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that without the importation of foreign corn, the people would be liable to frequent famines. Yet in no country is agriculture more encouraged than in Sweden, where the go. vernment juftly considers it as an important obje&t of attention, and rewards by money, privileges, and an exemption from taxes, those who first clear land for cultivation, or amend that which has been already cultivated by others! Pormerly only a limited number of persons was permitted to cultivate each farm ; and when this number was completed, the farmer was obliged to dismiss his eldest sons, whom the government hoped thus to force upon the cultivation of new lands. But this measure was found at length to have a pernicious cendency, and occafioned frequent emigrations, espe cially from the maritime provinces. In 1755, therefore, upon the eftablishment of the college of surveyors, it was decreed, that each father of a family, under the direction of the furveyor of the diftria, might divide his farm into as many portions as he pleased, each portion being chargeable with its share of the imports.
If the surface of the soil in Sweden seems to yield but little to the efforts of art, the inexhaustible ftores of na. ture afford the inhabitants some recompence. The timber, ţar, and pitch of her immenfe forests are circulated through, oat Europe ; iron, that original and necessary commodity, is to be found in many parts, in great abundance, and even in its pure itate, at a very small depth in the earth; and alum, vitriol, salt-petre. copper, lead, silver, and even gold itself, are the productions which the Swedes likewise extract from their uncultivated mountains. To those articles of commerce may be added the herring-fi ferý opon the western fhores; of which, we are told, that no less than a hundred and fixty thousand tons are exported every year, at the price of fixteen Silver dollars per ton,
The revenues of the crown of Sweden arise from the dif. ferent impofts and taxes, both permanent and temporary, upon the persons, eftates, and poffeffions of the inhabitants, as well as upon the produce of the customs, mines, and stamp duties. But they are less now than formerly, the value of money having much fallen fince the time they were first imposed.
We fhall here take our leave of this intelligent and agree. able traveller, several of whose letters, towards the conclua Son of the work, present us with an abridgment of the Swedish history, from the accession of Guftavus Vala to the year 1986.
• The la letter contains a history of the unfortunate Stru. enzee, whom the author represents as totally undeserving the punishment which he fuffered, though he exceeded the limits of his authority.
Gallery of Portraits of the National Affembly, supposed to be
written by Count de Mirabeau. Translated from the French.
2 Vols. Small 8vo. 65. in Boards. Robinsons. WHILE the mind is filled by a revolution equally general
and unexpected, in a kingdom where despotism seemed not only borne with ease, but where it was decorated with fplendor, and looked up to with complacency, it is of importance to examine the features of those who contributed to it, and who first act on this new scene. In uncommon fituations it is not furprising that the minds of those engaged should step occafionally from the path, should be delighted with speculations which experience has not yet taught them to be vifionary, and alarmed at the magnitude of the most important attempts, should wisk for a time to proceed in a subordinate career. To either of these circumstances, or to all united, we may, perhaps, attribute the indecisive and dilatory operations of the national assembly; and to these general views the character of the particular members may be added, if we require a more clear elucidation. The Gallery of Portraits, now before us, is consequently an acquifition of some importance : if the picture is not always faithful and characteristic, it probably affords a general likeness. A feature may be occasionally disfigured by party, or disguised by prejudice; but, if the whole had not some resemblance, the work would have been rejected by those who, from their ac. quaintance with the persons, are more capable of jadging, and it would not have attained its share of celebrity near the scene of action. It is attributed to the count de Mirabeau, the force of whose mind, and the variety of whose talents, the late revolu. tion has added to and developed. Of his former works our readers will recollect the Secret Memoirs of the Court of Berlin, where, though we differed from the author in political views, we found reason to admire his abilities and acquired knowledge. His firft works are undoubtedly unequal; but we may perceive in them a great mind breaking through a cloud of prejudice, new and important views not yet combined with the rest of his fyftem, and a confufion, owing to the force of understanding 2&ting irregularly without the advantages of a proper and scientific arrangement. The present work may appear at first in an unfavourable light from the form, which to us is not new,
and with us often adapted to the purposes of party. Since the Debates in the Liliputian Senate, and in the Roman Senate, which contained in disguise those of our parliaments, it has not been uncommon to describe well known characters in feigned names ; but we ought to consider the subítance without being prejudiced by the form.
The first volume, for the volumes were published at feparate periods, is supposed to have been written previous to the-deAtruction of the Bastile, and it is introduced by fome appofite remarks: • We should look for, says the count de Mirabeau, in a deputy, a sound understanding, an unquestionable fortitude, the pure love of one's country, the knowledge of her true interests, a native eloquence, and an immutable adherence to true principles.' These should be the criteria of our judgment, and we should not suffer our opinions to be warped or milled by accidental qualities. The minds of men, he observes also, are now enlightened ; mystery is at an end in the science of government; and the nation will know and judge of the conduct of ministers; they will discover and discriminate the talents of those who pretend to the different offices.
