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ry turning and winding of a poors timid hare.

and lungs, must be the first to jump off his horfe, and, fecuring the bridle by putting it round his arm, difcharge his piece; then in an inftant recovering his feat, must ride obliquely athwart his companions; and, in fine, giving his horse the reins, mut truft entirely to the fpeed and fear of this latter, to convey him out of the reach of the fury of the wild beast, in case he has only wounded him, or has abfolutely miffed him. In either of these cafes, a fair opportunity prefents itself for fome of the other hunters to jump off their horfes directly, as they may then take their aim and discharge their pieces with greater coolnefs and certainty. Should this fhot likewife mifs, (which, however, feldom happens) the third fportfman rides after the lion, which at that inftant is in purfuit of the first or the fecond, and, fpringing off his horfe, fires his piece, as foon as he has got within a proper diftance, and finds a fufficiently convenient part of the animal prefent itself, efpecially obliquely from behind. If now the lion turns upon him too, the other hunters turn again, in order to come to his refcue with the charge, which they loaded with on horfeback, while they were flying from the wild beast.

"No inftance has ever been known of any misfortune happening to the hunters in chafing the lion on horfeback. The African colonifts, who are born in, or have had the courage to remove into the more remote parts of Africa, which are expofed to the ravages of wild beafts, are mostly good markfmen, and are far from wanting courage. The lion, that has the boldness to feize on their cattle, which are the most valuable part of their property, fometimes at their very doors, is as odious to them as he is dangerous

"It is only on the plains that the hunters venture to go out on horfeback after the lion. If it keeps in fome coppice, or wood, on a rifing ground, they endeavour to teize it with dogs till it comes out; they likewife prefer going together two or more in number, in order to be able to affift and rescue each other, in cafe the firft fhot fhould not take place.

When the lion fees the hunters at a great diftance, it is univerfally allowed that he takes to his heels as faft as ever he can, in, order to get out of their fight; but if they chance to difcover him at a small distance from them, he is then faid to walk off in a furly manner, but without putting himfelf in the leaft hurry, as though he was above fhewing any fear, when he finds himself difcovered or hunted. He is therefore reported likewife, when he finds himself purfued with vigour, to be foon provoked to refiftance, or at least he difdains any longer to fly. Confequently he flackens his pace, and at length only fidles flowly off, ftep by step, all the while eying his purfuers afkaunt; and finally makes a full ftop, and turning round upon them, and at the fame time giving himself a shake, roars with a fhort and fharp tone, in order to fhew his indignation, being ready to feize on them and tear them in pieces. This is now precifely the time for the hunters to be upon the fpot, or elfe to get as foon as poffible within a certain diftance of him, yet so as at the fame time to keep at a proper distance from each other; and he that is nearest, or is moft advantageoutly pofted, and has the best mark of that part of the lion's body which contains his heart

gerous and noxious. They confe. quently feek out these animals, and hunt them with the greatest ardour and glee, with a view to exterminate them. When the lion, therefore, comes upon their grounds, it is much the fame as if they were going to fight pro aris et focis, and I have heard feveral yeomen at Agter Bruntjes Hoogte, when I was out a-hunting with them, merely exprefs a wifh to meet with the lions, in cafe there were any in that neighbourhood, without mention ing a word about fhooting them; a fign that, with regard to that part of the bufinefs, they were pretty fure of their hands.

"The lion is by no means hard to kill. Thofe who have had occafion to shoot several of these animals, have affured me, that while buffaloes and the larger fpecies of antelopes will now and then make their efcape, and run fairly off with a ball in their bowels, or in the cavity of their abdomen, of which I myfelf have feen inftances; the

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HE camelopardalis is, as I have faid above, at p. 149 of this volume, the tallest of all qua drupeds when meafured in front; and though it is found only in thofe parts of the Cape colonies that lie fartheft towards the north-weit, merits, however, an accurate defcription, efpecially in this place, along with the other animals of Africa. The latest and best accounts concerning the real form and other properties of this beast have been given to the public by the prefent commandant at the Cape, major Gordon, who

lion, on the contrary, on being flot in this manner, will be thrown into a vomiting, and be difabled from running. But be that as it may, it is natural to suppose, that a welldirected fhot that enters the heart or lungs, fhould fuffice to kill the lion as well as the elephant and every other creature: therefore, as M. de Buffon acknowledges that the lion's hide cannot withstand either ball or dart, it is inconceivable how it fhould come into this author's head to affert, without having the leaft authority for it, that this furious beaft is hardly ever to be killed with a fingle fhot.

"The hides of lions are looked upon as being inferior to and more rotten than thofe of cows, and are feldom made ufe of at the Cape, excepting for the fame purpofe as horfes hides. I met with a farmer, however, who used a lion's hide for the upper leathers to his fhoes, and fpoke highly of them, as being pliable and lasting.”

ACCOUNT OF THE CAMELOPARDALIS.

[From the fame Work.]

fhot one of thefe creatures in the district of Anamaquas; in confe quence of which the public has been gratified with a very good drawing and defcription of it by M. Allamand, in his edition of M. de Buffon's Hiftory of Animals, Suppl. de la Giraffe, p. 46. Of this defcription I fhall here prefent my reader with an abstract.

"The height of this animal, when it holds its neck strait and erect, is, from the crown of the head to the ground, fifteen feet two inches; the length of it, from the

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CHARACTER of HANDEL as a COMPOSER,

[From Dr. BURNEY'S Sketch of his Life. ]

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s6 HAT Handel was fuperior in the ftrength and boldness of his ftyle, the richness of his harmony, and complication of parts, to every compofer who has been most admired for fuch excellencies, cannot be difputed. And, while fugue, contrivance, and a full score, were more generally reverenced than at prefent, he remained wholly unrivalled.

