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ble to confider, without horror, the difinal confequences of the blind paffions to which they are fometimes a prey.

in little bags of ferge, rub the fkin till it is dry. They likewife make ufe of a very fine clay, mixt up with rofe leaves, and afterwards dried in the fun, as a kind of foap, with which they rub the head, pouring on it warm water from large metal bafons: the women's hair, thus cleaned and perfumed, is afterwards tied up in a great number of fmall treffes.

"This defcription wants the pearls, the diamonds, the rich fluffs, and all the finery with which lady Montague has been pleafed to ornament thefe baths. It is, indeed, difficult to believe, that that lady ever actually entered them completely dreffed as has been afferted. What is most certain is, that a too frequent use of thefe ftoves, at length, opens the pores to fuch a degree as to render them visible. It is equally certain that fo violent a dilatation of the fibres, by altering the fhape, brings on decrepitude before old age.

"Thefe public baths are very numerous in every part of the city, and are likewife frequented by the men; but at different hours from thofe fet apart for the women. A man who fhould dare attempt to enter while they are within, would be feverely punished, though he had the good fortune to escape the taffes, fandals, and wet peftemals, that af fault him in fhoals. The Turkifh women are inexorable, when the audacity of a man means nothing more than infult; but it is impofi

"I do not fpeak here of thofe women who fo frequently fell their charms, and whofe mutilated dead bodies I have often feen in the environs of Conftantinople. The cru elty of the men who murder them, to evade paying, or to avoid the danger of being taken up when bringing them back into the city, is a villainy which may be accounted for, either by avarice or fear. But I fpeak of thofe women of a more exalted rank, whom an irre fiftible fury overpowers, and who efcape fecretly from their prifons. Thefe unfortunate creatures always carry off with them their jewels, and think nothing too good for their lover. Blinded by their un happy paffion, they do not perceive that this very wealth becomes the caufe of their deftruction. The villains to whom they fly, never fail, at the end of a few days, to punish their temerity, and infure the pof feffion of their effects by a crime, which, however monftrous, the government is leaft in hafte to punish. The bodies of these miferable women, ftript and mangled, are fre quently feen floating in the Port, under the very windows of their murderers; and thefe dreadful examples, fo likely to intimidate the reft, and prevent fuch madness, neither terrify nor amend."


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pect these things from our Tartars.

mirzas, After we the Niefter,

however, which parts Beffarabia from Yedefan, in which province the hordes were fuppofed to be in a kind of rebellion, the officer who commanded the detachment put it into a regular military difpofition. A vanguard of twelve horse preceded us about two hundred paces; four men were placed at each door of the carriage, which the officer took under his particular care; two carts followed after; eight men brought up the rear, and two pla toons, of fix men each, kept at a diftance of fix hundred paces to the right and the left.

XCEPT the habits of the

without being rich, have a kind of ftudied elegance, the Tartars feek for little which is not strictly neceffary. The luxury of glafs windows is confined folely to the prince's apartment: paper frames are ufed in winter, and taken away in fummer, that they may breathe more freely, and have a full view of the Black Sea, which is difcovered at a distance. The fultan invited me to fupper, and, though very hungry, I foon perceived the excellent fish of the Niefter were worthy of better cooks.

"The pleasures of hunting, hawking, and courfing, feemed to be the only ones in which the Tartars took delight; and the fultan frequently formed hunting parties, attended by numbers of the mirzas. They depart for the chace with arms and baggage; it lafts feveral days: camps are formed every night; a body of troops always follows the ferafker; and fometimes thefe parties of pleafure ferve as pretexts for more ferious expeditions.

