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State can seize upon, therein following a common practise in recent American statutes of the sort. In other respects, however, the Massachusetts Act is more moderate. As to shares in railway, street railway, telegraph or telephone companies, incorporated in the State and also in some other State, it is provided that “so much only of each share as is proportional to the part of such company's line lying within this Commonwealth shall be considered as ... within the jurisdiction of the Commonwealth for the purposes of this act.” The property of a resident of Massachusetts which is not in the State at the time of his death is not taxable if subject to a like tax in another State or country; or, if subject to an inheritance tax of less amount, it is taxable only for the difference. Finally, there is a reciprocity provision as to non-residents holding Massachusetts property. "Property of a non-resident decedent which is within the jurisdiction of the Commonwealth at the time of his death" is not taxable, if subject to a like tax in the State or country of his residence, or is taxable only for the excess of the Massachusetts rate. But this alleviation is permitted only if a like exemption is made by the laws of the other State in favor of citizens of Massachusetts. This offer of reciprocity is significant and commendable. The practise in many States of levying inheritance taxes with respect to shares in all corporations within the jurisdiction of the State is leading to an accumulation of levies, which the Massachusetts statute wisely endeavors to prevent.

Some further provisions may be noted. The tax is chargeable to the executor, administrator, or trustee. Every such person is required to file within three months an inventory of the estate under penalty of $1,000. He is in any case individually liable for the whole amount of the tax. The tax is levied on the actual value of the estate or distributive share at the time of death or at the time when the beneficiary becomes entitled to the property. Provision is made for an equitable valuation of future interests and of life interests. In the administration of the tax the probate courts are given no small competence, their supervision of executors and trustees rendering them effective parts of the machinery. Gifts "made or intended to take effect in possession or enjoyment after the death of the grantor" are also subject to the tax; but it would seem that gifts inter vivos are not otherwise affected. The old collateral inheritance tax of 5 per cent. is repealed. The new act took effect on the 1st of September of the current year.

F. W. T.

RECENT PUBLICATIONS UPON ECONOMICS.

Chiefly published or announced since August, 1907. An asterisk prefixed to a title indicates a second and more detailed notice of a book

announced in a previous number.

I. General Works. Theory and its Hig- VIII. Money, Banking and Exchange. tory.

IX. Finance and Taxation. II. The Labor Problem.

X. Capital and its Organization: Com. III. Socialism.

binations. IV. Land and Agrarian Problems.

XI. Economic History. V. Population and Migration.

XII. Description of Industries and Ro. VI. Transportation.

sources. VII. Foreign Trade and Colonization. XIII. Statistical Theory and Practice.

XIV. Not Classified.

I. GENERAL WORKS.

THEORY AND ITS HISTORY.

roux.

BASTIDE (C.). John Locke: ses

théories politiques et leur influence en Angleterre. Paris: Le

1907. pp. 405. 7.50 fr. BUCHLER (M.). Johann Heinrich

V. Thünen und seine nat. oek. Hauptlehren. Bern: A. Francke.

1907. pp. 166. 3.20 m. BULLOCK (C. J., Editor). Selected

Readings in Economics. Boston:
Ginn & Co. 1907. pp. 705. $2.00.

[Supplies collateral reading for introductory course in

Economics.] EINAUDI (L.). Studi di economia e

finanza. Turin, Rome. 1907. 8vo.

pp. 212. 31. ELSTER (L., Editor). Wörterbuch

der Volkswirtschaft. Zweite völlig umgearbeitete Auflage. Jena: G. Fischer. 1907.

2 vols. pp. 1164, 1446. 40 m. bound.

[The second edition of this dictionary has now been completed.] FRIESEN (H.). Die Notwendigkeit

einer Gesellschaftsordnung. Berlin: C. A. Schwetschke. 1907. pp. 557. 10 m.

[Part I. of an elaborate work having the general title: Schwert und Pflug: Gesammelte Studien eines Edelmanns auf die sozialen

Gliederungen.) GRAZIANI (A.).' Istituzioni di eco

nomia politica. Seconda edizione

interamente riveduta. Turin: fratelli Bocca. 1908. 8vo. Pp.

773. 151. GUILHOT (C.). Théorie de la valeur

d'après l'école autrichienne, avec préface par E. Bouvier. Paris:

Giard et Brière. 1907. 7.50 fr. GUYOT (Y.). La science écono

mique. Les lois inductives. Troisième édition entièrement refondue.

