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seems to distrust their power : even laxatives, he remarks, are by no means constantly successful. Narcotics, in desperate dores, vomits, and salivari: 1), have succeeded but their success is by no means constant : at lalt, in our author's opinion, we should have recourse to paracentefis, which, he thinks, is usually delayed too long. The symptoms favourable to the operation, and every part of the conduct during it, are next explained very clearly and judiciously: we think only that he does not give a sufficient trial to medicine, before he takes up the ca. nula; but this will always be the subject of dispute between physicians and furgeons. The consideration of the tympanites, which M. Camper fupposes, except from accidents, is always within the alimentary canal, and of partial cysted drophies, in which alone the trocar is said to be serviceable, follow. The dropsy of the uterus probably has not yet been observed, though several singular instances of an apparent dropsy of this viscus are recorded. The instances are chiefly of the ovaria, from whence. the water is evacuated by the iterus, or a preternatural quantity of the liquor amnii. Some other anomalous dropfies in cysts, the analarca, and the supposed dropsy between the peritonæum and muscles, are next examined; but they afford no. thing very interesting.

The fifth chapter relates to the hydrocele in both sexes ; for M. Camper considers the collection of water, within the due plicature of the peritoneum, which occasionally protrudes beyond the ring of the muscles in newly born females, as a disease of this kipd. He prefers the puncture, and repeats it occafionally, without having recourse to either of the radical methods : yet he owns he has used the seton with great success, and he opposes it chiefly because the pain from the most frequently repeated puncture is less than by the seton. He finds the origins of this inethod by the feton, in Peter Frank's Treatise on Here nias, 1567. The two last chapters, are on water in the bursæ under the skin and muscles, as wella s a fluid collected in the sheaths of the tendons; and on droplies and meliceræ of the joints. They contain fome curious cafes, but are incapable of abridgment. Our author greatly doubts of the permanent effects of discutients, and even of mercurial ointment. A perforation, he tells us, may be made in the acetabulum, inter sartorii mufculi & ten foris vaginæ femoris partem fuperiorem, paulo fupra oram fuperiorem trochanteris majoris ollis femoris adsecti. The needle must be pushed horizontally, directing the point towards the center of the pelvis.

If M. Camper's memoir shows the author to be an able anatomiit, an acute pathologiit, and a fkilful furgeon, M. Baraidon's etfay is more minute, and more practical, so far as rele pects internal remedies. His erudition is not less, but it is less recondite. He is more conversant with works in every one's hands, and does not so frequently adduce facts which seldoin

He speaks of the nature, symptoms, and causes of 6



droply, both remote and proximate, with much propriety, though, among the latter he does not dwell sufficiently on the absorption of water from the air, which must necessarily take place in those in Itances, where the accumulation of water greatly exceeds the proportional deficiency of the urine. The fol. lowing is a fingular instance of droplies of the stomach. "A taylor was subject to violent colics, and was attacked with a fit in September 1766, more acute chan any former paroxysm, which, however, passed off in a few days, though without any fool. His belly was very large, without any fluctuation ; and the patient complained only of an insupportable uneasiness. In this itate I was called ; and, after hearing an exact account of the preceding circumstances, as well as examining the present appearances, especially the retention of the fæcal matter, I was convinced that there was an obllruction of the intestines. With this idea I gave a dry vomic to force a paffage * ; but no fool was procured, though twenty pints of a fluid were disa charged by vomiting: the swelling disappeared; the patient lepi, and thought himself cured. But the disease returned on taking food, and he soon died,

It appeared to be an intus susception, and the fomach was greatly diftended with a fæcid fluid.

In the account of the mechanism of dropsy (the proximate cause), our author mentions Van Swieten's opinion of the disease often following fevers, because the drink did not mix with the blood. For this reason, our author tells us, that feverilli patients should be diffuaded from drinking; a practice certainly improper, as its bad effects are by no means to be dreaded. The dropsy arises from the weakness; and, if there is any obitruction to the secretion, nothing is so useful in bringing it back, or washing away any obstructing cause, as frequent draughts of diluting and diuretic liquors. The distinctions and complications of dropfies; the constitutions and modes of living which induce them, as well as the places where the disease firit appears, are the suba sequent objects of our author's attention. We cannot think the frequent drinking of warm liquids so injurious as M. Barailon fupposes; nor have we observed the peculiar influence of old wounds and ulcers, in inducing the disease.

