Cornerstones of Security: Arms Control Treaties in the Nuclear Era
University of Washington Press, 1 июл. 2011 г. - Всего страниц: 1408
This anthology presents the complete text of thirty-four treaties that have effectively contained the spread of nuclear, biological, and conventional weapons during the Cold War and beyond. The treaties are placed in historical context by individual commentaries from noted authorities Thomas Graham Jr. and Damien J. LaVera, which provide unique insights on each treaty s negotiation and implementation.
During the 1990s, numerous arms control agreements were concluded under U.N. or U.S. leadership. In 1995, one hundred sixty-five nations agreed to indefinitely extend the Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty. Many nations ratified important chemical and biological weapons conventions, a pact to reduce conventional forces in Europe, and agreements to limit testing of weapons of mass destruction. More recent treaties seeking to restrain small arms trafficking and ban land mines are also highlighted and analyzed.
Graham concludes with lessons learned from the collective negotiation and verification history of these treaties, ongoing efforts to limit weaponry, and general observations on the status and effectiveness of these agreements. There is no comparable resource available for diplomats, international lawyers, and arms control specialists.
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... the encouragement of the creation of new NWFZs; an enhanced verification system; and further steps to ensure that ... five years later in April 2000 to review progress in implementing the Statement of Principles and Objectives, ...
These inspections were important, as they were the first on-site inspections to verify arms control limitations to which the Soviet ... Numerous recommendations on measures to further the treaty's principles and objectives were adopted, ...
In early 1957—even before the Soviets launched Sputnik I, the first successful artificial satellite, in October—developments in rocketry had led the United States to propose international verification of the testing of space objects.
... have become subject to another treaty having an object and purpose substantially the same as that of this Treaty. ... the safeguards referred to in paragraph 1 shall have as their purpose the verification of the non-diversion of ...
The United States, while stating its commitment to the long-term goal ... reductions leading toward eventual elimination; additional NWFZs, including one in the Middle East; enhanced verification; and universality of NPT membership.
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17 The Convention on the Physical Protection of Nuclear Material
18 Convention on Certain Conventional Weapons
19 Nuclear Risk Reduction Centers
20 The Ballistic Missile Launch Notification Agreement
21 The IntermediateRange Nuclear Forces Treaty
22 The Conventional Armed Forces in Europe Treaty
23 The Open Skies Treaty
24 The Strategic Arms Reduction Treaties START I II
9 The Seabed Arms Control Treaty
10 The Accidents Measures Agreement
11 The Biological Weapons Convention
12 The Incidents at Sea Agreement
13 The Strategic Arms Limitation Talks
14 The Threshold Test Ban Treaty
15 The Peaceful Nuclear Explosions Treaty
16 The Environmental Modification Convention
25The Chemical Weapons Convention
26The Agreed Framework
27 Confidence and Security Measures Documents
28 The Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty
29 The Ottawa Convention on Landmines
30 Treaty on Strategic Offensive Reductions