Paris: Schleicher. 1907. 5 fr. HOFFMANN (Dr. Friedrich). Krit

ische Dogmengeschichte der Geldwerttheorien. Leipzig: C. L. Hirschfeld. 1907. pp. 294. 8 m.

[A comprehensive examination of theories from the time of Locke

to the present.) MARSHALL (A.). Principles of Eco

nomics. Vol. I. Fifth edition. London and New York: Macmillan. pp. 906.

[In this fifth edition the distinguished author has added a new preface, shifted some matter to appendices at the close, revised some chapters, but not markedly changed the structure or COD

tents. ] QUESADA (Ernesto). Herbert Spen

cer y sus doctrinas sociológicas. Buenos Aires: Menéndez. 1907.

pp. 87.

SMALL (Albion W.). Adam Smith

and Modern Sociology. Chicago: Univ. of Chicago Press. 1907. pp. 247. $1.25.

(Argues that “modern sociol. ogy” is “ implicit in Adam Smith's

moral philosophy.”'] SQUILLACE (F.). I problemi costi

tuzionali della sociologia. Palermo: R. Sandron. 1907. 8vo. pp.

878. 15 1. TORNARI (G.). Del pensiero polit

ico e delle dottrine economiche di Giovanni Botero. Turin. 1907. 8vo. pp. 138. 2.50 1. WARD (L. F.). Reine Soziologie.

Uebersetzt von A. Unger. Innsbruck: Wagner. 1907. pp. 378. 7.20 m.

(We note this translation into German of Professor Ward's Pure

Sociology.)
ZUCCARINI (O.). La libertà nell'

economia Forlì: L. Bordandini.
1907. 16mo. pp. 126. 2 1.

EDGEWORTH (F. Y.). Apprecia

tions of Mathematical Theories

Econ. Journ., June.
GIDE (Charles). Economic Litera-

ture in France at the Beginning
of the Twentieth Century. Econ.

Journ., June.
JANNACONE (P.). Questioni con-

troverse nella teoria del baratto.

Riforma Soc., July.
KRUEGER (H. E.). Der Beruf des

praktischen Volkswirts. Seine
Entstehung und seine Lage.

Jahrb. f. Gesetzg., Heft 3. OSWALT (H.) and BORTKIEWICZ (L.

von). Zur Zinstheorie. I. Zuschrift. II. Entgegnung. Jahrb.

f. Gesetzg., Heft 3. PARETO (V.). L'interpolazione per

la ricerca delle leggi economiche.

Giorn. degli Econ., May.
PIGOU (A. C.). Social Improve-

ment and Modern Biology. Econ.
Journ., Sept. [The drift of this
careful paper is that the biologists
do not allow enough for the pos-
sibilities of social improvement,
and overestimate the persistence

of inborn characteristics.] RICARDO (David). Correspondence

of Ricardo with Maria Edgeworth. Econ. Journ., Sept. (Letters hitherto unpublished, chiefly on the potato as food; of interest to

students of Ricardo.] SEUTEMANN (K.). Ulpianus als

Statistiker. Jahrb. f. Gesetzg., 1907, Heft 1. (Ulpian's rule for the application of the lex Falcidia does not entitle him to be called the first statistician.]

In Periodicals. BORTKIEWICZ (L. v.). Zur Berich

tigung der grundlegenden theoretischen Konstruktion von Marx im dritten Band des “Kapital.” Jahrb. f. Nat. Oek., Sept.

Wertrechnung und Preisrechnung im Marx'schen System.

Archiv f. Socialw., 1907, Heft 1. COLETTI (F.). La determinazione

della durata della generazione e il calcolo della ricchezza privata di un paese. Riforma Soc., June. [The conclusion of a valuable paper.]

II. THE LABOR PROBLEM. BADOGLIO. Lo stato e le abitazioni DEUTSCH (J.). Die Kinderarbeit

popolari in Germania. Giorn. und ihre Bekämpfung. Zürich: degli Econ., Sept.

Rascher. pp. 258.

4.50 m. BELL (R.). Trade Unionism. Lon- [Prize essay at the University of

don: Jack. 1907. 8vo. pp. 112. Zürich.)

