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harmony, whose smile is life, saints are waiting for thy coming ! whose will is law, and whose law The earth groans for thy coming !
is love, is coming! And murder 'Hell is moved at thy coming ! ' and oppression, and superstition Heaven is silent for thy coming!
and ignorance, shall die at his "Come Lord Jesus, come quickly!” feet-his throne shall be established Thus concludes this eminently * in righteousness, and his people gifted man, whose words I have shall dwell in peace-man shall be quoted. Brethren, let us not lose restored to his right position in the season, but with a spirit suitthe world; the world to its right ing the solemnity and urgency of position in the universe; and the the times in which we live, let illimitable universe shall break
us gird ourselves to work the work forth into joy and praise over a of him that hath called us while world that was lost but is found! day holds out; knowing this, that
0 Thou, who art the joy of the the shadows of evening are spread' universe, the Saviour of the lost, ing themselves—that
- the night whose right it is to reign, come, is far spent, and the day is at wear thy many crowns ! Thy hand.”
REVIEW OF BOOKS, &c.
8vo. pp, 380. 12s. London, Longman & Co. 1923.
(4) Dissertations introductory to The principal objects of the the study and right understanding Treatise are to investigate the of the language, structure and
and verbal language and the structure contents of the Apocalypse. By of the Apocalypse ; previous to ALEXANDER TILLOCH, L. L. D. which, as an important preliminary &c. &c. &c.
measure, particular inquiry is instituted as to its date. As these
are points well deserving the atWe have perused the above work tention of all, who would enter with considerable pleasure, and re- upon a thorough examination of gret that it is so little known by that wonderful prophecy, we prostudents of prophecy, and we may say pose to bring them briefly before by students of divinity in general. the Reader. Our satisfaction does not arise from I. First, as to the Date. The any decided conviction of the correct- opinion which has been most comness of all those views which the monly received by later writers is, Author specially advocates; (for we that this prophecy was not dehave difficulties, not to say ob- livered to St. John, until the reign jections, in the way of the reception of Domitian, about A. D. 95. of some points, which we shall pre- This opinion chiefly rests for its sently bring forward ;) but because foundation on the testimony of the Dissertations contain many valu. Irenæus, (one of the earliest of able remarks, which are well worthy the Fathers whose works are exof serious consideration,
tant,) who mentions John being banished to Patmos in the reign Supposing that John were really of Domitian; whilst there is evi- banished to Patmos so late as the dence in the Apocalypse itself, time of Domitian ; he insists it does (chap. i, 9,) that the Apostle cer- not follow, that he had never been tainly was in Patmos at the time in Patmos before : and as the Author when the prophecy was revealed concludes, that he has indubitable to him. If the Reader has perused evidence, that the Revelation must the “ Observations on the Apoca- have been written before this period; lypse" by Sir Isaac Newton, pub- so he infers that John must have lished in the Investigator for De- previously visited the island on some cember last, he will probably have voluntary mission. remarked, that Sir Isaac is disposed We cannot say this carries conto assign to it an earlier date; and viction to our minds. For though it is his ground which our Author Rev. i, 9, is not altogether contakes up and pursues.
clusive; yet does John's statement, To our own minds, before we “ that he is a brother and companion had read Newton's Works, there in tribulation, and in the kingdom was always a difficulty in that ' and patience of Christ ;"__that he well-known expression in 1 Cor. was also in the isle of Patmos « for XV, 52;- " The last trump.” With the word of God and for the testiits supposed parallel in 1 Thess.
mony of Jesus Christ;'--more deiv, 16,
The trump of God," we cisively, in our judgement, coincide experience no difficulty ; but the with the opinion, that he was at that word ‘last,' in the former passage, time suffering punishment for his apparently implies a relationship to testimony for the Lord. Besides some series of trumpets, or blasts, which, Irenæus in his fifth book of which this is to be the final one ; against heresies, says that John and no such series can we find to saw his vision of the Revelation be the subject of prophecy, except almost in his, Irenæus's, time; which the seven trumpets blown by the greatly makes against the supposiApocalyptic angels, the last of which tion of Bachmair, that Irenæus wrote ushers in the consummation of the Domitius and not Domitianus. present dispensation. But our mind
A plausible argument of which has always been prevented from rest- the Author avails himself is derived ing in the notion of there being any from the fact, that Eusebius relates, direct reference to it, by the facts out of Clemens Alexandrinus, the already stated; viz. the testimony of well-known anecdote of John, on Irenæus, and the circumstance that his return from Patmos, committing John certainly was in Patmos when a hopeful disciple of his to the care he wrote this Book. This has com- of a certain bishop; which disciple, pelled us to conclude, that the Book in process of time, became captain is necessarily of so late a date, as to of a band of robbers, and was rerender quite impossible any reference claimed by John a long while after. to it in the Epistles of St. Paul. This is a story (he says) of many
To obviate this difficulty, Bach- years : but between the death of mair has supposed, that, as the
as the Domitian and that of John, there previous name of Nero was Domi
were but two years and a half.” tius, Irenæus originally wrote it so ;
" In his latter years too, Joho was so and that transcribers have made
very weak and infirm that with difficulty it Domitianus. But our Author
he could be carried to Church, where he brings forward a bolder hypothesis. could hardly speak a few words to the
people. The inference seems obvious.