We next meet with an account of the indications and contra. indications, where the author is still afraid of water: he continucs to labour under the hydrophobia, which has no existence but in his imagination. So far does his dread carry him, that, though a disease of the liver is said to be one of the causes of droply, he dissuades the physician from using the vegetable aperients, because they are in a watery forın. It is fifteen years since we indulged drophical people in drinking freely, directing only their

• Perhaps it may be proper to remark, that this remedy, though it has the fanation of great names, and is sometimes successful, yet is more often injurious; and if it tails, generally leaves the case driperate.

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attention to aperient and diuretic drinks, without seeing a singles inttance, where it was eminently injurious, while numerous ones occurred of its being the chief ineans of cure. To luxatives our author is equally averse; but, if he means to condemn every kind, he is certainiy wrong; if the draffics only, he will be fometimes right. We have often had occasion to say, that this is the moit beneficial discharge, and generally indii. pentible, in some degree, even in the most exhaufied constitutions. He l'etails the usual objections to blisiers, that in weak constitutions, in those who have been walled in hospi als and prisons, they produce gangrene. They certainly have sometimes this effect; but the gangrene is superficial, and eably removed. Our author objecis also to narcotics, without adverting to the extreme inquietude and pain which tometimes occurs ; without considering, that, in the droplies of failors, opium, direcied to ihe skin, is the beit remedy. In molt other respects, the remarks on the indications, and the circumfta..ces which influence them, are very correct : they are only too far extend. ed. The author does not understand the art of compressing his matter.

M. Barailon's first indication in the cure, should have been the-last. He directs warm aromatics, and tonics, by which he will often conitringe weak fibres, while the distending cause fubfifts :

: they Mouid never be employed till fume evacuation has been procured. He then endeavours to restore the diger. ton, fill forbidding drink, by vomirs, gentle / xatives and to. nics, and warm stimulants, as horse-radilli, arum, iron, ginger, mustard, and some • drastics employed as alteratives.' His chief evacuants are diuretics; and of thele he uses fixed alkali, sartar, tamarisk, wormwood, nirre, fquills, colchicam, bulbous plants, &c. In extremities, he would employ the most violent and artive drastics ; and be thinks very justly, that success depends chiefly on active plans steadily pursued. Paracentesis has failed in his hands ; but, notwithstanding his fear of gangrene, he docs not object to scarifications and blisters. His great dependence is on the use of the cordials and corroborants with diureties. When the dropsy is combined with ague, he properly directs his first efforts to the intermittent; but we know not whether by accident, or idiosyncracy, we could never, in the fów instances we have met with, cure the ague. By changing our plan and evacuating the waters, the intermittent has spontaneously ceased : but we constantly employed the milder lax. atives for the purpose of evacuation. His directions for particular dropsies are very correct; but we think his play for the hydrocephalus internus not fufficiently powerful. In hydrothorax, he highly commends emetics, and an iffue between the ribs, Puncturing the chest he considers as a doubtful and precarious operation. It is very certain, he thinks, that a blirter behind cach car will cvacuate fluids from the lungs.' Bue it is impoflible to follow our author in his modifications of his


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plan, according to the seat of the disease, its complications and accidents. We have given enough to enable our readers to judge of his merits, which are, on the whole, very consider: able. Indeed the minuter paris of ihe subject, which depend on the diseale, rather than constitute a part of it, he has examined with a particular attention; and his advice is falutary and judicious. Where great activity is not effential, our author is an useful guide.

