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heavenly truths with all the aid of glory.—This adds to the difficulty reference to typical institutions, to of a Gentile's conception of this well-remembered prophetic symbols, Revelation ; since it is conveyed and to illustrative figures.

through the medium of typical John had then a vision of the references to which he is not acstate of glory in which God is customed; and with which, from worshiped in Trinity; as we learn their having passed away, he can from the triple ascription of holi- scarcely become acquainted. Sir ness, denoting the concentration of Isaac Newton's essay is a great the attributes of godhead in each help in this respect, and will be person ; (v. 8;) and from the parallel occasionally referred to in the folvision Isa. vi, whereof the Spirit lowing attempt at an exposition.* expressly says that Isaiah spake of v. 3. “ And He that sat was to : Christ and saw his glory.b He ' look upon like a jasper and a therefore is “the King, Jehovah of sardine-stone : and there was hosts," whom Isaiah's eyes beheld, * rainbow round about the throne, and at whose voice the posts of the in sight like unto an emerald. . door of the temple moved. It was The description of the throne, and doubtless that door of the temple

of Him who sat thereon encircled in heaven which was now opened by the rainbow, in token of his to John, typified by that which in covenant of peace, resembles that the Jewish temple opened into the in Ezek. i, 25—28; which reprepeople's court: for heavenly things sents the manhood on the throne must be presented to the mind in of the divine majesty, as conformity to its habitual manner pearance of the likeness of the of embodying ideas of them ; espe- glory of Jehovah ;" which, throughcially when that manner was pre- out Ezekiel, is evidently the title scribed by God himself,—viz. in a given to Messiah ; for this “Glory typical ritual given to the Hebrew of Jehovah," appears, speaks, stands, nation to which John belonged, and departs, returns, as a man.” Lowth by which, in connexion with pro- on that first chapter asserts, “it was phecy, Christ had explained all things a vision of the second person of the concerning his sufferings and his Trinity.” The subject of the book

the ap

to come,

* Sir Isaac Newton founded all his interpretation on chap. xi, 19; but surely the visions of the seals and trumpets were vouchsafed previously to John's receiving the “ little book.” His explaining the whole in allusion to the temple services, though it often elucidates the subject, involves him nevertheless in some insurmountable difficulties. He says that the temple is the scene of all the visions, and this answers for those of the third series. He adds, that the visions of the temple relate to the feast of tabernacles. Now it is true that the Jews feasts were typical of things

the passover of the chief object of the first advent, the feast of tabernacles of the millennial scene, when " the tabernacle of God will be with men, and he will dwell with them, &c.”—but what can it have to do, or how is it compatible, with all the transactions previous to its antitype ;—such as the first six seals, all the trumpets, and the vials of judgement ? On chapter iv, 1, Sir Isaac remarks, “ Jolin was called up to the east gate of the great court, to see the visions in the temple, on the door being opened : the mercy seat on the ark of the testament between the cherubim, Ps. xcix, 1, was respected by Jews as the throne of God. The twenty four seats answer to the chambers of the twenty four princes of the priests clothed in linen." According to this mode of elucidation, heaven was represented by the holy of holies or sanctuary of the true ecclesiastical state,

b John xii, 41.

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we are considering, is especially the ment and of burning,” in the manifestation of the personal glory energy of his sevenfold operations and work of Jesus Christ, as the in the judgements about to be Mediator of the new covenant, the revealed; in which terminates the covenant of grace, betokened by the dispensation of the special ministry bow in the cloud. (See also his of the Spirit, as promised by Christ appearance, chap. x, 1.)

on his departure.-His words are, V. 4. " And round about the He shall convince the world throne were

four and twenty of sin, because they believe not seats : and upon the seats I saw on ME; of righteousness, because four and twenty elders sitting, I go to the Father, (to interclothed in white raiment: and cede for the elect, and receive they had on their heads crowns the rod or sceptre of iron where

of gold.” Commentators explain with to smite the nations the 24 elders

as denoting the his return,) and ye see prophets and apostles : which is more (as the lowly sufferer ;) of literal enough ; for they are the judgement, because the prince of this elders of the old and new testament ' world is judged:"i. e. Satan is adChurch. They appear in this con- judged to his doom at the close nexion, being Israelites, as the of that dispensation, during which heads of the church of literal Israel the kingdoms of the Roman earth under both dispensations,—the in- (oikeusvn) are delivered to his disdividuals to whom the promises posal.d were personally made, for the ac- vv. 6, 7. And before the throne complishment of which they sur- ' there was a sea of glass like unto round the throne, as once with crystal : and in the midst of the supplications, so now with adoration throne, and round about the throne, and praise; and that continually, were four beasts full of eyes before as their sitting posture on their pro