The persons whose characters are examined in the first volume are, De Pompignan, archbishop of Vienne ; De Juigné, archbishop of Paris; De Boisgelin, archbishop of Aix; Perigord, bishop of Autun ; abbé Sieyes, abbé Maury, duke de Luxembourg, duke de Liancourt, duke de Châtelet, prince de Poix, duke de Nivernois, Mt. Necker, Mr. Barentin, courit de Montmorin, Mr. Bailly, marquis de la Fayette, marquis de la Clermont Tonnerre, marquis de Condorcet, count de Mirabeau, count d'Antraignes, count de Custines, viscount de Noailles, chevalier de Boufflers, Mr. Duval d'Epremesnil, Mr. Dupont, Mr. Bergasse, Mr. Targets Mr. Bernardo Mr. Malouet. Many of these are persons whose talents are little known in this kingdom ; and it would be enough to give a specimen or two of our author's manner, if we did not with to bring the pictures nearer, and enable our readers to form their own opinions of the likeness by the future conduct of those who are described. Bat, to prake our account more generally interesting, we shall confine our remarks and extracts to the persons with whom we are a little acquainted in England, selecting only some speciments of just reasoning and accurate discrimination from some of the other characters.
The duke de Nivernois was, if not the negotiator of the peace of Fontainbleau, at least the ambassador who figned it. ile is known in the literary world by many elegant poems, and we remember to have seen from his pen one of the most exquifite translations of the Dialogue between Horace and Lydia Voi, LXIX. Feb. 1790.
that that we believe exists. The portrait is however unfavourable : the picture is faint and insipid. • Born with that kind of ability which can produce nothing, he has made,' says our author, • many nothings.' What follows resembles invective and caricature rather than proper character; and we wanted no monitor to tell us, that the duke is one of the supporters of ari. stocracy. His mind seems elegant and polished; rather intelligent than forcible ; refined perhaps into weakness, and polished into a smooth undistinguished surface. These refinements render him equally gracious to all ; and Mitis, for that is the duke's masquerade name, may appear, or perhaps may be the occasional servant of each party.
Of Mr. Necker our author's account is very unfavourable ; and though, while all Europe resounded with his panegyrics, we gave offence by saying, that he had a little and a weak mind, the general opinion has since that time confirmed and added to the censure. The count is much more violent, and scarcely gives him the praise of undeviating accuracy, inviolable integrity, and meaning well : it is at last awarded coldly and ungraciously :
• His childhood was too rude and uncultivated to promise any brilliant success. His education was that of a book-keeper, and his earliest ambition was to be rich. Repulsed by the sex, favoured by circumstances, smiled on by fortune, he amassed an opulent ettate. Uncouth in his person, aukward in his manners, obscure in his birth, esteemed by no inan, liked by no woman, he trusted he should find in the oftentation of wealth an equivalent for every other enjoyment.'
- No sooner had he entered into this great engagement with the public, than, tormented on one side with an anxiety to lead, and on the other apprehensive that the machine of an afsembled nation would be too-mighty for his grafp, he became terrified at the scene, of which he had lifted the curtain. From that moment every step he took became a blunder.
• An atlembly of Notables, to which one order of proceeding is prescribed by the minister, and another adopted by themselves. Narses inspires neither confidence nor respect, neither the von luntary subjection of esteem, nor the irresistible one that we pay to beings of a superior" order.
• Regulation of elections, almost every where rejected. Syftem and balance of privileges, obscure, indecisive, irrefolote, and hypocritical. Artificial procrastination and delar: All these are the resources of intrigue, not the emanations of genius.
• Discourse at the opening of the states-general, discovering at every turn a mind intoxicaced with vanity, displaying an incapacity or an unwillingness to explain and illustrate; a compori. tion, indecent, unmanly, out of place, betraying a narrow understanding and a timorous heart.
Conferences, in which they rather stammer than discuss, in which they rather grope than proceed, in which that fearfulness appears in all its deformity, that springs from a consciousness, that the man is unequal to his situation, that he is arrived at the limit, when he must either suggest one of those grand expedients that reconcile the fluctuating opinions of mankind, or confess at ence his imbecility and nothingness.
• Behold then the great secret revealed, that for ten years was so successfully concealed from a misguided nation ! Narses is now discovered to have no digested plan, to want the mind that should conceive one, to have neither ikill to borrow the ideas of others, nor friends to correct his errors, and prompt him how to aircharge a talk, that a vulgar mortal should never have undertaken.'
We ought to say that, though apparently violent, much of this is true ; for, while we were sketching the features of his mind from his different publications, we have drawn many of these traits, and we may now add to them, that Mr. Necker's eagere ness to be a great financier, a politician, and a favourite, has occafioned the present revolution. If he had not anticipated the revenue in the conducting the American war, if he had not made it popular by difpenfing with the war taxes, and by the same means intoxicated the armies with the delicious beverage of liberty, the deficit would not have been fo great as to occasion the new imposts; the army would not have been so enlightened as to change its objects and its habits as if by enchantment. But our author's accusations of M. Necker are more serious : he accuses the comptroller of the finances of duplicity. While he was the idol of the people he was also the Aatterer of the court; and, while he opened the mystery of the finances to the people, he supported the extraordinary claims of the king. This is undoubtedly the consequence of weakness and indecision ; but the count might have reflected that, though M. Necker was in part guilty, he was less guilty than the majority of courtiers ; and that it is necessary to search his works with care to pick out a few detached passages of the culpable kind. Our author's picture of what a minister ought to be is an admirable one : it is certainly in part a copy; and if it could ever be perfectly realized, it must have been by a combie nation of the qualifications of the late earl of Chatham with thofe of his son. We are forry that its disproportioned length prevents us from transcribing it.
The count de Montmorin is chiefly known to us from the fhare he seems to have had in the negociation respecting the re. koration of the stadtholder. His apparent conduct, for at last he