The laft memoir in this volume is by M. Hallé, on the fwel. ling and the fecondary fever of the small.pox. He endeavours to thow that each is diftinguishable from the consequences of the cruption, in its nature, progress, metastasis, and accidental circumstances. He confiders that there are two depurations, the one an eruptive fever attended with pustules; the fecond a ferer terminated by swelling, attended with perspiration, and often with falivation : the one ends by a deposition on the skin, the other on the cellular substance: in the first, the blood vessels; and, in the last, the lymphatics, he says, are chiefly concerned. We think that he does not prove very clearly those positions ; but that the secondary fever depends en fumething, besides the absorption of the pus, may be sufpected from its being generally absent even in the most violent Itate of the inoculated small pox. It is not, however, universally absent, as has been often afserted.



N our late review of chemical improvements, we could

reach no farther than the class of earths. We shall now proceed to the neutrals, the alkalis and acids. M. Gmelin, in a late number of Crell's Chemical Annals, describes a new mural falt found by professor Giesecke on the Gymnasium, at Hamburg. The salts which effloresce from old walls, are nitre more or less pure, quadrangular nitre, mineral alkali in abundance, more or less pure, and mixed with calcareous earth; M. Goetling has extracted a true Epsom salt from the clayey ardoife: with which the old castle of Schwartzburg was built. The sale found by M. Gmelin is, notwithstanding, a true Glauber's falt, contaminated only with a little of the calcareous earth, which in its passage is has collected from the mortar.

Å native mineral alkali has never hitherto been found in Europe, except in some mineral waters. It has, however, Lately been discovered in Switzerland, and carefully examined by M. Morel. Between Guggishorn and Stockhorn, is a chain of mountains, evidently secondary, which, in the height of {ummer, are free from ice and snow. The numerous caverns in these rocks afford the salt, which is found at the botiom, in foliated crystals on a bed of sand : the walls of the cavern are dry. Our authoi examined this salt, and found it to con


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tain about half the quantity of Glauber's falt : the rest was pure mineral alkali. “The stone is a grit, containing scarcely any salt : : this discovery may lead, we think, to a stratum of this salt, and prove ultimately very beneficial.

M. Westrumb gives also an account of a method of separating the mineral alkali from sea-Salt; but in a manner, which we think will not bring it within the reach of our manufacturers. He dissolves twenty pounds of sea-falt in thirty quarts of water, and adds to it twenty-five pounds of pure pot afhes. The liquor is evaporated till'a faline pellicle has repeatedly formed, broken, and fallen to the bottom. The vessel is then taken from the fire; and, when the solution is cooled to about fifty-five or fixty degrees of Fahrenheit, many crystals of digestive salt will form. In that state, it must be strained through a Hannel, and the lixivium left undisturbed for an hour, when a certain quantity of the same crystals will form, mixed with some crystals of the mineral alkali. When the liquor is quite cold, it must be decanted into a clean vessel and put in a very cold place, when a large quantity of the crystals of the mineral al. kali will concrete almost pure. The first crystals, which are said to be viti iolated tatar and digestive falt, the former probably proceeding from the Epsom salt of the marine salt, must be washed and kept, together with what was left on the filter, for the next operation, though it may be employed for other purposes, if wanted. If the liqușr which covers the crystals of the alkali be decanted, and again evaporated, it will be easily seen whether it contain alkali enough to admit of another operation, or if it should be kept for the next process. Afterwards the alkali obtained is purified, and, from this quantity, our author tells us, that he has procured twenty pounds of pure alkali in large transparent crystals, and one pound and a half of what was

pure :

: the operation is finished in about twelve or fourteen days. His translator, M. Courcet, thinks it may be procured more easily in the following way. Eight ounces of the Epsom salt of Loraine, which is a Glauber's salt, with three ounces and a half of the purified fixed alkali of tartar, are diffolved in water. If the lixivium is evaporated, filtered and crystallifed, first vitrolated tartar; and afterwards beautiful crystals of mineral alkali, will be formed. The vitriolated tartar, which is of use in medicine, will, he thinks, lessen the expence of the preparation. M. Westrumb's plan will only suc. ceed in the great way ; but the duty on salt will prevent its being employed in England.

If we next consider the acids, our attention will be immediately drawn hy M. Crell's information respecting the vegetable acids, We mentioned, in our last Number, that M, Weftrumb had shown, by new experiments, that all the vegetable acids give, at least, phosphoric and aerial acids, wait with great impatience for the experiments at length. We


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