"I know it has been faid that Handel was not the original and immediate inventor of feveral fpeIcies of mufic, for which his name has been celebrated; but, with refpect to originality, it is a term to which proper limits fhould be fet, before it is applied to the productions of any artift. Every invention is clumfy in its beginning, and Shakspeare was not the firft writer of plays, or Corelli the first compofer of violin folos, fonatas, and concertos, though those which he produced are the best of his time; nor was Milton the inventor of epic poetry. The fcale, harmony, and cadence of mufic, being fettled, it is impoffible for any compofer to invent a genus of compofition that is wholly and rigorously new, any more than for a poet to form a language, idiom, and phrafeology, for himself. All that the greatest and boldest musical inventor can do, is to avail himself of the best effufions, combinations, and effects, of his predeceffors; to arrange and ap: ply them in a new manner; and to add, from his own fource, what ever he can draw, that is grand, graceful, gay, pathetic, or, in any other way, pleating. This Handel did, in a molt ample and fuperior

manner; being poffeffed, in his middle age and full vigour, of every refinement and perfection of his time: uniting the depth and elaborate contrivance of his own country, with Italian elegance and facility; as he feems, while he refided fouth of the Alps, to have liftened attentively in the church, theatre, and chamber, to the most exquifite compofitions, and performers, of every kind, that were then existing.

"And though we had cantatas by Cariffimi, Aleffandro Scarlatti, Gafparini, and Marcello; ducts by Steffani and Clari; vocal choruffes, without inftrumental accompaniments, by Palestrina, and our own Tallis, Bird, and Purcell; and, with accompaniments, by Cariffimi as well as Paolo Colonna; with violin fonatas and concertos by Corelli and Geminiani; yet it may with the utmost truth be afferted, that Handel added confiderable beauties to whatever style or fpecies of compofition he adopted, which, in a larger work, it would not be difficult to demonftrate, by examples. At prefent, I fhall only venture to give it as part of my mufical profeffion de foi, that his air or melody is greatly fuperior to any that can be found in the otherwife charming cantatas which Cariffimi feems to have invented; that he is more natural in his voice-parts, and has given more movements to his bafes than Alef. Scarlatti; that he has more force and originality than Gafparini or Marcello; that his chamber duets are, at least, equal to thofe of Steffani and Clari, who were remarkable for no other fpecies of compofition; and though the

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the late Dr. Boyce ufed to fay that Handel had great obligations to CoJonna for his choruffes with inftru mental accompaniments, it feems indifputable that fuch choruffes were infinitely more obliged to Handel than he to Colonna, or, indeed, than they were to all the composers that have ever exifted. It is my belief, likewife, that the best of his Italian opera fongs furpafs, in va riety of ftyle and ingenuity of accompaniment, thofe of all preceding and contemporary compofers throughout Europe; that he has more fire, in his compofitions for violins than Corelli, and more rhythm than Geminiani; that in his full, masterly, and excellent or

gan-fugues, upon the most natural and pleafing fubjects, he has fur paffed Frescobaldi, and even Seba itian Bach, and others of his coun trymen, the most renowned for abi lities in this difficult and elaborate fpecies of compofition; and, lastly, that all the judicious and unpreju diced musicians of every country, upon hearing or perufing his noble, majeftic, and frequently fublime full anthems, and oratorio choruffes, must allow, with readinefs and rap ture, that they are utterly unac quainted with any thing equal to them, among the works of the greateft mafters that have exifted fince the invention of counter. point."

PHILOSOPHICAL PAPERS.

NATURAL HISTORY OF LIONS.

[From Dr. SPARRMAN's Voyage to the Cape of Good Hope.]

"IT

T had not been dark two hours, before we heard the roaring of lions, which at times appeared to be pretty near us. This was the first time that I had heard this kind of mufic, and, as there were feveral performers, it might be properly called a concerto of lions. They continued roaring the whole night, whence my guide concluded, that they had affembled on the plains in order to copulate, and carry on their amours, by fighting and attacking each other

after the manner of cats.

yet, from its flow prolonged note, joined with nocturnal darkness, and the terrible idea one is apt to form to one's felf of this animal, it made one fhudder, even in fuch places as I had an opportunity of hearing it in with more fatisfaction, and without having the leaft occafion for fear. We could plainly per ceive by our animals, when the lions, whether they roared or not, were reconnoitring us at a fmall di ftance. For in that cafe the hounds did not dare to bark in the leaft, but crept quite close to the Hottentots; and our oxen and horfes figh ed deeply, frequently hanging back, and pulling flowly with all their might at the ftrong ftraps with which they were tied up to the waggon. They likewife laid themfelves down upon the ground and ftood up alternately, appearing as if they did not know what to do with themfelves: and, indeed, L may fay, juft as if they were in the agonies of death. In the mean time, my Hottentots made the neceffary preparations, and laid each of them their javelins by the fide of them. We likewife loaded all our five pieces, three of which we diftributed among thofe of our Hottentots who spoke Dutch.

"To defcribe the roaring of the lion as nearly as I can, I must inform the reader that it confifted in a hoarfe inarticulate found, which at the fame time feemed to have a hollowness in it, fomething like that proceeding from a fpeaking trumpet. The found is between that of a German u and an o, being drawn to a great length, and appearing as if it came from out of the earth; at the fame time that, after listening with the greatest attention, I could not exactly hear from what quarter it came. The found of the lion's voice does not bear the leaft refemblance to thunder, as M. de Buffon, tom. ix. p. 22. from the Voyage of Boullaye le Gouz, affirms it does. In fact, it appeared to me to be neither peculiarly piercing nor tremendous;

"Fire and fire-brands are univerfally reckoned, and indeed were faid by my Hottentots, to be a

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great

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