Cornerstones of Security: Arms Control Treaties in the Nuclear Era
University of Washington Press, 1 июл. 2011 г. - Всего страниц: 1408
This anthology presents the complete text of thirty-four treaties that have effectively contained the spread of nuclear, biological, and conventional weapons during the Cold War and beyond. The treaties are placed in historical context by individual commentaries from noted authorities Thomas Graham Jr. and Damien J. LaVera, which provide unique insights on each treaty s negotiation and implementation.
During the 1990s, numerous arms control agreements were concluded under U.N. or U.S. leadership. In 1995, one hundred sixty-five nations agreed to indefinitely extend the Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty. Many nations ratified important chemical and biological weapons conventions, a pact to reduce conventional forces in Europe, and agreements to limit testing of weapons of mass destruction. More recent treaties seeking to restrain small arms trafficking and ban land mines are also highlighted and analyzed.
Graham concludes with lessons learned from the collective negotiation and verification history of these treaties, ongoing efforts to limit weaponry, and general observations on the status and effectiveness of these agreements. There is no comparable resource available for diplomats, international lawyers, and arms control specialists.
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The Conference recognizes the non- proliferation benefits of the conversion of civilian research reactors to low-enriched uranium fuel. The Conference notes with appreciation that many research reactors are discontinuing the use of ...
The Conference notes the agreement between the Russian Federation and the United States to convert in Russia 500 tonnes of high enriched uranium (HEU) from Russia's nuclear weapons to low enriched uranium for use in commercial reactors.
The Conference also notes that there have been exceptional instances in which serious environmental consequences have resulted from uranium mining and associated nuclear fuel- cycle activities in the production of nuclear weapons. 31.
... should provide that safeguards shall not apply thereunder to material in mining or ore processing activities. 34.The Agreement should provide that: a.When any material containing uranium THE NUCLEAR NON-PROLIFERATION TREATY 143.
When any material containing uranium or thorium which has not reached the stage of the nuclear fuel cycle described in sub-paragraph (c) below is directly or indirectly exported to a non-nuclear-weapon State, the State shall inform the ...
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17 The Convention on the Physical Protection of Nuclear Material
18 Convention on Certain Conventional Weapons
19 Nuclear Risk Reduction Centers
20 The Ballistic Missile Launch Notification Agreement
21 The IntermediateRange Nuclear Forces Treaty
22 The Conventional Armed Forces in Europe Treaty
23 The Open Skies Treaty
24 The Strategic Arms Reduction Treaties START I II
9 The Seabed Arms Control Treaty
10 The Accidents Measures Agreement
11 The Biological Weapons Convention
12 The Incidents at Sea Agreement
13 The Strategic Arms Limitation Talks
14 The Threshold Test Ban Treaty
15 The Peaceful Nuclear Explosions Treaty
16 The Environmental Modification Convention
25The Chemical Weapons Convention
26The Agreed Framework
27 Confidence and Security Measures Documents
28 The Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty
29 The Ottawa Convention on Landmines
30 Treaty on Strategic Offensive Reductions