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that almost every performer, both vocal and inftrumental, was in full view of the conductor and leader; which accounts, in fome meafure, for the uncommon eafe with which the performers confefs they executed their parts.

"The whole preparations for thefe grand performances were comprifed within the western part of the building, or broad aifle; and fome excellent judges declared, that, apart from their beauty, they never had feen fo wonderful a piece of carpentry as the orchestra and galleries, after Mr. Wyatt's models. Indeed, the goodness of the workmanship was demonftrated by the whole four days of commemoration in the abbey being exempted from every species of accident, notwithstanding the great crouds, and conflicts for places, which each performance produced.


"At the east end of the aisle, just before the back of the choirorgan, fome of the pipes of which were visible below, a throne was erected in a beautiful Gothic style, correfponding with that of the abbey, and a center box, richly decorated and furnished with crimfon fatin, fringed with gold, for the reception of their maiefties and the reyal family on the right hand of which was a box for the bishops, and, on the left, one for the dean and chapter of Westminster; immediately below thefe two boxes were two others; one, on the right, for the families and friends of the directors, and the other for thofe of the prebendaries of Weftminfter. Immediately below the king's box was placed one for the directors themselves, who were all diftinguished by white wands tipped with gold, and gold medals, ftruck on the occafion, appending from white ribbands, These their ma

jefties likewife condefcended to wear at each performance. Behind, and on each fide of the throne, there were feats for their majesty's suite, maids of honour, grooms of the bed-chamber, pages, &c.

"The orchestra was built at the oppofite extremity, afcending regularly from the height of feven feet from the floor to upwards of forty, from the bafe of the pillars; and extending from the centre to the top of the fide aisle.

"The intermediate fpace below was filled up with level benches, and appropriated to the early subfcribers. The fide aifles were formed into long galleries, ranging with the orchestra, and afcending, fo as to contain twelve rows on each fide: the fronts of which projected before the pillars, and were ornamented with festoons of crimson


"At the top of the orchestra was placed the occafional organ, in a Gothic frame, mounting to, and mingling with, the faints and martyrs reprefented in the painted glafs on the weft window. On each fide of the organ, close to the window, were placed the kettle-drums defcribed above. The choral bands were principally placed in view of Mr. Bates, on fteps, feemingly afcending into the clouds, in each of the fide aifles, as their termination was invifible to the audience. The principal fingers were ranged in the front of the orchestra, as at oratorios, accompanied by the choirs of St. Paul, the abbey, Windsor, and the chapel-royal.

"The defign of appointing fubdirectors, was to diminish, as much as poffible, the trouble of the noblemen and gentlemen who had projected the undertaking, as well as that of the conductor: and this was effected with great diligence and

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and zeal, not only in fuperintend-
ing the bufinefs at the doors of ad-
miffion, and conducting the com-
pany to their feats, which fell to
the fhare of Dr. Cook, Dr. Ayr-
ton, and meffieurs Jones, Aylward,
and Parfons, all profeffors of the
first class; but in arranging the per-
formers, and conveying fignals to
the feveral parts of that wide-ex-
tended orchestra: departments which
fell to the lot of Dr. Arnold and
Mr. Dupuis, organifts and com-
pofers to his majesty, and Mr. Red-
mond Simpfon, eminent and re-
fpectable profeffos, of great expe-
rience, who may be faid to have
acted as adjutant-generals on the
occafion; Dr. Arnold and Mr. Du-
puis having been placed on different
fides of the orchestra, over the vocal
choir, and Mr. Simpfon, in the cen-
ter over the fubordinate inftrumental
performers. In felecting these de-
legates among the members of the
Mufical Society, great care was
taken not to enfeeble the orcheftra,
by employing fuch performers as
were likely to augment its force;
but fuch as had either ceafed to
play in public, or whofe intru-
ments being the organ and harpfi-
chord, of which only one
wanted, accepted of parts which
were not the lefs useful for being
filently performed.

