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our enemies, must have induced them to practife the fame mode of warfare, which was actually at tempted both by the French and Scots, though too late in the day.

"I have endeavoured already to prove, that the long-bow was not commonly ufed even in England till the time of Edward the Third,, when the victory at Crefly fufficiently proclaimed the fuperiority of that weapon.

"It required, however, fo much training before the archer could be expert, that we must not be furprifed if foon afterwards this military exercife was much neglected, as appears by the preambles of feveral ancient ftatutes.

"Whilt the military tenures fubfifted, the fovereign could only call upon his tenants during war, who therefore attended with the weapons they had been used to, and which required no previous prac

tice.

"On the other hand, the Englih archers were obliged by acts of parliament, even in time of peace, to erect butts in every parifli, and to fhoot on every Sunday and holiday, after repairing perhaps to thefe butts from a confiderable diftance, whilst the expence of at least a yew-bow, is reprefented as being a charge, which they were fcarcely equal to.

"The king and parliaments of this country having thus compelled the inhabitants to fuch training, the English armies had (it fhould feem) the fame advantage over our enemies, as the exclufive ufe of fire. arms would give us at prefent.

"It appears alfo by what hath been already ftated, that the longbow continued to be in eftimation for more than two centuries after gunpowder was introduced, which probably arofe from mufquets be

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ing very cumbersome and unwieldy. It is well known that rapid movecampaign, and for fuch the archers ments are generally decifive of the were particularly adapted, becaufe, as they could not be annoyed at the enemy, they had fcarcely any ocfame distance by the weapons of the cafion for armour. ancient armies likewife was the caThe flower of valry, against which the long-bow never failed to prevail, as man and horfe were too large objects to be ber of French nobility who were miffed; and hence the great numprifoners at Creffy, Poitiers, and Agincourt, for being difimounted (if not wounded) whilst they were alfo clad in heavy armour, they could not make their escape.

The fame reafon accounts for with fo inferior numbers; for the our obtaining these fignal victories nobility and gentry thus becoming prifoners, the other parts of the fistance. French army made little or no re

vantages on the fide of the English "Having mentioned fo many adarchers, I cannot but obferve, that if the enemy gained the wind against them, it must have been almoft as decifive in favour of our opponents, as when it is obtained in a fea-fight: I conclude, however, that our generals avoided enwind was not favourable. gagements, if poffible, when the

by a few anecdotes and general ob"I fhall now conclude this effay fervations relative to the fubject.

Cheviot Chafe which were a yard "Though we hear of arrows at fuppofed that the whole band made long, yet it is by no means to be ufe of fuch, or could draw them to the head.

tute of Edward the Fourth, viz.
"The regulation of the Irish sta-
that the bow fhall not exceed the
height

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man named Topham, who exhibited moft furprizing feats of strength, and who happened to be at a public-houfe near Itlington, to which the Finfbury archers resorted, after their exercife. Topham confidered the long-bow as a play thing, only fit for a child, upon which one of the archers laid him a bowl of punch, that he could not draw the arrow two-thirds of its length. Topham accepted this bet with the greatest confidence of winning, but bringing the arrow to his breait, inftead of his ear, he was greatly mortified by paying the wager, after many fruitiefs efforts.

height of the man, is allowed by archers to have been well confidered; and as the arrow fhould be half the length of the bow, this would give an arrow of a yard in length to thofe only who were fix feet high. A ftrong man of this fize in the prefent times cannot eafily draw above twenty-four inches, if the bow is of a proper strength to do execution at a confiderable diftance. At the fame time it must be admitted, that as our ancestors were obliged by fome of the old ftatutes to begin fhooting with the long-bow at the age of feven, they might have acquired a greater light in this exercife than their defcendants, though the latter fhould be allowed to be of equal ftrength.

"As the fhooting with the longbow was first introduced in England, and practifed almoft exclufively for nearly two centuries, fo it hath occafioned a peculiar method of drawing the arrow to the ear, and not to the breast.

That this is contrary to the ufage of the ancients is very clear from their reliefs, and from the tradition of the Amazons cutting off one of their paps, as it occationed an impediment to their flooting.

"As for Diana's not having fuffered the fame amputation, it must be remembered that he was not only a goddefs, but most active huntress, and profeffed the most perfect chastity; the therefore could not be fuppofed to have been impeded by fuch an obftacle to archery, as Juno or Ceres.

"The Finfbury archer is therefore reprefented in this attitude of drawing to the ear, both in the 'Bowman's Glory, as alfo in the filver badge given by Catherine (queen of Charles the Second) to the Artillery Company.

