Cornerstones of Security: Arms Control Treaties in the Nuclear Era
University of Washington Press, 1 июл. 2011 г. - Всего страниц: 1408
This anthology presents the complete text of thirty-four treaties that have effectively contained the spread of nuclear, biological, and conventional weapons during the Cold War and beyond. The treaties are placed in historical context by individual commentaries from noted authorities Thomas Graham Jr. and Damien J. LaVera, which provide unique insights on each treaty s negotiation and implementation.
During the 1990s, numerous arms control agreements were concluded under U.N. or U.S. leadership. In 1995, one hundred sixty-five nations agreed to indefinitely extend the Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty. Many nations ratified important chemical and biological weapons conventions, a pact to reduce conventional forces in Europe, and agreements to limit testing of weapons of mass destruction. More recent treaties seeking to restrain small arms trafficking and ban land mines are also highlighted and analyzed.
Graham concludes with lessons learned from the collective negotiation and verification history of these treaties, ongoing efforts to limit weaponry, and general observations on the status and effectiveness of these agreements. There is no comparable resource available for diplomats, international lawyers, and arms control specialists.
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Any such modification or amendment shall enter into force when the depositary Government has received notice from all ... of two years from the date of entry into force of the modification or amendment in accordance with the provisions ...
It is understood in this connection that the provisions of this subparagraph are without prejudice to the conclusion ... The amendment shall enter into force for all Parties upon the deposit of instruments of ratification by a majority ...
Any State which does not sign this Treaty before its entry into force in accordance with paragraph 3 of this article may accede to it at any time. 2.This Treaty shall be subject to ratification by signatory States.
For those States which exercise this right, this Treaty shall enter into force upon deposit of the declaration, or as soon as those requirements have been met which have not been expressly waived. 3.As soon as this Treaty has entered ...
An amendment shall enter into force thirty days after receipt by the depositary of acceptances from all Parties. Article 12. Signature and Ratification 1.This Treaty shall be open for signature by any Member of the South Pacific Forum.
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17 The Convention on the Physical Protection of Nuclear Material
18 Convention on Certain Conventional Weapons
19 Nuclear Risk Reduction Centers
20 The Ballistic Missile Launch Notification Agreement
21 The IntermediateRange Nuclear Forces Treaty
22 The Conventional Armed Forces in Europe Treaty
23 The Open Skies Treaty
24 The Strategic Arms Reduction Treaties START I II
9 The Seabed Arms Control Treaty
10 The Accidents Measures Agreement
11 The Biological Weapons Convention
12 The Incidents at Sea Agreement
13 The Strategic Arms Limitation Talks
14 The Threshold Test Ban Treaty
15 The Peaceful Nuclear Explosions Treaty
16 The Environmental Modification Convention
25The Chemical Weapons Convention
26The Agreed Framework
27 Confidence and Security Measures Documents
28 The Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty
29 The Ottawa Convention on Landmines
30 Treaty on Strategic Offensive Reductions