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of the enlightened philofophy of the prefent age. His expofition of the famous empiric Mefmer, and the manner in which he has developed the falfity of the Mefimerian fyltem, does honour to himself and fcience. M. Dehu has reprinted at Helmftadt his "Treatife on the Tincture of Regulus of Antimony, faturated with cauftic Salt, and its remarkable medical Properties, together with an Account of the Manner of preparing fuch Tinctures." J. Mauvillon, captain in the Hef fian fervice, has published "An Historical Effay on the Art of War, during the war of thirty Years ;" that is, the memorable war preceding the peace of Munter. The fame author has written a more extensive and important work "On the Changes produced by the Invention of Gunpowder in the military Art," which perhaps places him among the firft of military writers. At Leipfic, M. Breitkopf has printed his firit part of "An Inquiry into the Origin of playing Cards, Paper made of Linen, and Wood Engravings." The work is accurate and acute: the two first articles only are treated of in the prefent publication. The Royal Society of Goettingen has published their "Tranfactions for the Year 1782," which contains four memoirs on natural philofophy. The first, obfervations on feveral claffes of plants in the royal garden; fome of which are new, others little known, by profeffor Murray: the fecond, on the acid fprings of Driburg, by Gmelin: the third, concerning the history of fugar, by Beckman, in which he endeavours, with great probability, to prove that fugar was unknown to the ancients: the fourth contains anatomico-obstetrical ob fervations on the structure of the human ovum and fecundine, by prefeffor Rifberg. They are learn ed,
ed, that the baron de Hupfeh, of Cologne, has been happy enough to difcover that this city was one of, if not the first in which the art of printing was exercifed; having found not only a page engraved in wood, according to the mode in which printing was originally performed, but also other proofs that this art was first practifed at Cologne.
Profeffor Weber has given the learned world "A Treatife on common Air, and the Air that Bodies contain," in which work he has endeavoured to collect the various experiments of others, which are fcattered, and distract the attention of young students, fo as to form a whole. What is remarkable, in the midst of his researches into the pro. perties of air, he has addreffed him. felf to the feelings as well as the understanding, which he frequently has the art decply to affect. Mr. Scherbern has collected various fcattered tracts by the great Linnaeus on médicine and botany, the eighth volume of which is lately printed at Erlang A learned memoir, entitled "New Obfervations on Generation, was read by profeffor Bloumenbarch before the Academy of Sciences at Goettingen. The experiments and views of the author were worthy of the fociety to whom they were addreffed. The first volume of the "Natural Hiflory of Auftria, Saltzbourg, Paffau, and Berchtes-Gaden," has been written and printed by M. Schrank, at Saltzbourg, and is a work of confequence to natural hiflory.
At the Hague, "A Collection of Memoirs on the Analogy between Electricity and Magnetifin, by Profellor Van Swinden," has appeared, which does new honour to the intelligence and indefatigable indufiry of its author, and is highly worthy
folute monarchy is the best of goveruments; a detellable opinion, destructive of mankind, and which we are always forry when we find learned men endeavouring to pro pagate.
The twenty-first and twenty-fecond volumes of the Haarlem Society have appeared, the latter of which contains a moft excellent Differtation, by profeffor Caftillon, of Berlin, concerning the principles and characters of analogy, and ́ how it ought to be applied in the investigation of phyfical and moral truths. Another Differtation in the fame volume is as contemptible as the above is excellent. It is an enquiry into the moral state of children after this life, by Lambert Meyer. The difcuffion of fuch a question cannot be read without pity, for the ill-directed labours of the author.
ed, interefting, and original. These Tranfactions contain two memoirs on Mathematics, and five on History and Philology. The first, on the improvements made in military arms, fince the time of the ancient Greeks, by profeffor Heyne: the fecond, on the time in which Michael Glycas lived, one of the Byzantine historians, by profeffor Walchius: the third, relative to certain works and fragments of the Socratic fchool, particularly the Dialogues of chyles, Plato's Epiitles, thofe of his con-difciples, and the Table of Cebes, by profeffor Meiners, in which ftrong proofs are brought that they are most of them fpurious: the fourth concerning Thrace, as described by Herodotus and Thucydides, by profeffor Gatterer: the fifth, an enquiry into the fources of information and authors, from whom Diodorus Siculus compofed his hiftory, written with infinite erudition by profeffor Heyne. M. de Hertzberg, minifter of state to the late king of Pruffia, and one of the Berlin academicians, has printed his "Difcourfe read on the King's Birth-Day, concerning Population in general, and on that of the Pruffian Dominions in particular." The author is the known panegyrift of his royal mafter, and therefore must be read with caution. He pretends, that Frederic doubled the population of his hereditary do minions, and by means of his new ly acquired provinces trebled that of the whole Pruffian ftates; but we prefume he muft date from the conclufion of the laft war his majefty waged against the houfe of Auftria, when the population of the Pruffian territories was miferably decreafed. This pamphlet fhould be read with infinite caution; it may otherwife induce people, not fufficiently accustomed to confider fuch fubjects, to believe that an ab
While fpeaking of German lite rature, let us mention two different works in French, confifling of tranflations from the German, from their most esteemed tragedies and comedies. The firft, in twelve volumes, is completed. The authors were meffieurs Freidel, and de Bonneville. Freidel was a German ;and his part of the work chiefly confifted in procuring the pieces, and giving a mere literal tranflation to his fellow-labourer, whofe task it was to bestow on them that fpirit and elegance, without which fuch works are little likely to be read. This tranflation has been very fuc cefsful. The fecond is by mef fieurs Junker and Leibault, four volumes of which are only yet printed; but the authors propofe a continuation, if they meet the fuccefs they hope. A sketch likewife of a "New general Code of Laws for the Pruffian States," has appeared at Berlin, and our accounts fay is very much fuperior, as X 3 far
far as it goes, to the Frederician Code.