"Of the care and intelligence
with which preparations were
made for these performances, fome
judgment may be formed from the
fingle circumftance of the mufic-
books that were provided for cach
day: as two hundred and feventy-
four were requifite for the first per-
formance, in the abbey; a hun-
dred and thirty-eight for the Pan
theon; and two hundred and fixty-
feven for the Melfiah; amounting,
in all, to seven hundred and feven-
ty-nine; not one of which was


miffing, or mislaid, nor was an in[205] ftrument wanting during the whole commemoration: inftruments into the orchestra, at had ftrict orders to convey all the as the porters the abbey, by feven o'clock in the morning of each day, to prevent the company from being incomwere unwieldy. moded by the admiffion of fuch as

haps more aftonish veteran mufi"Few circumstances will perthere was but one general rehearsal cians, than to be informed, that difputable proof of the high flate for each day's performance: an inof cultivation to which practical mufic is at prefent arrived in this country; for, if good performers had not been found, ready made, been fufficient to make them fo. a dozen rehearsals would not have Indeed, Mr. Bates, in examining the lift of performers, and enquir ing into their feveral merits, fuggefted the idea of what he called a drilling rehearsal, at Tottenhamthe performance; in order to hear ftreet Concert Room, a week before fuch volunteers, particularly chos rus fingers, as were but little known to himfelf, or of whofe abilities his certainty. At this reheatfal, though affiftant was unable to speak with it confifted of a hundred and twenof that number were defired to atty performers, not more than two

tend no more.

the abbey, mentioned above, more "At the general rehearsal in than five hundred perfons found of every endeavour to fhut out all means to obtain admiffion, in fpite but the performers; for fear of interruption, and perhaps of failure in the first attempts at incorporating and confolidating fuch a numerous band: confifting not only of all the regulars, both native and foreign, which the capital could fur

nifh, but of all the irregulars, that is, dilettanti, and provincial muficians of character, who could be muttered, many of whom had never heard or feen each other before. This intrusion, which was very much to the diffatisfaction of the managers and conductor, fuggefted the idea of turning the eagerness of the public to fome profitable account for the charity, by fixing the price of admiffion to half a guinea for each person.

"But, befides the profits derived from fubfequent rehearfals, the conTequences of the first were not without their ufe: for the pleasure and astonishment of the audience, at the small mistakes, and great effects of this first experiment, which many had condemned by anticipation, were foon communicated to the lovers of mufic throughout the town, to the great increafe of fubfcribers and folicitors for tickets. For though the friends of the directors were early in fubfcribing, perhaps from perfonal refpect, as much as expectation of a higher mufical repaft than ufual; yet the public in general did not manifest great eagernefs in fecuring tickets till after this rehearsal, Friday, May 21, which was reported to have astonished even the performers 'themselves, by its correctnefs and effects. But fo interesting did the undertaking become, by this favourable rumour, that from the great demand of tickets it was found neceffary to clofe the fubfcription; which was done fo rigorously, that 'the author of this account was unable, on Monday, to obtain of the managers tickets of any kind, on any terms, for fome of his friends, who had neglected to give in their names fooner.

"Many families, as well as individuals, were, however, attract

ed to the capital by this celebrity; and I never remember it fo full, not only fo late in the year, but at any time in my life, except at the coronation of his prefent majesty. Many of the performers came, unfolicited, from the remotest parts of the kingdom, at their own expence: fome of them, however, were afterwards reimbursed, and had a fmall gratuity in confideration of the time they were kept from their families by the two unexpected additional performances.

Foreigners, particularly the French, must be much aftonished at fo numerous a band moving in fuch exact measure, without the affistance of a Coryphæus to beat the time, either with a roll of paper, or a noify baton, or truncheon. Rouffeau fays, that "the more time is beaten, the lefs it is kept;" and, it is certain, that when the measure is broken, the fury of the mufical general, or director, increafing with the difobedience and confufion of his troops, he becomes more violent, and his ftrokes and gefticulations more ridiculous, in proportion to their disorder.

"The celebrated Lulli, whofe favour in France, during the laft century, was equal to that of Handel in England during the prefent, may be faid to have beat himself to death by intemperate paffion in marking the meafure to an ill-disciplined band; for in regulating, with his cane, the time of a Te Deum, which he had composed for the recovery of his royal patron, Louis XIV. from a dangerous ficknefs, in 1686, he wounded his foot by accidentally ftriking on that inftead of the floor, in fo violent a manner, that, from the contufion occafioned by the blow, a mortification enfued, which coft him his life, at the age of fifty-four!

