Office of Management and Budget, Washington, D.C. 20503.

U.S. Office of Management and Budget. "Statement of Dwight A. Ink,

Assistant Director For Office of Management and Budget,'
Before the Special Subcommittee on Evaluation and Planning
of Social Programs of the Senate Committee on Labor and Public
Welfare on s.5, "The Full Opportunity and National Goals and
Priorities Act," July 13, 1971, Mimeo, 12 pages.

This statement describes the Administration's opposition to s. 5
and activities now underway in the Executive branch to
improve Federal development and use of social indicators.
These activities are: (1) "...a Presidential Commission
on Federal Statistics has spent the past year reviewing
the full scope of the Federal statistical system; the report

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is due in two months. ...One section of this report will
lay out a five-year plan for research in social indicators
and social reporting. This plan will encompass the work to
be done in private research organizations as well as in
the Federal Government." (2) The Statistical Policy
Staff of the Office of Management and Budget, under the
direction of Julius Shiskin and Daniel Tunstall are
continuing work on social indicators that began in 1969.
"Work is currently proceeding on selection and adaptation of
available (statistical) series, experimentation with various
ways of presenting the data, and research into means of
resolving data deficiencies and gaps.... Data for use in the
new publication will be drawn from existing statistical series,
mainly those produced by Government agencies, and important
single-time surveys. It will be post-World War II national
data, with totals broken down by race, sex, age, and, in
some cases, region of the country to SMSA-non-SMSA. The degree
of disaggregation will be determined by estimations of the use-
fulness of components as well as availability. Projections
will be included only for relatively known quantities,
such as number of pupils enrolling in primary school five
years from now. (3) OMB has established two advisory
committees to assist in this work: the Interagency
Committee on a Social Statistics Publication and the Ad Hoc
(non-governmental) Advisory Committee on a Social Statistics
Publication.

Wilensky, Harold L. "Intelligence in Industry: the Uses and Abuses

of Experts." In "Political Intelligence for America's Future."
Edited by Bertram M. Gross and Michael Springer. The Annals.
Volume 388, March 1970, pages 46-58.

"In their vision of the managerial revolution, Max Weber
and Thorstein Veblen pictured experts coming to power by
virtue of their indispensability. The reality, not so
dramatic, is nevertheless critical for an understanding
of the main drift of modern society. Coalitions of top
managers and experts, each acquiring some of the skills
of the other, now make increasing use of systematic
technical and ideological intelligence. The structural
roots of intelligence failures--hierarchy, specialization
and rivalry, and centralization--become more prominent.
The new technology produces a surfeit of information,
poorly digested or lost in the system. Big policy decisions

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are often made in an atmosphere of urgency and uncertainty,
the effects of which can be both good and bad. Alert
executives, therefore, reshape administrative structures to
smooth the flow of intelligence; more important, they bypass
the machinery and seek firsthand exposure to unofficial
Intelligence sources both inside and outside the organization.
These responses are evident in the structure and strategy of
modern corporations. Although preconceptions remain dis-
couragingly powerful, top executives are increasingly ex-
posed to social science perspectives in college and on the
job. It is possible that social science at its best some-
times breaks through executives' stereotypes, enhances their
understanding of themselves and their organizations, alerts
them to the range of relevant variables, and increases their
skill in using experts."

Wilson, Albert, and Donna Wilson. "Toward the Institutionalization of

Change." Middletown, Connecticut, The Institute for the Future,
August 1970, 35 pages, Working Paper WP-11.

"The Institute for the Future, under a grant from the
Russell Sage Foundation, is preparing plans for the publica-
tion of an annual series of reports on the Future State of
the Union. This paper, which is part of that preparatory
effort, is concerned with some of the underlying conceptual
problems of such an undertaking and presents a discussion
of some of the features that might be included in the
yearbooks." The following are proposed as candidate features
of the initial yearbook: technological and environmental
forecasts; highly predictable societal developments; survey
of critical situations and needs; societal options and
scenarios of possible futures; and miscellaneous features.
Despite their efforts, the authors conclude that wide-
spread aversion to planned change mitigates against
systematically designing a favorable future.

