Cornerstones of Security: Arms Control Treaties in the Nuclear Era
University of Washington Press, 1 июл. 2011 г. - Всего страниц: 1408
This anthology presents the complete text of thirty-four treaties that have effectively contained the spread of nuclear, biological, and conventional weapons during the Cold War and beyond. The treaties are placed in historical context by individual commentaries from noted authorities Thomas Graham Jr. and Damien J. LaVera, which provide unique insights on each treaty s negotiation and implementation.
During the 1990s, numerous arms control agreements were concluded under U.N. or U.S. leadership. In 1995, one hundred sixty-five nations agreed to indefinitely extend the Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty. Many nations ratified important chemical and biological weapons conventions, a pact to reduce conventional forces in Europe, and agreements to limit testing of weapons of mass destruction. More recent treaties seeking to restrain small arms trafficking and ban land mines are also highlighted and analyzed.
Graham concludes with lessons learned from the collective negotiation and verification history of these treaties, ongoing efforts to limit weaponry, and general observations on the status and effectiveness of these agreements. There is no comparable resource available for diplomats, international lawyers, and arms control specialists.
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The Agreement should provide that the Agency, in co-operation with the State, may send inspectors to facilities to verify the design information provided to the Agency pursuant to paragraphs 42–45 above for the purposes stated in ...
For reactors and sealed stores, the maximum total of routine inspection per year shall be determined by allowing one sixth of a man-year of inspection for each such facility in the State; b. For other facilities involving plutonium or ...
For routine inspections pursuant to paragraph 72 above, at least 24 hours in respect of the facilities referred to in sub-paragraph 80(b) and sealed stores containing plutonium or uranium enriched to more than 59, and one week in all ...
Site means that area delimited by .......... in the relevant design information for a facility, including a closed-down facility, and in the relevant information on a location outside facilities where nuclear material is customarily ...
Decommissioned facility or decommissioned location outside facilities means an installation or location at which residual structures and equipment essential for its use have been removed or rendered inoperable so that it is not used to ...
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17 The Convention on the Physical Protection of Nuclear Material
18 Convention on Certain Conventional Weapons
19 Nuclear Risk Reduction Centers
20 The Ballistic Missile Launch Notification Agreement
21 The IntermediateRange Nuclear Forces Treaty
22 The Conventional Armed Forces in Europe Treaty
23 The Open Skies Treaty
24 The Strategic Arms Reduction Treaties START I II
9 The Seabed Arms Control Treaty
10 The Accidents Measures Agreement
11 The Biological Weapons Convention
12 The Incidents at Sea Agreement
13 The Strategic Arms Limitation Talks
14 The Threshold Test Ban Treaty
15 The Peaceful Nuclear Explosions Treaty
16 The Environmental Modification Convention
25The Chemical Weapons Convention
26The Agreed Framework
27 Confidence and Security Measures Documents
28 The Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty
29 The Ottawa Convention on Landmines
30 Treaty on Strategic Offensive Reductions