. out by Sir Isaac Newton in the His return from Patmos (after which the Epistle to the Hebrews and in the circumstances related, respecting the young man, are stated to have happened) must be general Epistle of Peter, he insists, referred to some earlier period than the
that the view which Sir Isaac adreign of Domitian. For John died near
a probable conjecture, 100 years old, and it seems physically im- may be confirmed by indubitable possible that, in his latter years, he could
evidence. have mounted a horse and rode briskly
We select from his observations after a young robber ; even were we to suppose that he survived Domitian for a on the Epistle to the Hebrews one period long enough to have allowed these which to us appears the most events to intervene before his own death.” weighty :
The circumstance brought for- " In Hebrews xi, 10, it is said, that ward by our Author, that in the Abraham “ looked for a city which hath Syriac version of the Apocalypse foundations." But the Greek runs thus : the title of it runs thus“ The Re- “ For he expected την τους θεμελιους velation which was made to John
EXOVOav Toliv~thecity having the founda
tions,'-exhibiting the article both before the Evangelist by God in the island
city' and 'foundations ;' which the wriof Patmos, into which he was ban
ter could not possibly have done had not ished by Nero the Cæsar” —is far ' the city having the foundations' been a more persuasive with us towards subject familiar to those to whom he was assigning it an earlier date : for
writing.” the Syriac version must at least Of this passage he afterwards have existed in the time of Ephraim says, that the inquiry he would inthe Syrian; (say A. D. 370 ;) for stitute concerning it is not, why he quotes it.
the community of believers after the In noticing the objections urged judgment shall (according to Macto an early date, the Author re- knight) be called “ a city which hath views the substance of ecclesiasti- foundations ;” but why it is here cal tradition on this point, and the called “the city having the foundaarguments which have been drawn tions.” In the Prophets he confrom the supposed state of the Asiatic ceives there is no passage to be Churches. He argues, that there found from which the mode of exwere but seven Churches, in exis- pression there employed could have tence in Asia, when the Epistles to been derived : (unless it be Isaiah the seven Churches were sent; and liv, 11, 12:) and that it had a protothat as Colosse is not enumerated, type will be admitted, he conceives, the Book must at least have been by all who are acquainted with the written prior to the founding of laws which regulate the use of the that Church. He presses this point Greek article. from the ordinary construction and Having quoted Sir Isaac Newton's usage of the Greek; insisting that remarks on the Epistle of Peter ; ταις επτα εκκλησιαις ΤΑΙΣ ΕΝ ΤΗ (See pp. 240-246 of his
• ObserAFIA, must include all the Churches vations," &c.) and which Sir Isaac in Asia at that time.
considered obscure allusions; Having disposed of objections, he Author says, that to him they appear next proceeds to examine the inter- far otherwise : and indeed he seems nal evidence of the Epistles for direct to rest the main strength of his hyproof, that the Apocalypse must be pothesis on these portions of Scripof a date anterior to most of them; ture. We must first present some and after noticing the apparent co- extracts to the Reader. Having noincidence between passages, pointed ticed verses 3–5, of chap. i, of the
" for a
first Epistle, which verses terminate de pouleviiv, which is here rendered " to be with the words—" ready to be re
brought," as if it were the future infinitive
passive of the verb, is the accusative singuvealed in the last time,”-he
lar of the present participle passive. Of
this our translators could not possibly be " The sixth and seventh verses are ignorant, and therefore the translation thus rendered in the common version :
which they have given of this word must wherein ye greatly rejoice, though now be ascribed to their missing thesense of some
season (if need be) ye are in other term in the passage. The present • heaviness through manifold temptations; participle, as every one knows, instead that the trial of your faith, being much of having exclusively a future signifimore precious than of gold which
cation, embraces present and even past perisheth, though it be tried with fire,
time; but the present time most promight be found unto praise, and honor, minently. Observe,-the grace spoken • and glory, at the appearing of Jesus of in the text is not indefinite; it is not • Christ.' This version fails, however,
grace or favor generally that these bein giving the true sepse of the original. lievers are exhorted to hope for ; but, The passage should be thus rendered.
