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This seems clearly the case in the John is called up, to where alone visions of Daniel, Ezekiel and Zech- visions of futurity can be disclosed, ariah, and why not in those of John ? to witness in the rolls, successively I think chap. i, 19 and iv, 1, indicate unsealed, the representation of what that it was so : also, chap. vii, 1, concerns the whole scope of the and chap. x, &c.

revelation respecting the Church of Now a vision to reveal things God. And though the two first future, both temporal and spiritual, seals, in my opinion, relate to the must, in order to be rendered in- two first of the only four empires telligible to man, rest upon what which have possessed dominion in is known and understood : conse- that portion of the globe where the quently must allude to those things Church of God has been gathered. which have existed and do exist IN Still it is a hieroglyphic of each REFERENCE TO THEM, for the clearer empire only as containing the terristatement of what is to follow. Istories out of which the Church was not this done in history and poetry ? gathered, and as forming the platHomer designed the Trojan war for form of the whole action of the his subject; but he related the cir- book during the subsequent gathercumstances which led to it, &c. In ing of the elect. This I trust may respect however to prophecy; Dan- appear in my notes on the sixth iel, in regard to that vision which is chapter when I arrive at it. parallel to part of the revelation to

Permit me

to add a familiar John,* is told by the angel- illustration of my meaning.-Be

These great beasts which are four, cause man can apprehend objects ' are four kings which shall arise only in succession,“ line upon line, 'out of the earth.” (Consurgent.) here a little and there a little ;' the The Chaldee is the future without Holy Spirit appears to me to have the conversive vau, hence the word condescended to this infirmity of is incapable of any other translation : our fallen state, by giving a brief yet the Babylonian empire was then sketch of the whole subject of the existing.—It had passed away and Revelation in the seven seals, and the second empire had arisen, when subsequently to return to particulars, Zechariah beheld the four successive relative to the great catastrophe empires under the symbol of chariots which it is his object to reveal, in drawn by horses. The agreement various separate views. Perhaps in the symbols and their subject in the process of painting a picture Daniel, Zechariah and John seems gave me, and may convey to others a corroborative argument. But there the idea. The artist first sketches is an analogous mode of expression his design : in successive sittings in the very Apocalypse itself. Chap. he progressively completes the outxvii, 9, 10 the angel declares, “the line and fills up each several part, seven heads are seven kings, five From habit we are hardly conscious are fallen, one is, and the other is of the act, but in looking at the

not yet come;" although the re- picture the eye must pass necessarily velation was, from chap. iv, 1 to from part to part before it can com

things which must be prehend the whole in its view. hereafter."

I am Sir, Respecting the seals, I conceive Your obliged correspondent,


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* I am indehted to Mr. Faber for part of the following arguments.



(5) CUNINGHAME on the Seals and Trumpets.

APOCALYPSE. 1. The judgement

1. The time is come was set, to destroy the to destroy those who enemies of the Church. destroyed the earth. 00. 10, 11.

v. 18.

(Concluded from page 317.)

2. The time came 2. The time is come that the saints possess that Thou shouldest ed the kingdom. v. 22. give reward to thy

servants the prophets, and to the saints, &c. V. 18.

3. After the coming 3. The kingdoms of of the Ancient of days, this world are become the Son of Man comes the kingdoms of our with the clouds of hea- Lord and of his Christ. ven and receives a v. 15.

nations and languages
should serve Him.


Our remaining notice of Mr. Cuninghame's interesting work must necessarily be circumscribed; but we cannot dismiss it without a reference to the important and intricate subject of dates.

Most of our Readers are probably kingdom, that all people aware, that the principle upon which the great prophetic periods 13, 14. of Daniel and the Apocalypse have been assumed to signify 1260 years,

The Author however admonishes has lately been vehemently impugn- us, that though the above events ed by the Rev. S. R. Maitland, of are to come to pass in the days of Gloucester. As it is our intention the trumpet of the seventh angel ; impartially to exhibit the sum of yet they are not to follow immedi. the whole controversy at an early ately on its commencing to sound, period, we forbear now to say any

but that various judgements are first thing that would prejudice the to be accomplished. Indeed he conquestion : further than to observe, siders the whole of the eleventh that of all those writers who chapter as a sort of epitome or table have understood the dates sym

of contents of what is afterwards bolically, the interpretation of Mr. described ; and thus that the pheCuninghame appears to

the nomena mentioned chap. xvi, 18best. Most of the modern writers 21 are only an enlargement of those have indeed adopted our Author's described in chap. xi, 19; and that view, with more or less of quali- the seven vials are also a more parfication; some candidly acknow- ticular setting forth of the same

He considers the seventh ledging the source from whence events. they derived it; and others, less

and others, less trumpet to have sounded at the fastidious, leaving it to be supposed period of the consummation of their own.