"Several years ago there was a

"As to the distance to which an arrow can be fhot from a long-bow with the best elevation of forty-five degrees, that muft neceffarily depend much both upon the strength and flight of the archer; but as the longeft diftance I can find in the annexed plans is eleven fcore and feven yards, I conclude that fuch length is not often exceeded.

There is indeed a tradition, that an attorney of Wigan, in Lancafhire (named Leigh), fhot a mile in three flights; but the fame tradition ftates, that he placed himself in a very particular attitude, which cannot be used commonly in this exercife.

"The archers confider an arrow of an ounce weight to be the best for flight or hitting a mark at a confiderable diftapce, and that afp alfo is the belt material of which they can be made.

"As to the feathers, that of a goofe is preferred; it is alfo wifhed, that the bird fhould be two or three years old, and that the feather may drop of itself.

And here it may not perhaps be improper to explain the grey goofe wing in the ballad of Cheviot Chafe. "Two

"Two out of the three feathers in an arrow are commonly white, being plucked from the gander, but the third is generally brown or grey, being taken from the goofe, and from this difference in point of colour, informs the archer when the arrow is properly placed. From this most diftinguished part therefore the whole arrow fometimes receives its name.

"Though archery continued to be encouraged by the king and legiflature for more than two centuries, after the first knowledge of the effects of gunpowder, yet by the latter end of the reign of Henry the Eighth, it feems to have been partly confidered as a pastime.

"Arthur, the elder brother of Henry, is faid to have been fond of this exercife, in fo much, that a good shooter was styled prince Arthur.

"We are alfo informed, that he pitched his tent at Mile End, in order to be prefent at this recreation, and that Henry his brother alfo attended.

"When the latter afterwards became king, he gave a prize at Windfor to those who fhould excel in this exercife; and a capital fhot having been made, Henry faid to Barlow (one of his guards)" if you fill win, you fhall be duke over all archers." Barlow therefore having fucceeded, and living in Shoreditch, was created duke thereof.

"Upon another occafion, Henry and the queen were met by two hundred archers on Shooter's Hill, which probably took its name from their aflembling near it to fhoot at

marks.

"This king likewife gave the first charter to the Artillery Company in the twenty-ninth year of his reign, by which they are per

mitted to wear dreffes of any, co[191]. lour, except purple and fearlet, to fhoot not only at marks, but birds, if not pheafants or herons, and within two miles of the royal pathe fame charter not to wear furs of laces. They are alfo enjoined by martin. The moft material privia greater price than those of the lege, however, is, that of indemfon paffing between the fhooter and nification from murder, if any perthe mark is killed, provided the archers have first called out FAST.

been ftated, that both Henry the "As it appears by what hath Eighth and his queen fometimes attended the archers when they all extraordinary that their dreffes were fhooting at marks, it is not at began to be expenfive, and that they ftudied much the gracefulness of the attitude.

his Toxophilus at the end of this
"Afcham, therefore, who wrote
reign, hath feveral chapters on this
head, in which he begins, by ridi-
culing the aukwardnels of fome ar-
lowing citation.
chers in this refpect, as in the fol-

layeth out his buttocks, as though
"Another coureth downe, and
he fhould fhoot at crowes.'

32

plains a paffage in Shakespeare's
"Which last part moreover ex-
King Lear, act iv. fc. 6.

like a crowkeeper."
"That fellow handles his bow

"From the words above quoted
powder was yet very dear, fields
it is to be inferred, that when gun-
archers, who had no grace in their
were kept from crows by unskilful
attitudes, and were therefore fpoken
of by the expert with the greatest
crowkeeper, had become prover-
contempt, fo that to fhoot like a
bial.

ticular with regard to archery in his
"Afcham mentions another par

time, which is, that (as it commonly happens in other paítimes) the bets at thefe fhooting matches began to be confiderable.

I fhall conclude this effay by mentioning, that the long-bow continues to be used as a manly exercife by the inhabitants of Geneva,

and in many parts of Flanders; nor is it totally neglected in Great Bri tain, particularly Lancashire, and London, where a fociety (of which our worthy member fir Afhton Lever is the prefident) frequently ufe this manly recreation."

OBSERVATIONS on the LANGUAGE of the PEOPLE commonly called GYPSIES. By Mr. MARSDEN.

[From the fame Publication. ]

I

T has long been furmifed that the vagrant tribes of people called in this country Gypfies, and on parts of the continent of Europe, Cingari, Zingari, and Chingali, were of eaftern origin. The former name has been fuppofed a corruption of Egyptian, and fome learned perfons have judged it not improbable that their language might be traced to the Coptic.