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SOCIAL SCIENTISTS AND POLICY-MAKING:

PROFESSIONAL CONCERNS

Archibald, Kathleen A. "Alternative Orientations to Social Science

Utilization." Social Science Information, Vol. 9, No. 2, pages 7-34.

Detailed study of the roles of social scientists' as determined
both by their own professional perceptions, the nature of
their work (basic vs. applied), and expectations of the consumers
of social science research.

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Arrow, Kenneth J., et. al. "Urban Processes as Viewed by the Social

Sciences.' A National Academy of Sciences Symposium organized
by the Urban Institute, moderated by William Gorham. Washington,
D.C., The Urban Institute, (1970), 79 pages.

The symposium focused on discussing social science understanding
of institutions and processes of the distribution of wealth
and power in society in order to evaluate how social science
might more usefully be applied to solving complex urban
problems. Papers are: The Effects of the Price System
and Market on Urban Economic Development," Kenneth J.
Arrow; "Politics and the City," James G. March; "The
Social Basis of Markets and Government, James S. Coleman;
and "The Future of American Ghettos," Anthony Downs.
One conclusion of the discussion that followed was: In
order to solve complex urban problems, "we need the help not
only of the social science specialists, but also of those
with a broad perspective so that we can begin to see our
cities whole."

Bassett, Grace, W. Phillips Davison and Anna Lee Hopson. "Social

Scientists, University News Bureaus and the Public: some factors
affecting the communication of social science information."
Paper prepared by the Bureau of Applied Social Research, Columbia
University for the Russell Sage Foundation, 1965.

Assesses social scientists' and journalists' attitudes toward
lay reporting of social science research. Both social
scientists and journalists were interviewed to obtain
data for the study. "A number of suggestions were made
for improving the flow of social science information:
training a number of journalists to specialize in the social
sciences; helping social scientists to be more aware of the
pressures of operation of the mass media; and holding dialogues
with the press at annual professional association meetings
about research developments of public interest and significance."

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iderman, Albert D. "Self-Portrayal." Science, Vol. 169, September 11,

1970, pages 1064-7.

11

Critical review of five recently released studies of the
social science/Federal government relationship by a noted
student of social science policy. · The studies discussed are:
"The Behavioral Sciences and the Federal Government;"
"The Behavioral and Social Sciences : Outlook and Needs,"
"Knowledge Into Action: Improving the Nation's Use of the
Social Sciences," "Politics of Soical Research: An inquiry
into the ethics and responsibilities of social scientists,'
and "The Uneasy Partnership: Social Science and the Federal
Government in the Twentieth Century." The author reports
that many of the questions posed in these studies were not
adequately answered because social scientists have not given
sufficient attention to collecting and assessing information
about themselves, their work, their professional responsibilities,
and their relationships with the Federal government and other
consumers of their researches.

Borger, Robert and Frank Cioffit, eds. "Explanation in the Behavioral

Sciences." New York, Cambridge, 1971, 532 pages.

"This volume clarifies differences among psychologists,
sociologists, philosophers, and others concerned with the
behavioral and social sciences about the adequacy of
particular explanatory systems, even about the forms of
explanation appropriate in this field. Distinguished con-
tributors bring their views into direct confrontation:
each chapter states a point of view, is followed by
specific comments and criticisms, and concludes with a
reply by the first author."

Clark, Kenneth E. and George A. Miller. "Psychology." Englewood

cliffs, Prentice-Hall, Inc., 1970, 146 pages.

"This book is one of a series prepared in connection with
the Survey of the Behavioral and Social Sciences conducted
between 1967 and 1969 under the auspices of the Committee
on Science and Public Policy of the National Academy of
Sciences and the Problems and Policy Committee of the Social
Science Research Council." "(This report) begins with a
statement about the nature of the work of psychologists,
their numbers, and their distribution in the general
population. The next eight chapters describe the work of
psychologists, and the samplings included are designed to
indicate the diversity of the fields. Three chapters follow
relating information about the numbers of qualified psychologists,

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