"The night was spent in repairing a fmall carriage I had bought at Yaffi, which I had converted into a kind of bed. A cart carried our trunks, with which my carriage had been loaded as far as Moldavia; and the orders of the fultan being expedited, I departed the next day with a mirza, whofe office it was to conduct me, with an efcort of forty horfemen, armed with bows, arrows, and fabres, to Bactcheferay. "Little accustomed to military order and difcipline, I did not ex

"The plains we croffed are fo level and open, that no irregularity could be feen, not even fo much as a tree or a fhrub: nor did we fee any thing during the whole day, except fome Noguais, whofe heads the piercing eyes of our Tartars distinguished when the earth's convexity hid the reft of their bodies. Each of thefe Noguais were riding alone, and those whom our patroles interrogated, relieved us from the fear of the pretended troubles which had arifen.

"I was curious to know their bufinefs, and learnt that these people, fuppofed Nomades, becaufe they live under a kind of tents, were fettled, however, by tribes in vallies eight or ten fathoms deep, which interfect the plains from north to fouth, and which are more than thirty leagues long, though but half a quarter of a league wide. Muddy rivulets run through the middle of them, and terminate towards the fouth in fmall lakes,

which communicate with the Black
Sca. On the borders of thefe rivu-
lets are the tents of the Noguais,
as well as the fheds meant to give
fhelter, during winter, to the na-
merous flocks and herds of thefe
pastoral people.

ney was fixed for the nearest vality,
at ten leagues diftance. It was now
near fun-fet, and I faw nothing be
fore me but a vaft melancholy plain,
when I fuddenly felt my carriage
defcend, and beheld a file of ous,
or tents, to the right and left, ex-
tending farther than I could fee.
We croffed the rivulet over a bad
bridge, near which I found three
of thefe obas out of the line, and
one of them intended for
The carriages were placed behind,
and the detachment took up its
quarters jutt by me.


"My first care was to examine the whole of a picture, of which my party formed a feparate group. I particularly remarked the folitude in which we were left, and was the more astonished at it, because I fuppofed myself an object that in fuch a place might well have excited cu riofity. The mirza had left me, on our arrival, to go and demand provifions; while I, in the mean time, examined the conftruction of my Tartarian house. It was a large kind of hen-coop, the paling of which was in a circular form, and over this was a dome open at the top. A felt of camel-hair envel loped the whole, and a piece of this fame felt was thrown over the hole in the centre, which ferved to give vent to the fmoke. I obferved alfo, that the obas, inhabited by the Tar tars, and in which there was a fire kindled, had each of them this fame piece of felt, fastened in form of a banner, directed towards the wind, and futained by a long pole, which projected out of the oba. This fame pole alfo ferved to lower the felt, and fhut the vent-hole, when the fire, being extinguifhed, ren dered its remaining open ufelefs or incommodious.

"Each proprietor has his own mark, which is burnt into the thighs of horses, oxen, and dromedaries, and painted with colours on the wool of theep. The latter are kept near the owner's habitation, but the other fpecies, united in herds, are, towards the fpring, driven to the plains, where they are left at large till the winter. At the approach of this feafon, they feek and drive them to their teds, and this fearch was the bufinefs of the Noguais we had met.

What is most fingular, in this fearch, is, that the Tartar employ ed in it has always an extent of plain, which, from one valley to another, is ten or twelve leagues wide, and more than thirty long, yet does not know which way to direct his fearch, nor troubles himself about it. He puts up in a little bag, fix pounds of the flour of roatted millet, which is fufficient to laft him thirty days. This proviñon made, he mounts his horfe, ftops not till the fun goes down, then clogs the animal, leaves him to graze, fups on his tour, goes to fleep, awakes, and continues his


He neglects not, however, to obferve, as he rides, the mark of the herds he happens to fee. Thefe difcoveries he communicates to the different Noguais he meets, who have the fame purfuits, and, in his turn, receives fuch indications, as belp to put an end to his journey. It is certainly to be feared that‍ a people fo patient, may, one day, furnith formidable armies.

The end of our first day's jour

"I particularly admired the fo lidity and delicas of the paling

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"VIII. Poffibly prepofitions were, at firft, fhort interjectional words, fuch as our carters and fhepherds make use of to their cattle, to denote the relations of place. Or perhaps a more fkilful linguift and antiquary may be able to trace them from other words, as the conjunctions have been traced by the learned author above mentioned.