and behind. And the first beast was mised throne signifies.c Their white like a lion, and the second beast raiment betokens the imputed right- like a calf and the third beast had eousness of saints, a spotless cover- a face as a man, and the fourth ing : and their crowns of gold, that beast was like a flying eagle.” crown of life which the Lord pro- The sea is the symbol of peoples. mised to those faithful unto death. It has been suggested that" Both betokened their being kings of glass,” alluding to the brazen and priests, or a royal priesthood, sea, signifies the container rather a peculiar people.

than that contained.* But I think it v. 5. “Out of the throne pro- is taken together to denote the Genceeded lightnings and thunderings tile multitudes, entered into the rest and voices.” This I conceive to be which remaineth for the people of the manifestations of the presence God, who are before his throne who of the Godhead, the same as in is the Peace; he having so “reconExod. xix, 16.

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the sea

ciled both Jews and Gentiles unto The

seven lamps of fire" form God in one body by the cross, that the symbol of “the Spirit of judge- Gentiles are now fellow citizens with

c See also Luke xxii, 30. d See John xvi, 8—11; Luke iv, 5; Rev. XX, 2, 3.

* Typified by the brazen sea between the porch and the altar. Sir I. Newton says the brazen sea suggested the sea of glass ! But the complete imagery of the Bible was in the mind of the Spirit when he ordered the type to be made, and taught John the symbol of the Gentile multitude. Rev. vii, 22–26.



the saints and of the household of Be it remembered that in the wilGod.”e It is very clear from Rev. derness, besides the priests and LeXV, 2-4, that the elect of Gentile vites round the tabernacle or throne nations stand upon it singing the of God, there was at a distance song of Moses and of the Lamb, the surrounding encampment of the before the representative of the twelve tribes, in four companies, Israelite Church gathered from the under the banners of Judah, Ephfour winds of heaven delivers the raim, Reuben and Dan; and also vials of wrath for the angels to pour the mixed multitude that followed on the earth.

Israel out of Egypt.

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The same arrangement was pre- large court during worship; and served in the temple. The 24 priests the outer court was for Gentile lodged therein and served in their proselytes. I suppose allusion to be courses ;f the tribes of Israel were maintained to all these typical stationed in the four sides of the priests' companies, and their fol. lowers in the present symbolic pires, out of which I supposed the representation.

e See Ephes. ii, 14-19.

f 1 Chron. xxiv.

Church they symbolized to be gaOne living creature stands before, thered. This view with others reone behind, one on either side of specting the two following chapters the throne.

Some suppose they occurred on comparing the vision of represent the Church in the four Daniel with that of John, and exquarters of the globe; but the only amining Genesis xlix with Num. ii. scene of prophecy is the seat of the I afterwards understood that it refour successive monarchies of Dan- sembled Mr Faber's, as given in his iel's comprehensive vision. Other “ Calendar of Prophecy,” a work nations are adverted to only in their which I have not had opportunity connexion with that scene of pro

to read. phetic action. For sometime it ap- Lately however Sir Isaac Newpeared to the writer that as the ton's exposition,* and a closer ex24 elders represented the Israelitish amination of the preceding diagram, Church, and as there can be no un- led me to think that these “ living necessary or redundant symbol, creatures” represent the Church of (i. e. the same persons and things literal Israel. In this case, the sea are never represented by two sym- of glass betokens the mixed multibols in the same prophecy,) that tude of gentile proselytes gathered therefore these four living creatures,

out of these monarchies and their (mis-translated beasts,") denoted dependencies in all the earth. The the Gentile Church, gathered out of twenty four elders still represent the four chief monarchies, and shown the priests, who surrounded the to Daniel under the emblem of four throne of God in the tabernacle and beasts descriptive of the character- in the temple ; and the four living istics of each empire; and that the creatures” denote the Church triumdifference, between the monsters phant gathered out of the twelve which symbolized the heathen en- tribes of literal Israel, or the 144,000 pire and the emblem which sym