specifically, the grace that comes to them • In which' [last time ; for the pro- εν αποκαλυψει Ιησε Χριστου in (by or noun is masculine, as is the time, but the
through) the Apocalypse of Jesus Christ. salvation is feminine]--' in which [last The verb pepw (whence the participle in "time] exult ye (though for a short time,
the passage under consideration) means • since it is necessary, suffering sorrow by to bear, bring, cause to come, in almost • divers trials, that the proving of your any way that can be expressed; but the ' faith, more precious than of gold which mode of bringing can be learnt only by perisheth, though proved by fire, may
be the context. When it has reference to 6 found unto praise, and honor, and any communication received by the ear,
glory) εν αποκαλυψει Ιησου Χριστου, or brought in writing, it means to state, through the Apocalypse of Jesus Christ :'
purpose, relate, announce ; &c. but when that is, the Apocalypse being the cause of, used passively, in a forensic sense, which or furnishing the cause for the exultation,
it frequently is; or technically in reference by what is therein stated respecting the to any instrument or writing ; then the last time; for all the intermediate words verb intimates the thing spoken of to be are evidently a parenthesis, as I have proved, recorded, published, declared, or marked them. The sense is :—though announced, (&c.) as the case may be. It now suffering sorrow by divers trials, this
is necessary to be thus particular respecto being necessary for the trial of your faith, ing the varied applications of this verb, &c. rejoice greatly in the things brought that we may obtain the true sense of the to your knowledge, respecting the last
passage before us. As already noticed, the time, in (by or through) the Apocalypse grace exhorted to be hoped for is a specific of Jesus Christ. Here then we have the
grace announced in the Apocalypse of book of the Revelation referred to by the Jesus Christ, -that prophecy being the revery title which John himself has given it cord in which it is declared and described." in Rev. i, 1."
“ I have insisted the more particularly “ The 13th verse, in which the exhorta- on the declaration in ver. 13, not because tion is resumed, is so striking as only to it is more explicit than that in the 7th require to be exhibited in a true version to
verse, when the latter is properly underprove the general correctness of all the
stood ; but because the construction, harpassages, alluded to by Sir Isaac Newton, monizing perfectly with the English mode as having reference to the Apocalypse. of speaking, leaves no room whatever for It is thus rendered in the common version : doubt or cavil. It refers to a book by its (and indeed all the translations I have met own proper name "The Apocalypse of with give the same sense :) Wherefore gird Jesus Christ,”- -as the instrument, bring
up the loins of your mind, be sober, and ing to them the gift for which they are exhope to the end, for the grace that is to be horted to hope ; it is ev, in, through, or by, brought unto you at the revelation of Jesus this that the grace comes to them; and the • Christ.' This version, so far as respects existence of this record is not only assumed the first three verbs, is quite correct; but as that which embraces the promised grace, that it does not, throughout, convey
the but is assigned as the reason why they true sense of the original, a very little con- should gird up the loins of their mind, be sideration will demonstrate. The word vigilant, and hope perfectly for it.
Can any further evidence be possibly the Author, especially at p. 95, we required to prove, that Peter's first Epistle conceive he does conclude this word was written subsequently to the Apocalypse, to have such a meaning wherever a book to which he actually refers by he finds it.
But besides confirming and followIt is due to the Author to state, ing out the coincidences noticed by that the arguments in the foregoing Newton, our Author examines many extracts sustained by col- other Epistles, in which he imagines lateral observations, which he finds similar marks of designed space does not permit us to ex- reference : for indeed he is inclined hibit. We cannot say these things to suppose the Apocalypse the earliest amount to demonstration to our written of all the books of the minds :
can only entertain New Testament. We doubt howthem as conjectures. As regards ever, if, in any of the instances verses 6 and 7, even if we admit alleged, there is anything more than the parenthesis suggested by the that harmony, which necessarily reAuthor, yet does the language sults from the Apostles having been appear forced and harsh : “ În all instructed by the same Spirit. which last time exult ye, through Indeed in some instances the the Apocalypse of Jesus Christ.”
Author appears to us decidedly The 13th verse (as he proposes to to argue from false premises. For read it, the propriety of which we example, he concludes the Epistle admit) forms a more specious case : the Ephesians to be later though of both these instances we than the Apocalypse, because chap. would say, that, according to the iv verse 14 betrays though the inprinciple urged by the Author in ference is not very obvious, that they regard to "the city having the foun- could now « bear them that are dations," one would expect to find evil ;” whereas in Rev. ii, 2, they in express allusions to
are praised because they could not lypse" the definite article also used; bear them. But by a series of arguwhereas it is in both cases omitted. ments, far more conclusive to our
Further, the noun (tovalutis is minds than those which Dr. Tilloch of frequent occurrence in the Scrip- here advances, Paley has shewn, tures; and if the Author's argu- that this Epistle, though it has ment be valid, we conceive he ought come to have the title of
" to the to be prepared to shew, that it has a Ephesians” affixed to it, was not reference to the same Book in some originally written to that Church; but other instances, if not in every more probably to that of Laodicea or other instance. We would refer some other of the Asiatic Churches :* more especially to 1 Cor. i, 7; in which case any reasoning built Gal. i, 12; 2 Thess. i, 7; and 1 Pet. upon a comparison of passages in iv, 13; the last of which instances that Epistle, with others in the we adduce, because it occurs in the message to the Angel of the Church same Epistle from which the two of Ephesus, necessarily falls to the cases are quoted on which the Au- ground. thor lays his stress; and no more As the Author lays particular reference to the Book may be in- emphasis on the evidence supplied tended in the one instance than in by the Epistle to the Colossians, the other. If indeed we understand we shall give the whole section,