"Many prepofitions are evidently formed by compofition, as, between; befides, that is, being or exifting at the fide or near.

IX. The definitive article, in all the languages with which I have any acquaintance, is formed from the demonftrative pronoun this, hic, or ille. The Greek article i, n, To, may appear to be derived immediately from the relative o; but I think both are very evidently no other than the demonftrative los, reduced by a kind of contraction very common in words much in ufe.

"The Spanish article il, la, and lo, and the Italian, il, la, are evidently the Latin, ille. The French le, is apparently derived from either the Spanish or Italian.

"Our the is an eafy corruption from this. Perhaps in common fpeech the s might be left out before confonants, and the pronounced fhort, which would reduce it almost immediately to our definite article. The Lowland Scots, who continue to fpeak a dialect of the old English, make ufe of a fimilar ellipfis, commonly using the for the plural thefe.

The moft probable etymology of our indefinite article a is, that it is a contraction of any, as feems to be implied by the form which it affumes before a vowel, an.

"Such appears to have been the origin of the several species of words

which have been distinctly marked by grammarians. Thofe variations. in termination, which were adopted in order to denote the ftates and relations of certain parts of speech, conftitute the next object which prefents itself for investigation.

"The plural of nouns is frequently marked by rude nations by a repetition of the fingular. I have feen a letter from an African chief to his correfpondent in England, during the late war. The man had learned to speak and even to write a little English; but, probably following the idiom of his own language, he complains of the merchants, that they had lately fent no hip hip, at which he wonders very much, for that they had plenty of Лave flave very cheap, &c. I am not able to account for the formation of the plural upon any other principle than that, on which I account for the formation of the other states or cafes.

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freely bewailing their own indivi dual privations. By faring as they did only could I filence them; and I give this receipt to all travellers, as the best they can follow.

ed on the orders he had received, and the mirza rofe to indicate how near they might approach, to which limits this curious company foon came. I did not fail to meet, in order to obferve them the nearer, and procure myfelf the pleafure of being acquainted with thefe good folks. When I came within a certain distance, they all rofe, and the most remarkable of them, to whom I addreffed myself, faluted me by taking off his bonnet, and inclining his body.


"No people are more abfemious: millet and mare's milk are their habitual food, and yet they are exceedingly carnivorous. A Noguais might wager that he would eat a whole theep, and gain his bet, without danger of indigestion. But their appetites are retrained by their avarice, which is fo great, that they generally debar them elves of thing they can fell. If any acci dent kill one of their catile, they then, only, regale upon his fieth; and this not unless they find it time enough to bleed the dead animal. They follow this precept of Maho met, likewife, with refpect to beats that are difempered: they carefully obferve each stage of the difeafe, that they may feize the moment when, their avarice condemned to lofe the value of the beast, their appetite may fill afford them fome confolation, by killing it an inftant before its natural death.

"The fame ceremony had been obferved, by their deputy, to the mirza, at which I was the more furprifed, because the Turks never uncover the head, except for their own eafe; and that, when they are alone, or in company with their moft intimate friends. It is for this reafon that European ambaffadors, and their attendants, go to the audiences of the grand feignior with their heads covered; for, to prefent themfelves otherwife before a Turk, would be a want of refpect. I fhall have other more important remarks to make relative to the finrilarity of customs between us and the Tar


"The little information I gained from my Noguais, was owing, no doubt, to the want of afking them proper questions. The fatisfaction, however, which novelty always brings, made the clofe of this day agreeable enough. I reconciled my felf very well to my fupper; but as to my people, Tartarian cookery owed all its fuccefs with them to their great hunger, which finds every thing good. They underflood not the doctrine of amufing themfelves with their wants, and I was apparently the object of their la mentations. But I perceived they only wifhed my perfonal eafe, that they might acquire the right of

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