the French Revolution in 1792 ; Mr. Cuninghame first proceeds concerning which event he obto demonstrate, that the sounding of serves :the seventh angel, (Rev. xi, 15-19,) “ The French revolution, in its origin, is synchronous with the coming of progress, and consequences, is, without the Ancient of days, described in dispute, the most memorable event of a Daniel vii, 9-14 and 22. The political nature recorded in the histories three principle points of identity which it has occasioned within a short

of nations. The mass of human misery which he particularizes are as fol

space of years ; the dreadful change which low :

it has effected in the state of the civilized


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world ; and the awful consequences with the Heruli and Turingi. This event was which it is yet pregnant and which are the infliction of the deadly wound on one hidden in the womb of futurity ;-combine

of the heads of the beast, which was seen to place it foremost in the rank of those by the Apostle as it were wounded to death. events which have been destructive of the The duration of this form is termed, in happiness of mankind.”'

Rev. xvii, 10, a short space; and it was

short, both when compared with that of At the end of the words which the sixth head or heathen imperial power, we have placed in italics the Author and also with the period of the eighth form, refers us to the following note;

which has continued now more than thirwhich the anticipation of universal

teen centuries,

The eighth form of the beast is evidently and durable peace then rendered

shown, by the symbol of ten horns with necessary. "I feel no inclination diadems, (posterior in time to the imperial

to retract or modify this expression. dominion of all the heads,) to be decem.

It is evident, that by that revolu- regal, or the reign of ten cotemporary ' tion a new impulse has been given Gothic sovereignties, dividing among them

selves the territories of the empire. This "to the human mind towards moral

form is said to be the beast which was, evil, which is even yet in active

and is not; or in other words, this form is progress. March, 1817.”

the revived empire of Rome in another It will be necessary however that shape. This eighth form is said to be of we first take a glance at Mr. Cun

the seven ; it is the christian imperial head inghame's interpretation of the sym

branching off into ten sovereignties.

When the Gothic nations invaded, and bolical beasts of the Apocalypse,

at length subverted, the empire of the west, whose duration is so involved with they inflicted a deadly wound on its seventh the period in question.

head, and the empire itself appeared to be Following the general body of in- finally and entirely destroyed as to its ex

istence as a body politic. But the conterpreters he considers the beast with seven heads and ten horns (chap. with the empire, by the following acts of

querors gradually identified themselves xiii) to be the Roman empire, and submission: 1st, they submitted themselves identical with the fourth beast of to its religion ; 2d, they received, as the Daniel. On the same grounds he basis of all national jurisprudence, the volassumes the seven heads to signify acknowledged the spiritual supremacy of the forms of government under which Rome, and bent their necks to its heavy that empire was successively to sub.

yoke ; 4th, they restored, in the person of sist; explaining the first six to have Charlemagne, the titular empire of the been kings, consuls, dictators, de- west, and they gave precedence among the The two-horned beast, the de- We could wish, that this able scription of which begins at verse 11 writer had been equally unswayed by of the same chapter, he interprets "thegeneral consentof interpreters, to be the Pope. “ The number of when he adopted from them in part his name” he unhesitatingly adopts his view of the seven-headed beast. from Irenæus, the disciple of Poly- We have great difficulties to overcarp ;

sovereignties of the great European comcemvirs, military tribunes and em

monwealth to that regal horn, in which perors. His further view of this

was vested the revived title of emperor of subject we give from his more recent the west and of the holy Roman empire ; critical examination of Mr. Frere's 5th, by constant intermarriages among the scheme, in which Mr. Cuninghame's sovereigns of the different kingdoms, they

came at length to bear the character of a opinions are modified.

common family. Thus, the whole Gothic " The sixth head of the dragon and beast, kingdoms became moulded into a sort of I conceive to have represented the imperial federal republic, of which the acknowledged government of Rome in its heathen form, fountain of secular honour was the emuntil the accession of Constantine, and the peror of the holy Roman empire, even as consequent establishment of christianity as the pope was the fountain of spiritual authe religion of the empire. The sixth thority. In the rise of this commonwealth, head then fell to rise no more, no notice we behold the fulfilment of the prophetic being taken of the ephemeral reign of Ju- annunciation respecting “the beast that lian. The seventh head appears to denote was, and is not, and yet is,” or the revived the christian imperial power, from Con- Roman empire, which is the eighth form stantine to Augustulus, in whose person under which it was to exist, and in which the western empire was extinguished, hy form it is to go into perdition.” Pp. 53–55. * For the reasons assigned for this and other portions of interpretation, we must refer to the work itself.

who considered it to be come before we can concur in that Latinus, expressed thus in Greek view; though, as we have repeatedly character

observed, we have nothing better to A, A, T, E, I, N, O, 2,* offer. To instance one or two hin30, 1, 300, 5, 10, 50, 70, 200. drances which stand in our way :