18. net. (Social Problems Series.] DEVAUX (A.). Les sociétés coopéBOSSE (A.). Die Förderung des ratives de conservation dans le Arbeiterwohnungswesens

durch Nord et principalement dans die Landesversicherungsanstalten. l'arrondissement de Lille. Lille: Jena: G. Fischer. 1907. pp. 101. Le Bigot. 1907. pp. 200. 3.75 2.50 m.

fr. (Heft 1 of Abhandl. des staatsw. DEWANUP (E.). The Housing ProbSeminars zu Jena, ed. by J. Pier- lem in England. Its Statistics, storff.]

Legislation, and Policy. London:

8vo. PP.

la nuova democrazia industriale: prime linee di un programma del partito radicale. Turin, Rome. 1907. 8vo. pp. 162. 2.50 1. Novich (B.). Maternità e lavoro.

Palermo: R. Sandron. 1907.

16mo. pp. 347. 3.50 1. OFFICIAL (Italian). (Società

Umanitaria.) Le condizioni generali della classe operaia in Milano (salari, giornate di lavoro, reddito, ecc.): risultati di un'inchiesta compiuta il 1° luglio, 1903. Milan: Ufficio del lavoro. 1907. 8vo.

3 m.

pp. 261.

Sherratt & H. 1907.

336. 58. EDWARDS (Alba M.). The Labor

Legislation of Connecticut. New York: Am. Econ. Assn. (Macmillan). 1907. pp. 322. $1.00.

[A painstaking investigation.] GLEICHAUF (W.). Geschichte des

Verbandes der deutschen Gewerkvereine (Hirsch-Duncker). Berlin: “Die Hilfe.” 1907. pp. 308.

[The author is a trade-union leader.) HIRSCHFELD (Paul). Untersuch

ungen und Materialien zur Verbreitung der freien Gewerkschaften seit 1896. Marburg: Univ. of Marburg. 1907. pp. 62.

(Chiefly statistical.] JEVONS (T. S.). The Law of Trade

Unions. Being a Text-book concerning Trade Unions and Labour. London: E. Wilson. 1907. Cr. 8vo. pp. 152. 28. KAUFMAN (M.). The Housing of

the Working Classes and of the Poor. London: Jack. 1907. Cr. 8vo. pp. 156. Swd. 18.

(Social Problems Series.] LEVASSEUR (E.). Questions ouv

rières et industrielles en France sous la troisième république. Paris: Rousseau. 1907. pp. 968.

15 fr. MCMILLAN (Margaret). Labour and

Childhood. London: Sonnenschein, 1907. 8vo.

pp. 222. 38. 6d. MALVERY (Olive Christian). Baby

Toilers. 1907. 38. 6d. MASTO (R.). Sulle organizzazioni

operaie: studio sociologico-giuridico. Naples: L. Pierro. 1907.

8vo. pp. 133. 21. MORE (Louise B.). Wage-earners'

Budgets. New York: Henry
Holt. 1907.

(An admirable study of the budgets of 200 workingmen's families on the West Side of New York City. It is painstakingly as well as sympathetically done, and is a credit to the Greenwich House

Settlement.] NAPPI (A. S.). Scioperi e leghe,

con prefazione del prof. Enrico De Marinis. Turin. 1907. pp. 113.

21. NITTI (F. S.). Il partito radicale e

POINBARD (L.). La production, le

travail, et le problème social dans tous les pays au début du XXe siècle. Tome I. Paris: Alcan.

1907. pp. 594. 8 fr. Smith (S. G.). Our Industrial Con

flict. New York: Revell Company. 1907. pp. 219.

[Deals mainly with the labor problem, but with concluding

chapter on Socialism.] SOCIETÀ Umanitaria. La disoccu

pazione: relazioni e discussioni del 1° Congresso internazionale per la lotta contro la disoccupazione, 2–3 Ottobre, 1906. Milan. 1907. 8vo. pp. 597. 5 1.

In Periodicals. ABELSDORFF (W.). Die Lohn

klauseln in den ausländischen und deutschen Submissionsbedingungen. Jahrb. f. Nat. Oek., Sept. [A review of the measures taken in different countries to protect the wage-earner in contracts for

public work.] BOWMAN (Guy). The Labour

Movement in Spain. Albany Rev.,

July. CABIATI (A.). La politica indus

triale delle organizzazioni operaie. A proposito di un contratto di lavoro in Italia. I. Riforma Soc., July. [A preliminary article discussing the question, Does lib

erty of labor exist ?) COLETTI (F.). Se l'arbitrato obbli

gatorio sia oggi possibile_nell' agricoltura. Giorn. degli Econ., May. [Favors voluntary rather than obligatory arbitration for agricultural labor disputes.]

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