M. Levefque, is alfo tranflated into Italian. Perhaps it is the beft hiftory of Ruffia extant, and the tranf lation is faid to be faithful. The
"A New Arabic Lexicon, by John Willmet," is published at Rotterdam, forme of the "Koran," "Hariri," and the "Life of Timur," three works which are fuppofed to be written in the pureit Arabic. At Leyden, the chevalier Junei has publifhed a "General History of the Kingdoms of Cyprus, Jerufalem, Armenia, and Egypt;" a
tion by thofe whofe hiftorical refearches are this way bent. To this Hiftory is added the prefent State of Egypt, a Diflertation on their Hieroglyphics, and reflections on the proper means to conquer Egypt and Cyprus. This History is written in French.
twelfth volume of Saccarelli's “Ecclefiaftical History," in Latin, has appeared. The abbé Seftini has publ.fhed feven volumes of "Letters, written from Sicily and Turkey, to his Friends in Tufcany." They are printed at Leghorn; and the abbé has paid particular attenwork deferving all poble attention to the private lives of the Turks, the natural and botanical productions of the countries he had pafled through, and been careful to fupply the defects of other travellers, who have had too much haite and too little attention to defcribe the Ottomans, and their empire, fuch as they really are. From Leghorn, likewife, John Mariti has font his "Chronology of the Latin Kings of Jerufalem" into the world. It includes nearly four centuries, that is to fay, from the proclamation of Godfrey in 1099, to the death of James the Pofthumous, fon of James the Baftard, in the year 1475
Having thus given a brief account of all the works most deferving notice that have come within our knowledge, publifhed in Ruffia, Sweden, Denmark, Germany, and Holland, we fhall now turn our attention fouthwards, and proceed with a recapitulation of the works of Italian authors which have appeared in the courfe of the year 1785, and fuch of 1784, as had not before come to hand.
M. Grimaldi has published feve-, ral volumes of his Annals of the Kingdom of Naples." The extracts we have feen are written with a free and philofophic fpirit, which is always the more honourable to its author when exercifed in a country inimical to liberty of speech and action. He has invited the learned to give him their affiftance, with a promife to publish the names of thofe who fall contribute to his work. He has likewife greatly profited by our own famous hiftorian, Gibbon's "Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire." The "Hiftory of Ruffia," written in French by
In our laft Regifter we mentioned a daring friar who had contested the legal rites of primacy of the pope; at prefent we mut mention an author, who, with a more religious but lefs philofophic fpirit, has written an antwer, in which he has not fpared his endeavours to load the aforefaid hardy friar with all the opprobrium in his pow. er. "Piedmontefe Bography, by Charles Tenirelli, Decade the Firft," has been printed at Turin, and contains the lives of eight kings of the Lombards, and two of Italy, born in Piedmont, or at least convoking the states there. M. Maffa, advocate at Mantua, has published "A Treatife on Crimes and Punishments," which, in fact, is the work of the famous Becca
ria re-tranflated from a French author, who himself had tranflated Beccaria from the Italian, but by another arrangement had made fome improvements in the work. The prefent tranflator has added notes. The first volume is only yet printed, at Monaco, at the expence of the typographical fociety. The first volume of a "Hiftoricalchronological Abstract of pontifical, imperial, and fectary Councils, with political and moral Reflections, Citations, and Remarks," has been written by M. Forci, and printed at Florence. Tafte, precision, and learning, characterize this work, which is in reality a fmall library in its kind. Our readers perhaps will excufe, or perhaps thank us for noticing a tract contemptible in irfelf on account of its fubject, but for that reafon curious to the good free proteltants of England. It is an oration by the abbé Traversari, in praise of the bleffed Lorenzo de Brindifi. That they may judge we will tranflate a fhort paffage, where the holy orator defcribes the victory gained by the Auttrians over the Ottomans, under the favourable aufpices and in confequence of the prefence of Brinditi:"Oh, what a fpectacle it was to behold him, infpired by God, animating by his prefages the combatants; giving courage, by the found of his voice, to chiefs who ftood in fufpence, and communicating his own ar dour to the timid battalions. Spite of the inequality of troops, and the difadvantage of the fituation of the pofts, Lorenzo, in the name of the God of Armies, counfelled the attack. Admire him! behold! he no more resembles a mortal and terreftrial being! All the confidence of Mofes, praying on the mountain, fhines in his face; his courage difplays all the zeal of Jofhua vanquishing the Amalekites. With
