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him. Some give the Cypriacs to defcribes the wind blowing from the Hegefias of Salamis, others to Sta. Thracian mountains, upon the E. finus, a poet of Cyprus, and some gean sea, it mult of course be a west to Homer's daughter, married to wind in re peci to Ionia, from which Stafinus, to whom Homer is said to circumitance he draws his confehave given this poem, actually writ. quence that Homer was an Ionian. ten by himself, by way of portion ; This argument must surely be latis. this daughter of Homer is called factory as to the place in which the Arlephone, and his sons Theriphon poem was written ; and when we and Theolaus: Nævius trantated have located Homer in lonia, whilt the Cypriacsinto Latin verse. Many he was employed in writing his more poems are ascribed to Homer, poein, we have one point of doubt which would be tedious to particu- at leait cleared up in his history to larize ; they are enumerated by our conviction, and his accuracy in Suidas, whom the reader, if his cu- one branch of knowledge vindicated riosity so inclines him, may readily froin the detraction of critics. consult.

6. Having established this point, As to any other information viz, that Homer was an Afiatic personally respecting this great poet, Greek, inhabiting the sea-coait, or it has been given to the world fo an island on the coait of lonia, and ably by the late Mr. Wood, in his having vindicated his accuracy in Eray on the Original Genius and geographical knowledge, the ingeWritings of Homer, that I can add nious author of the Eflays proceeds nothing on the occasion, except the to thew, by way of corollary from humble recommendation of my his propouition thus demonstrated

, judgment in its favour. The in. that Homer must have been a great ternal evidence, which this essayist traveller; that geographical knowadduces to fix the birth-place and ledge was in those days no other. carly residence of his poet in Ionia wife to be acquired; that he ap. or Ælia, is both learnedly collect- pears to have been thoroughly coned and satisfactorily applied. He versant in the arts of building and observes that Homer, in his gene- navigating lips, as then underitood ral manner of describing the geogra- and practiled; and that his map of phy of countries, speaks of them Greece, which both Strabo, Apolas more or less distant in proportion lodorus the Athenian, Menogenes to their bearing from lonia; he de- and Demetrius of Sceptis, illustrated scribes Zephyrus as a rude and boi- in so diffusive a manner, puts it out sterous wind, blowing from Thrace: of doubt, that he inuit have viited this circumstance had been urged the several countries, and furveyed against Homer as a proof of his er- them with attention, before he could ror in geography, and the soft and have laid them down with such geogentle quality of Zephyrus, fo of- graphical accuracy : certain it is ten celebrated by all poets in all that so great was the authority of times, is quoted in aid of the charge; Homer's original chart, that it was but the fagacity and local know- a law in fome cities that the youth ledge of Mr. Wood divert the ac- fhould learn it by heart; that So. culation, and turn it into an argu- lon appealed to it for establithing ment for ascertaining the spot of the right of Athens to Salamis in Homer's nativity and residence, by preference to the claims of the lereminding us, that when the poet garenfians; and that territorial p!O

perty and dominion were in several their learning over Greece, and initances decided by referring to this from their schools peopled it with Homeric chart. Another evidence philosophers. The unwritten draof Homer's travels he derives from ma was long in existence before any his lively delineations of national compofitions of that fort were comcharacter, which he observes are mitted to writing. Solon's laws marked with such precifion, and were engraved in wood or stone, fupported throughout with sucb con- and there appears to have been but litency, as not to allow us to think one table of them. Of Lycurgus's that he could have acquired such regulations there was no written re. knowledge of mankind from any cord; the mind of the judge was other fource but his own obferva- the depositary of the law. Draco tions.

published his laws in Olym. xxxix; " It is more than probable Ho- Pififtratus died in Olymp. Ixiï : a mer did not commit his poems to century had nearly passed between writing: it is mere conjecture whe- the publication of these laws and ther that invention was actually in the first institution of a public lie existence at the time he lived: there brary at Athens : great advances no is nothing in his works that favours doubt were made within that period this conjecture, and in such a case in the art of writing ; nevertheless tilence is something more than ne- it was by no means an operation of gative. The retention of such com- facility in Piliftratus's time, and pofitions is certainly an astonishing this compilation of Homer's lliad effort of the human memory; but and Odyssey was a work of vast lainitances are not wanting of the like bour and of royal expence. The nature in early and uncivilized states, book remained at Athens as a princeand the memory is capable of being ly monument of his munificence expanded by habit and cxercise to and love of letters. His library was an extraordinary and almost unli- resorted to by all men of science in mited compass. Unwritten compo- Greece, but copies of the work fitions were always in verfe; and were not circulated till the time of metre was certainly used in aid of the Ptolemies : even Alexander of memory. It must not however be Macedon, when he had pofleffed taken for a consequence that writing himself of a complete copy of his first came into use, when Pherecy- favourite poet, locked it up in the des and Cadmus first composed in rich chelt, of which he had despoil. prose as some have imagiucd; for it ed king Darius, as the most worthy undoubtedly obtained before their case in which he could inclose so intime, and was probably brought ellimable a treasure. When a copy into Greece from Phænicia. of Homer was considered by a prince