of the children of Israel in Rev. vii, 4. bolized the Church gathered out of In Ezekiel's two visions of the each, might be accounted for by the cherubim or living creatures & each difference of the object symbolized, figure is compounded of the face of a heathen empire in the one case, a man, lion, OX

and eagle on and God's Church in the other. the body of a man; their office and This notion respecting spiritual that of the seraphim in Isaiah's viIsrael seemed to be confirmed by sion (chap. vi,) denotes angelic inthe remarkable and evidently in- telligence. But though many offices tentional clue to the apprehension of the cherubim and seraphim, (as of the symbol of the living crea- their guarding Paradise, forming tures, afforded by the banners of the throne above the mercy seat the four tribes which headed the and the chariots of the Almighty, twelve tribes, bearing the same fi- ministering the fire of his wrath h gures as the banners of the four em- and of purification,i &c.) cannot be

*“ From the encampment of the twelve tribes under the standard of the four leading tribes, were formed (says Sir Isaac) the hieroglyphics of cherubim and seraphim. These cherubim had one body with the four faces of a lion, ox, man, and eagle, looking to the four winds of heaven. Ezek. i.—The four Seraphs had the same four faces with four bodies. The four beasts of the Revelation are therefore four Seraphs (No ! see chap. v, 9) standing on the four sides of the people's court, &c."

8 Chap, i and s. h Ezek. X, 17. i Isa, vi, 6, 7,



performed by the Church of God cherubim embroidered on the curselected from among men ;- and tains and veil of the tabernacle ;1 though these cannot bear titles and Solomon carved all the walls which signify

ar fulness of know and the two doors of the house of ledge," and

burning or shining the Lord with figures of cherubim "*—and though the hiero

hiero- and palm trees and open flowers.m glyphic used in John's Revelation Cherubim were also wrought on for the Church, being the same as the veil of this temple.1 Allusions that which denotes cherubim and

to the cherubim in the holy of hoseraphim, presents a great difficulty; lies, whose wings above the mercy -still it cannot in his vision sig- seat formed the throne, are frequent nify the angelic host, both because in the Psalms and Prophets; as the angels are seen separately sur- that God appeared from between rounding these living creatures as them, &c. They bore up the perthey surround the throne, j and be- sonal glory of Jehovah, when he cause they sing a song which the left the temple and ascended from angels cannot, -" Thou hast the holy city. Surely angels are deemed us,” &c.k

represented in all these instances : I object to call them “ hierogly

hierogly- as the very propriety of each dephics of cherubim and seraphim, scription and allusion requires. framed to represent the people of The living creatures seen by Israel ;" for where cherubim and se- John must represent the Church raphim are named, I believe they triumphant; both because they praise denote angelic intelligences; but the Lamb slain to redeem themselves, the resurrection Church is admitted and because the angels encompass into so similar a state of knowledge, them when all unite to form the reflected light, blessedness and glo- adoring throng around the throne. ry, and to such similar services of

v. 8. They had so each of them love and zeal and worship, that simi- six wings” like the seraphim in lar hieroglyphics may well be used Isaiah's vision, to denote unwearied to denote it.f They differ however, and unceasing service,-ever on the inasmuch as each is a single and wing, infaticabilmente agili e not a compound figure ; each body preste.” The cherubim in Ezekiel's having but one face, different from vision needed not the two which each other, but together like the covered their faces in Isaiah's, befour faces of the cherubim.

cause they were under the throne. Moses was ordered to have the -In Ezek. x, 12, the whole body,

* The appearance of the cherubim in Ezekiel's vision was like burning coals of fire, the reflection of the Light of Israel who was and is as a fire, and his Holy One for a flame.” This affords a remarkable representation of the unity and distinctness of these two persons of the Trinity. For, as the Jews say, "" their unity is unlike every other," i.e. I suppose, not oneness, but concord. Ezekiel saw these cherubim run and return, as the appearance of a flash of lightning, indicating their velocity and unmixed energy in serving him without sin.

f Though Scott's views do not accord with those of the writer, it is worth remarking that he considers the living creatures in Ezekiel to denote angelic agency, and in Revelation the ministers of the Church, the similarity of whose endowments accounts for the coincidence.

j Chap. v, 11.

k Chap. v, 9.

n 2 Chron. iii.

1 Exod. xxvi. m ] Kings vi. o Ezek. X and xi.

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