Not being satisfied however with 1st. The seven heads are infallibly any of the interpretations of the on explained to be "seven mountains, image which the two-horned beast which the woman sitteth.”—(Chap. makes to the beast which had a xvii, 9 :) Is it then analogous with wound by a sword and did live,” he the symbol of mountains in other proposes one entirely new. He parts of Scripture, to interpret it considers that by the corrupt in- here to be forms of government ? fluence and apostacy of the pope Is it indeed justifiable to make and clergy, the Church became that which appears to be an intersecular, idolatrous, blasphemous and pretation of the symbol, only a persecuting, like the beast itself; second symbol, still requiring to and by the same influence also be explained ? 2dly. The woman political life and power was given is said to sit on these heads or to the image; so

" that it should mountains. If the woman be the both speakby the decrees of its harlot or papal church, can she be general councils and ecclesiastical said ever to have sat upon the assemblies; and cause that seven heads-upon kings, consuls, many as would not worship the dictators, decemvirs, military triimage of the beast should be kill- bunes ? 3dly. The four heads which

ed :" by which means the Church Daniel sees the third beast of Rome obtained a paramount in- exhibited to him (chap. vii, 6) are fluence over the minds of princes by the same general concurrence of and others, and became the object interpreters explained of the four of superstitious esteem and venera- contemporaneous princes, who suction.—“ If (continues the Author) ceeded Alexander, and became heads ' the above explanation be the true of different portions of that empire : i one, then the image is a symbol of why is not a similar interpretation

the same corrupt church afterwards given here? 4thly. The heads on exhibited to us as a woman, the this beast appear to be all on the harlot, Babylon the Great; in animal at the same time, and there

confirmation of which idea it will fore to signify things, the seven of * be found, that wherever the image which were coeval in time. 5thly. ' is subsequently mentioned, there On all those heads are

the name Babylon is not mentioned ; and on of blasphemy;" which, whilst it ' the contrary, wherever mention of seems to confirm the notion of con· Babylon is made, there the image temporaneous, not successive heads, is omitted.” P. 182.

is again inapplicable to the five first





heads in the above enumeration, to date the commencement of this which were not distinctively blas- period. Mr. Cuninghame agrees phemous, any more than all pagan with Mr. Faber in considering " that polities are at all times. 6thly. the giving the saints into the hands The seven kings (v. 10) are assumed of the papacy, must be by some forto be the same as the seven heads; mal act of the secular power of that which appears to us the only ground empire constituting the pope to be on which the notion of seven suc- the head of the Church; and of cessive heads can be justified. But course either giving him authority we cannot see why they are made to inflict penalties on those who the same; for kings are, in Daniel, should withstand his mandates, or symbol for kingdoms or empires, undertaking to coerce the offenders not forms of government; and the for him. Such an act Mr. Cuningbeast does not seem to come into hame discovers in the edict of the power until the whole seven are pre- emperor Justinian, dated March viously passed away, when he forms 533, whereby the pope was made the eighth. In offering these objec- the head of all the churches and tions, we only avail ourselves of the priests of God. These two persons same liberty we allow to others of evidently played into each others proposing their difficulties for con- hands at this period ; the pope, as the sideration.

two horned beast, causing the world Now the period during which the to worship the beast with seven saints are to be given into the hand heads, whilst the former issued blasof the little horn, and the Church is phemous things against God. For nourished in the wilderness, and the the emperor had denounced as herewitnesses prophesy in sackcloth, and tics all who did not hold with him, the holy city is given to be trodden that the virgin Mary was the Mother under foot, and the seven headed of God; and these were commanded beast is to continue, -is variously to be delivered up to punishment; described, as a time, times and half and the children of such, if infected a time,--forty and two months, -a with their errors, were to lose all thousand two hundred and three benefit of succession; and the pope, score days; but all these, taking the having ratified this by his authority, calculation by lunar time, describe a new era was by this union of the the exact same period, as is generally imperial and ecclesiastical powers admitted. This period is expressly introduced into the church, which mentioned seven different times in very speedily increased unto more Scripture ;a and it is not too much ungodliness.b to say, that the generality of pro- Another particular, needful to be testant commentators, who have observed in this hypothesis, is the treated of it, have considered the mode of computing time, which Mr. number of days which it expresses Cuninghame contends, against Mr. symbolical, and expressive of 1260 Faber, should be by current time and

not by past time. This he shews The great difficulty, however, is to be the method generally adopted


a Dan. vii, 25 ; xii, 7; Rev. xi, 2, 3 ; xii, 6, 14 ; xiii, 5.

b Crit. Ex. of Faber, pp. 84–94. * For the ground of this interpretation of days we can only just advert to three principal passages supposed to bear it out; viz. Num. xiv, 33; Ezek. iv, 4-6; Dan. . ix, 24.

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