In the courfe of refearches which I have had occafion to purfue on the fubject of language, I obferved that Ludolfus, in his Hiftory of Ethiopia, makes mention, incidentally, of the Cingari vel Errones Nubiani, and gives a fpecimen of words which he had collected from these people in his travels, with a view of determining their origin. He difcuffes the opinions of various writers concerning them, but forms no precife one of his own, concluding his obfervations with thefe words: " Eadem vocabula, cùm maximam partem reperiam apud Vulcanium, à centum ferè annis tradita, non fictitia exiftimo, ut Megiferus putat, nec corrupta ex aliis linguis, neque Ægyptiaca five Coptica."

I was furprised to find many of the words contained in the fpe

cimen familiar to my eye, and pointed out to fir Jofeph Banks (in the latter end of the year 1783) their evident correfpondence with the terms in the Hindoftanic, or as it is vulgarly termed in India, the Moors language. This fimilitude appeared to me fo extraordinary, that I was inclined to fufpect an error in the publication, which might have arifen from a confufion of obfcure vocabularies in the author's poffeffion. The circumftance, however, determined me to pay farther attention to the subject, and to ex. amine, in the first place, whether the language fpoken by the Gypfey tribes in England, and by those in the remoter parts of the continent of Europe, were one and the fame ; and then to ascertain whether this actually bore the affinity, which fo forcibly ftruck me in Ludolfus, to any of the languages on the continent of India.

"Through the obliging affiftance of fir Jofeph Banks, who has fpared no pains to promote this inveligation, I procured an opportu nity or obtaining a lift of words from our Gypfies, which I can depend upon as genuine, and tolerably accurate in refpect to the pronunciation, from their being corroborated

borated by words alfo taken down, separately, by fir jofeph, and by Dr. Blagden. Mr. Matra did me the favour to tranfmit for me a lift of words to Turkey, and from his ingenious friend Mr. B. Pifani. I received a complete and fatisfactory tranflation of them, together with fome information refpecting the manners of the Chinghiarés, in the Turkish dominions, which, however, does not come within the de. fign of this paper, as I mean to confine myself, in the prefent communication, fimply to the queftion of the fimilarity of language, which, if established, I fhould efteem a matter of no little curiofity; prefuming it to be perfectly new to the world. Of this fimilarity the learned members of the fociety will be enabled to form their judgment from the annexed paper, exhibiting a comparison of a few of the words procured from the different quarters before mentioned, with the Hindoftanic terms, from the best published and parole authoriti s.

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"It may not be unworthy of remark, that the general appellation for these people in the eastern par's of Europe, is very nearly connected with that of the inhabitants of Ceylon, in the Eaft-Indies, who are equally termed Lingalefe and Chingalefe; though at the fame time it must be acknowledged that the language of this ifland has much lefs correfpondence with that of the Gypfies, than many other of the Indian dialects. His grace the archbishop of York, with his ufual difcernment, fuggefted to me the probability that the Zingari here poken of, may have derived their name, and perhaps their origin, from the people called Langari or Langarians, who are found in the north-west parts of the peninfula of H ndoftan, and infeft the coafts 1785.

of Guzerat and Sindy with their piratical depredations. The maritime turn of this numerous race of people, with their roving and enterprifing difpofition, may warrant the idea of occafional emigrations in their boats, by the courfe of the Red Sea.

"Notwithstanding that the refemblance to the Hindostanic is the predominant feature in the Gypfey dialect, yet there are words interfperfed, which evidently_coincide with other languages. Befide the Mahratta and Bengalefe, which I have marked in the comparative fpecimen, it is not a little fingular that the terms for the numerals feven, eight, and nine, are purely Greek, although the first five, and that for ten, are indifputably Indian. It is alfo a curious obfervation, that although the Indian term for feven, being faath, differs from the Gyp fey, yet that for a week, or feven days, is the citan of the latter. One word only, among those which I have examined, bears a resem• blance to the Coptic, which is rom, the fame with romi, a man. In comparisons of this nature, a due allowance must be made, not only for the various modes of fpelling adopted by different perfons and different nations, but alfo for the diffimilar manner in which the fame individual found ftrikes the organs of the hearers; of which fome pointed inftances might be given.

"Should any be inclined to doubt (which I fcarcely fuppofe poffible) of the identity of the Gyp fey or Cingari, and the Hindofianic languages, fill it will be acknowledged as no uninterefting fubject of fpeculation, that tribes wandering through the mountains of Nubia, or the plains of Romania, have converfed for centuries in a dialect perfectly fimilar to that fpoken at this day

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