“ The engraving of the laws of as a posseffion so rare, it cannot be Draco is supposed to have been the supposed his written works were in first application of that art ; but it many hands. As for the detached was a work of labour, and required thapsodies, which Lycurgus in more the tool of the artist, rather than early times brought with him out of the hand of the penman. Thales Afia, they inuit have been exceedand Pythagoras left us no writings ingly imperfect, though it is to be behind them, though they spread preluined they were in writing.”

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Of the ORIGINALITY of HOMER'S EPIC, and of his TRANS

LATOR, MR. POPE.

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[ From the same Work. ] ROM the scarcity of tran- Midas, all of the Ionian fide of the

fcribers in the time of Pili- Meander, were poets antecedent to stratus, and the difficulties of col. Homer : so were Amphio.1, Demolecting and compiling poems, which docus, Philammon, Phemius, Arexified only in the memories on the stæus, author of the Arimafpia, rhaproditis, we are led to consider Ifatides, Drymon, Afbolus the Cen. the intļitution of the Athenian li- taur, Eumiclus the Cyprian, Hobrary, as a moił poble and iinport- rus of Samos, l'roinauris of Athens, ant work : at the same time, when and the celebrated Sybill. we reflect how many compositions “ The five poets, who are gene. of the earlieit poets depended on the rally styled the masters of epic pofidelity of memory, we cease to etry, are Homer, Antimachus the wonder that we have so many more Colophonian, Panyatis of Halicarrecords of names than of works. nafsus, lisander of Camirus, and Many poets are enumerated ante. Hefiod of Cuma : and all these cedent to the time of Homer; some were natives of the Afiatic coatt. of these have been already men- * Before I cease speaking of Hotioned, and very few indeed of their mer, I cannot excuse mytelf from fragments are now in existence. saying something on the subject of

“ Conjecture, and even fiction, Mr. Pope's translation, which will have been enviously set to work by for ever remain a monument of his grammarians and others within the excellence in the art of verfinca Christian æra to found a charge of tion. It was an arduous undertak: plagiarisin against Homer, and to ing, and the translator entered upon dispute his title to originality. We it with a candid confeffion that he are told that Corinnus, who was a “ utterly incapable of doing swholar of Palamedes, inventor of justice to Homer.” He also says, the Doric letters, compofcd a poem " that if Mr. Dryden had transcalled the Iliad, whilst Troy was lated the whole work, he would no tanding, in which he celebrates the more have attempted Homer after war of Dardanus against the Paph-him chan Virgil, his version of whoin lagonians, and that Homer formed (notwithstanding some human er. himself upon his model, clofely co- rors) is the moit noble and fpirited pying him. It is allerted by others, translation he knows in any lan that he availed himself of the poems guage.” This is a declaration, that of Dictys the Cretan, who was of reflects as much honour on Mr. the family of Idomeneus, and lived Pope, as it does on Mr. Dryden. in the time of the Trojan war : but Great as his difficulties were, he has there fables are still less probable nevertheless executed the work in trian the fiory of his contest with such a manner as to leave stronger Heliod, and of the prize being de- reasons why no man should attempt creed against him. Orpheus, Mu- a like translation of Homer after Taus, Eumolpus, and Thamyris, all him, than there were why he should of Thrace; Mariyas, Olympus, and not have undertaken it' after Mr.

Dryden.