" A

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"As this commemoration is not only the first instance of a band of fuch magnitude being affembled together, but of any band, at all numerous, performing in a fimilar fituation, without the affiftance of a manu-ductor, to regulate the measure, the performances in Weftminster abbey may be fafely pronounced, no lefs remarkable for the multiplicity of voices and inftruments employed, than for accuracy and precifion. When all the wheels of that huge machine, the orchestra, were in motion, the effect refembled clock-work in every thing, but want of feeling and expreffion.

"And as the power of gravity and attraction in bodies is proportioned to their mafs and dentity, fo it feems as if the magnitude of this band had commanded and impelled adhefion and obedience, beyond that of any other of inferior force. The

pulfations in every limb, and ramifications of veins and arteries in an animal, could not be more reciprocal, ifochronous, and under the regulation of the heart, than the members of this body of musicians under that of the conductor and leader. The totality of found feemed to proceed from one voice, and one inftrument; and its powers produced, not only new and exquifite fenfations in judges and lovers of the art, but were felt by those who never received pleasure from mufic before.


ODERN philofophy, if it did not invent, has at least methodized, elucidated, and explained a fyftem, which accounts better for the operations of the mind than the ingenious but difcordant metaphyfics of Plato and Aristotle.

It is, I believe, generally agreed, that our ideas are all connected, linked, or, in the technical phrafe, affociated together; and that each idea has its proximate, which it never fails to introduce: and thus our thoughts fucceed one another in a regular feries, as they happen to be related to each other. "This theory is pleasantly il

"These effects, which will be long remembered by the prefent public, perhaps to the difadvantage of all other choral performances, run the risk of being doubted by all but thofe who heard them, and the prefent defcription of being pronounced fabulous, if it should furvive the prefent generation."


[From Mr. GREGORY's Effays, Historical and Moral.]

luftrated by a ftory which Hobbes relates in the third chapter of his Leviathan. "In a difcourfe, says he, on our prefent civil war, what could feem more impertinent than to ask, as one did, what was the value of a Roman penny? Yet to me the coherence was manifeft enough. For the thought of the war introduced the thought of delivering up the king to his enemies; the thought of that brought the thought of the delivering up of Chrift; and that again the thought of the thirty pence, which was the price of that; and thence eafily followed that ma licious question: and all this in a moment

moment of time, for thought is quick."

"That faculty, which is ufually called penetration, feems to depend altogether onfuch an intimate knowledge of human nature, as enables us accurately to diftinguish the affociations which influence the train of thought. It is, in fact, the art of filling up the blanks in converfation, and turning over readily a number of ideas which intervene, though not expreffed, and which are the feveral links of the chain in another perfon's mind. It is, as it were, transforming yourself into that other perfon, and thinking for fome time exactly the fame. Experience will render a man most adroit at this, as at all other exercifes. A lively genius is neceffary in the obferver; fome aid may poffibly be derived from phyfiognomy; the general character of the fubject will affift in decyphering his thoughts; and the external manners and behaviour must be carefully noted.

"Similar to this, and connected with it, is the faculty of foreseeing, from the prefent thoughts and acons of men, what they will probably be in future. All our judgments of the future are formed by the recollection of the paft: on our knowledge of human nature, therefore, this power must depend.

Thefe faculties conftitute the truc fecond fight, which, as was imagined of the fabulous, brings

probably as great an addition to our pains as to our pleasures. It reveals to us a number of the diftreffes of our fellow-creatures, which escape common eyes; and, I fear, it feldom difcovers evil till it is too late to remedy it.

"The remarks contained in this Effay will in fome measure account for many delicate embarraffinents, which a nice obferver experiences in company. He pierces beyond the outward colouring. He fees vices, and confequences, which none but himself remarks. His heart bleeds, when every thing around him wears the face of joy. I have obferved fuch a person, at an entertainment, more penfive than those for whom he felt.

"Thefe faculties of penetration and forefight will, perhaps, fometimes lead us into error; and, if fancy be but active, we may magnify a fmall difcovery into fome thing very extraordinary. But whether they contribute or not to the happiness of the poffeffor, the good effects of them to fociety are not to be difputed, if in good hands: and the higher endowments of the mind I hope, and I believe, ufually are. In good hands, thefe faculties may prevent, if not all, a great deal of mifchief, by timely advice; and the evil they can do, in bad hands, is not equal to the good which they in other respects produce."



[From the fame Work.]

66 MONG the ancient fects of philofophers, thofe who profeffed the leverer morality repre


fented fuicide, when it appeared neceffary to preferye their perfons from difgrace, or to avoid the rifk

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