one hand he triumphant elevates the fign of the crofs, with the other guides his courfer, who, him-. felf, directed by fome fuperior virtue, winds and faves his rider in his fwift courfe from the well-aim. ed blows of barbarian feymitars. Thus animating the troops of the faithful, he rapidly flies where wing the greatest number of inimical ar rows, where thunders with loudett fury the enemy's artillery. Courageous chiefs, in vain would you intercept his career! Behold you not, defcended from on high, the Almighty wars for him and you? What, though death, glanced from a thoufand parts, comes to affault him, obedient to his voice, death ftops, and with double fury returns to exterminate the reproved nation. See the unequal arinies approach, they clafh, they mingle, the fight grows hot, but foon the heavens declare for justice and the faithful, The barbarian ranks cannot with. ftand the Auftrian valour, inspired and protected by heaven; they are broken and call to the earth. God difperfes and bows them down, the fword mows them, the proud Ottoman fwims in a fea of blood, and views with terror twenty thoufand of his flain warriors. Flight only can fave him, and flight itself is rafh and uncertain; mountains of flain, duft and finoke top and confound him, and the exterminating angel purfues him, Via illorum tenebre et angelus Domini perfequens eos. (Pfal. xxxv.) All is ruin and de fpair for the vanquifhed, all fafety and triumph for the victor." Eloquence must be allowed the orator, but cloquence for the propagation of falfehood and glaring abfurdity, becomes only the more ridiculous by its excellence. Count Char les Bettoni, equally to the honour of his heart and understand, ing, propofed a prize of a hun dred
dred fequins to the author of twenty-four tales, which might beft infpire youth with the love of virtue. This prize, on after-confideration, was offered for the best memoir on the Means of kindling and preferving the Love of Virtue among the young Nobility. The me moirs to be judged by the academicians of Padua. Somewhat to the difgrace of Italian literature, the prize memoir was written by M. Lieberkuhn, and the two fe cond beft by meffieurs Villaume and Hottinger, all three Germans. At Naples the first volume of Captain Cook's Voyages is tranflated and publifhed, and is faid to be well executed. A Profpectus alfo of an Italian Cyclopædia has appeared there. At Ferrara the abbé Aime. rich has written in Latin "An Enquiry concerning the Works of ancient Authors that have been loft in part, or wholly." The work is erudite and acute, and will give pleafure to lovers of claffic learning. Abbé Denina has collected and augmented his "Differtations on the Revolutions of Literature," and published the firft volume of the third edition. The canon Ma rio Lupo, known for his profound erudition, has prefented the world with the first volume of his "Codex Diplomaticus, Civitatis et Ecclefiæ Bergomentis," printed in folio at Bergamo; a learned and ufeful work for law ftudents. Father Delfini at Turin, has given a "Relation of the Expedition of the French Fleet in the East Indies during the years 1781, 2, and 3, under the Command of M. de Suffrein;" the following is a quotation from his work: Three failors brought me a young officer wound ed and dying, whom I entreated in his last inoments to hope in God; the poor youth with a faint voice
faid, "Alas there is no more hope!" and expired. With the help of a failor I took his body, and was carrying him to one of the gunners to have him thrown into the fea; meanwhile a ball brushed by my head, and another almost touched me a little below the waift: an offi cer feeing me, called out, reverend Sir, get to your pot; I am going, replied I, 1 am not fool enough to stay here."
M. Pignotii has given a fifth edition at Lucca, of his "Fables and Poems," which we mention, becaufe among the things added, is a fhort poem called "the Tomb of Shakspeare." The fame of our immortal bard will in time be spread over the whole earth. The Abbé Seftini has printed at Florence, a fmall but apparently valuable work, on "Turkish Gardening, Agriculture, and Hunting, as practifed on the canal of Conftantinople." The "Flora Pedemonta, by M. Allioni, fuperintendant of the Botany Garden and Mufeum," has ap peared at Turin. The work was impatiently expected; it is in two volumes folio, with ninety two plates, containing figures of new or rare plants, to the number of two hundred and twenty eight; his plants are all natives of Fiedmont, and amount to more than two thoufand eight hundred, his fyftem the fame as in his fifth volume of "Mifcellanies of the Royal Society of Turin." The fecond vo lume of the "Elements of anoni cal Jurifprudence" has at length appeared at Bologna, containing fubjects in alphabetical arrange ment, from the letter D, to the lctter 1. The fame clearness and precifion which diftinguished the firth volume, are apparent in the fecond.
The Abbé Campferver has pub