was

Dryden. One thing above all sur. nounce of Mr. Pope's poem “ that prises me in his execution of it, it is no tranflation of Homer.” The which is the catalogue of the ships; fame author points out the advana difficulty that I thould elle have tages of Miltonic verte , and it must thought insurmountable in rhime. be confesled that Miltonic verse This however he has accomplished in seems to be that happy medium in the smootheft metre, and a very cu- metre, which stands the best chance rious poemitis. No farther attempt of giving the compreffed fenfe of therefore remained to be made upon Homer without debafing its spirit. Homer, but of a translation in blank It is a stern criticism to say that Mr. verse or in literal prole. A contem- Pope's “is no translation of Hoporary of eminence in the republic mer:" his warmest adinirers will of letters has lately given a profe admit that it is not a close one, and translation of the Iliad, though Mr. probably they will not difpute but Pope had declared in his preface that it might be as juft, if it had a that “no literal translation can be closer resemblance to its original, jult to an excellent original in a fu- notwithitanding what he says in the perior language.” It is casy to fee pasage I have quoted from his prewhat Mr. Pope aims to obtain by face. It is agreed therefore that an this position; and we must interpret opening is still left between literal the expression of the word jufi to prose and fettered rhine. I thould mean that no such literal tranllation conceive it might be a plcafant cx. can be equal to the spirit, though ercise for men of talents to try a it thall be just to the sense of its ori- few fpecimens from such passages in ginal. He knew full well, that no the Iliad, as they might like beft ; translation in rhime could be literal, and these perhaps might engage and he was therefore interested to fome one or more to proceed with premise that no literal translation the work, publishing a book at a could be juft. Whether he has here. time, as it were experimentally, by by vindicated his own deviations which means they might avail themfrom the sense of his author, and selves of the criticisins of their canthose pleonasms, which the shackles did judges, and make their tinal coinof rhime have to a certain degree pilation more corrett. If this was driven bim into, and probably would ably executed, a very splendid work have driven any other man much might in time be completed to the more, nrust be left with the clallical hunour of our nation and language, reader to judge for himself. Some embellished with engravings of deof this description, and in particu- figns by our eminent matters from lar a learned lecturer in rhetoric, select féenes in each rhapsody, acwho has lately favoured the public cording to the judgment of the arwith a colleétion of Effays, pro- tiit.”

IN

OF TAS TE GENERAL. [From Dr. Reid's Efrays on the Intellectual Powers of Man. ] TH "HAT power of the mind ties of nature, and whatever is ex.

by which we are capable celient in the fine arts, is called of discerning and relifting the beau- taste.

The " The external sense of taste, by notice of it now is, that the interwhich we distinguish and relish the nal power of tafe bears a great a. tarious kinds of food, has given oc. nalogy in this respect to the extercafion to a metaphorical applica- nal. tion of its name to this internal “ When a beautiful object is be. power of the mind, by which we fore us, we may distinguish the aperceive what is beautiful, and what greeable emotion it produces in us, is deformed or defective in the va- from the quality of the object which rious objects that we contemplate. caules that emotion. When I hear

“ Like the taste of the palate, it an air in music that pleases me, I relishes fome things, is difgulied say, it is fine, it is excellent. This with others; with regard to many, excellence is not in me; it is in the is indifferent or dubious, and is con- mufic. But the pleasure it gives fiderably influenced by habit, by is not in the music; it is in me. associations, and by opinion. Thele Perhaps I cannot say what it is in obvious analogies between external the tune that pleases my ear, as I and internal taite, have led men, in cannot say what it is in a sapid bo

ages, and in all or moft polished dy that pleates my palate ; but languages, to give the name of the there is a quality in the lapid body external sense to this power of dif- which pleales my palate, and I call cerning what is beautiful with plea- it a delicious tatte; and there is a sure, and what is ugly and faulty quality in the tune that pleases my in its kind with disguit.

taite, and I call it a fine or an ex“ In treating of this as an intel- cellent air. lectual power of the mind, I intend “ This ought the rather to be only to make some observations, observed, because it is become a fafirit on its nature, and then on its fhion among modern philosophers, objects.

to resolve all our perceptions into * 1. In the external sense of mere feelings or sensations in the taite, we are led by reason and re, person that perceives, without any flection to distinguish between the thing corresponding to those feel. agreeable fenfation we feel, and the ings in the external object. Acquality in the object which occa. cording to these philosophers, there fions it. Both have the same name, is no heat in the fire, no taste in a and on that account are apt to be sapid body; the taste and the heat confounded by the vulgar, and even being only in the person that feels by philosophers. The sensation I then. In like manner, there is no feel when I taste any fapid body is beauty in any object whatsoever ; in my mind; but there is a real it is only a sensation or feeling in quality in the body which is the the person that perceives it. cause of this sensation. These two “ The language and the comthings have the same name in lan- mon sense of mankind contradict guage, not from any fimilitude in this theory. Even those who hold Cheir nature, but because the one is it, find themselves obliged to use a the sign of the other, and because language that contradicts it. I had there is little occasion in common occation to thox, that there is no lite to diftinguish them.

fulid foundation for it when applied 46 This was fully explained in to the secondary qualities of body; treating of the secondary qualities and the same arguments show c. of binties. The reason of taking qually, that it has no solid founda.

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